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Islamic New Year

posted 27 Nov 2011, 10:00 by Manal Raafat

I is the day that marks the beginning of a new Islamic calendar year, and is the day on which the year count is incremented. The first day of the year is observed on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

Illustrator artwork 

Islamic calendar  or Hijri calendar

It is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries (concurrently with the Gregorian calendar), and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days and festivals.
The first year was the year during which the emigration of the Islamic prophetMuhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred.
Being a purely lunar calendar, it is not synchronized with the seasons. With an annual drift of 11 or 12 days, the seasonal relation repeats about every 33 Islamic years.
The Islamic months are named as follows in Arabic:
1 - Muḥarram 2 - Ṣafar 3 - Rabīʿ I 4 - Rabīʿ II 5 - Jumādā I 6 - Jumādā II 7 - Rajab 8 - Sha~ba~n 9 - Ramaḍān ( The fasting month ) Ramadan is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar, during which Muslims fast between dawn and sunset. 10 - Shawwāl 11 - Dhū al-Qaʿda 12 - Dhū al-Ḥijja ( the month of the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj.)

The sacred months

Are the months in which fighting was traditionally ( before Islam ) forbidden.After Islam the fighting during those months is forbidden also as an important religious teachings and orders .
Those four months are Dhū al-Qaʿda ,  Dhū al-Ḥijja ,and Muḥarram  ,and  Rajab

Sand

posted 27 Nov 2011, 09:57 by Manal Raafat

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica(silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz.

Sand with Photoshop 

    Sand particle size range in diameter from 0.0625 mm to 2 mm
    {Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment .This is different from the crystal-lite size, which is the size of a single crystal inside the particles or grains. A single grain can be composed of several crystals.} The next smallest size class above sand is gravel, with particles ranging from 2 mm up to 64 mm. The next smallest size class is silt's particles smaller than 0.0625 mm down to 0.004 mm in diameter. The composition of sand The most common constituent of sand is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2) usually in the form of quartz, which is the most common mineral resistant to weathering { because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness } The composition of sand is variable and gives it its different colors . Some sands contain magnetite, chlorite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are typically green in color, as are sands derived from basaltic (lava) with a high olivine content. Many sands, especially those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals of the sand, giving a deep yellow color. Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones. Uses of sand
  • Agriculture: Sandy soils are ideal for crops such as watermelons, peaches, and peanuts.
  • Aquaria : Sand makes a low cost aquarium base material which some believe is better than gravel for home use.
  • Beach nourishment : Governments move sand to beaches where tides, storms cause changes to the shoreline eroding  the original sand.
  • Brick : Manufacturing plants add sand to a mixture of clay and other materials for manufacturing bricks.
  • Mortar : Sand is mixed with cement and sometimes lime to be used in masonry construction.
  • Glass : Sand is the principal component in common glass.
  • Many other things like paints, roads, abrasive in cleaning, preparing, and polishing. 

The Photoshop 

I had designed the upper artwork with Photoshop 

HOW TO DESIGN IT ?

  1. Open new Photoshop document  with the size you like,select the background color.
  2. Add style to it from the style panel ( I had selected snow )
  3. With the custom shape tool add the shapes, and style you like. 
  4. Add layer style to the shape . Apply what in the pictures.
  5. Use the transform to re-size or re-shape the shapes .
  6. Save your work .
Thanks     

Decoupage

posted 27 Nov 2011, 09:53 by Manal Raafat

It is the art of decorating an object by gluing colored paper cutouts onto it in combination with special paint effects, gold leaf and so on.
Commonly an object like a small box or an item of furniture is covered by cutouts from magazines or from purpose-manufactured papers. Each layer is sealed with varnishes (often multiple coats) until the "stuck on" appearance disappears and the result looks like painting or inlay work. The traditional technique used 30-40 layers of varnish which were then sanded to a polished finish. This was known in 18th century England as The Art of Japanning after its presumed origins.

 Personalize your furniture or craft project with decoupage

Decorating of dishes, vases, hangers and boxes using decoupage technique is a form of art expression of our identity, preferences and interests
decoupage with Photoshop  (my daughter's photo )
Materials used for decoupage crafts

Common household materials can be used to create effects.
  1. Something to decoupage onto.like : furniture like tables, photograph albums, plates, ceramics as vase shelving, frames, mirrors.
  2. Pictures to decoupage with ,from  newspapersmagazinescatalogs, books, printed clip art, wrapping paper, greeting cardsfabrictissue paper.
  3. Cutting utensil. Scissors, craft knife.
  4. acrylic paints
  5. Glue. Standard white glue works best if it is diluted with a little water. Specialty glues can be found in most crafting stores ( decoupage medium ).
  6. Smoother  A brayer (hand roller) is a specialized tool like a miniature rolling pin designed to help remove wrinkles, remove excess glue and smooth pictures.
  7. Glue Spreader.like  cotton swabspaint brushes, sponges .
  8. Cloth, sponges, tissue paper to help wipe up glue and other clean up.
  9. acrylic lacquer (to solidify the final effect)
Sealer. Glue or other decoupage medium can be used as a sealer. Alternatively,like acrylic spray .


The technique 

Is to stick to glass, wooden, metal, plastic or ceramic surface an items like paper cut-outs and make the ornament (decorations) look like painted on the surface .
We will try to decoupage a cardboard box.
  1. Paint your cardboard box with acrylic paints, and allow to dry. It is better to apply two coats.
  2. Cutout your paper and prepare it. The thinner the paper, the better. Cut carefully around your designs. Use sharp scissors.
  3. Apply the glue , to the base of the decoupage box,not to the back of the paper .Apply the medium with a paint brush to get thorough coverage. Carefully lay your design down on the glue. Push down on the design with your fingertips, working from the middle out to the edges, to release any air bubbles.
  4.  Brush over the entire box with a coat of the decoupage medium to seal . This dries clear and dries fast.Apply few coats .
  5. The final product can be sanded down to smooth finish .
  6. Add a coat of varnish or glaze. 
    Thanks
     I hope you will like the idea.

    Healthy,and Balanced Diet

    posted 31 Aug 2011, 02:41 by Manal Raafat

    A healthy diet 
    is one that helps maintain or improve general health. It is important for lowering many chronic health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer. A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of all essential nutrients and an adequate amount of water. Nutrients can be obtained from many different foods, so there are numerous diets that may be considered healthy. A healthy diet needs to have a balance of macronutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), calories to support energy needs, and micronutrients to meet the needs for human nutrition without inducing toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts. 

      Dietary recommendations . There are a number of diets and recommendations by numerous medical and governmental institutions that are designed to promote certain aspects of health.

    1 - World Health Organization:
    The World Health Organization (WHO) makes the following 5 recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals:
    • Achieve an energy balance and a healthy weight
    • Limit energy intake from total fats and shift fat consumption away from saturated fats to unsaturated fats and towards the elimination of trans-fatty acids.
    • Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts.
    • Limit salt / sodium consumption from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized
    • Limit the intake of simple sugar. A 2003 report recommends less than 10% simple sugars.
    • Sufficient essential amino acids to provide cellular replenishment and transport proteins. All essential amino acids are present in animals. Many plants such as quinoa, soy, and hemp also provide all the essential acids (known as a complete protein). Fruits such as avocado and pumpkin seeds also have all the essential amino acids.
    • Essential micronutrients such as vitamins and certain minerals.
    • Avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances
    • Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs).
    2 - American Heart Association
    The American Heart Association recommends a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, healthful fatty acids and limited saturated fat.

    For specific conditions
    such as people with high blood pressure ,or people who are overweight or obese

    • Hypertension
    A low sodium diet is beneficial for people with high blood pressure or the more specific DASH diet.

    A low sodium diet 
    It is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mgs of sodium per day.(One teaspoon of salt has about 2,300 mg sodium.) 
    People who follow a vigorous or moderate exercise schedule are usually advised to limit their sodium intake to 3,000 mg per day and those with moderate to severe heart failure are usually advised to limit their sodium intake to 2,000 mg per day.The human requirement for sodium in the diet is about 69 mg per day,For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a negative effect on health.

    DASH diet 
    It is Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension . This eating plan is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods; includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts and beans; and is limited in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and added fats. In addition to its effect on blood pressure, it is considered a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public.

     
    • Obesity
    Dieting 
    is the practice of eating food in a regulated fashion to achieve or maintain a controlled weight. Weight control diets aim to maintain a controlled weight. In most cases dieting is used in combination with physical exercise to lose weight . Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie.

    • Cancer prevention
    There is significant relation between lifestyle (including food consumption) and cancer prevention. Dietary recommendations to reduce the risk of developing cancer, including: (1) reducing intake of foods and drinks that promote weight gain, namely energy-dense foods and sugary drinks. (2) eating mostly foods of plant origin. (3) limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat. (4) limiting consumption of alcoholic beverages, (5) reducing intake of salt and avoiding mouldy cereals (grains) or pulses (legumes).


       A Balanced Diet  
     A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fibre. It must contain these things in the correct proportions.

     
    Unhealthy diets  
    An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including: high blood pressure, diabetes, abnormal blood lipids, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. 



      The Photoshop lesson  
    Fixing Photos With Retouching Tools. 
    To fix the the upper fruit ,that is the way to remove the scars and dark dots to make it clear like the picture on the right. I used the Spot Healing Brush Tool ,and The Healing Brush Tool.  please read more. 

      The Spot Healing Brush Tool 
     Its use is very easy .In the options panel choose Proximity Match, and check Sample All layers,and adjust the brush size. You will not do any thing more .Just click on the area you want to treat . 

    The Healing Brush Tool.  
    It is more complicated  you need to sample the area you like then add it to the defected area . In the Option bar ,adjust Source to sampled and choose from Sample what layers you like. Adjust the Brush size to the size of the good area you want to sample ,or little smaller To sample the area you like just click the area you like while pressing the tab key . Go to the defected area and click it  . They are easy to manipulate and use try it now.  

    Thanks
    MR

    Ramadan The Auspicious Month And How To Design Card With Video

    posted 22 Jul 2011, 11:11 by Manal Raafat

    After almost 10 days Ramadan will start so I found it is good to write in that topic to fulfill the occasion . All the people are living together in the same world so we should know everything about each other ,so we can communicate and understand each other  .
     Ramadan has different names Ramadhan, Ramadaan, Ramazan.

     Islamic calendar 
    It consists of twelve months , which lasts 29 to 30 days . Ramadan is  the ninth month. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating and drinking and is intended to teach Muslims about patience, humility, and spirituality. Muslims fast for the sake of God (Allah) and to offer more prayer than usual. 
     Solar calendar
    Compared to the solar calendar, the dates of Ramadan vary, moving backwards by about eleven days each year depending on the moon; thus, a person will have fasted every day of the calendar year in 34 years' time. Muslims believe Ramadan to be an auspicious month for the revelations of God to humankind, being the month in which the first verses of the Qur'an were revealed to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. 

      Its Origin  It started in Arabian culture long before the arrival of Islam .The word itself is derived from an Arabic root that means intense heat ,scorched ground and shortness of rations . 

      Its Beginning  The new moon indicates the beginning of the new month and the start of the fasting of Ramadan. 

      Fasting Fasting in Islam is to stop eating and drinking completely ,even water is not allowed . The fasting start little before the sunrise (at the time of the first call for prayer) and ends almost at the sunset (with the call of Maghrib prayer also ). During fasting it is not allowed to do any bad behavior like saying bad words or quarreling or fighting ,and smoking . The person should be more quite , and has more patience ,and open minded . Sexual intercourse is allowed after you have ended your fasting . It is the month of the poor people , one should give them more.Charity is very important in Islam specially during Ramadan . 

      who should fast ?  
    Muslims should start the fasting upon reaching the age of puberty, so long as they are healthy and have no disabilities or illnesses.The elderly, the chronically ill, and the mentally ill are exempt from fasting ,and also the hard workers those are working in bad environmental conditions like sun or heat . The travelling people are also allowed to break their fasting and eat and drink normally . Women during the period of their menstruation. Pregnant women and women nursing their newborns if they believe it would be harmful to them or the unborn baby,should not do fasting. God does not explicitly require one to stop eating and drinking, one is required to resist all temptation while  fasting .Purity of both thoughts and actions is important. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the inner soul and free it from harm. It also teaches Muslims to practice self-discipline, self-control, sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate; thus encouraging actions of generosity and charity (Zakat).
    The month of Ramadan is the one in which the Qur'an was sent down - right Guidance to mankind, and clear signs of Guidance and Distinction of truth from falsehood.

    Ramadan in Egypt 
    When walking down the streets of Cairo and some other places in Egypt at the time of the sunset prayer (Maghrib), not only people who are giving out dates and water are seen but several  Mawaed Rahman as well. Mawaed Rahman are free public eateries organized during the holy month of Ramadan. Mawaed Rahman are organized by the wealthy, in order to offer the needy and the poor a warm meal during iftar time. Normally, Mawaed Rahman are donated and financed by individuals. The location of the Mawaed Rahman are essential, since areas where a lot of people pass by are preferred, because that way the eateries can reach out to a greater amount of hungry.
    Ramadan is met with various decorations throughout the streets.Lanterns are known to be a symbol of Ramadan.They are hung across the cities of Egypt, part of an 800 year old tradition, the origin of which is said to lie in the Fatimid era where the Caliph Al-Muizz Lideenillah was greeted by people holding lanterns to celebrate his ruling. From that time lanterns were used to light mosques and houses throughout the city. 


    Laylat al-Qadr : "the night of decree or measures"
    It is considered the most holy night of the year.
    Muslims believe that Laylat al-Qadr is the night in which the Qur'an was first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. Also, it is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last 10 days of Ramadan, either the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th.

     
    Eid ul-Fitr
    The holiday of Eid ul-Fitr marks the end of the fasting period of Ramadan and the first day of the following month, after another new moon has been sighted.
    It means the Festival of Breaking the Fast; a special celebration is made. Food is donated to the poor (Zakat al-fitr); everyone puts on their best, usually new, clothes; and communal prayers are held in the early morning, followed by feasting and visiting relatives and friends.

    HOW TO DESIGN A SIMPLE RAMADAN CARD WITH PHOTOSHOP CS4 WITH VIDEO ?

    Rainbow , And How To Create A Realistic Rainbow Effect With Photoshop(with video)

    posted 10 Jul 2011, 04:20 by Manal Raafat

    The original picture 
    The Photoshop picture

      What is a rainbow ? 
     A rainbow is an optical ( Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light,) and meteorological ( Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere) phenomenon that causes a spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines on to droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere. It takes the form of a multicoloured arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun. In a so-called "primary rainbow" (the lowest, and also normally the brightest rainbow) the arc of a rainbow shows red on the outer (or upper) part of the arc, and violet on the inner section. This rainbow is caused by light being reflected once in droplets of water. In a double rainbow, a second arc may be seen above and outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colours reversed (red faces inward toward the other rainbow, in both rainbows). This second rainbow is caused by light reflecting twice inside water droplets. The region between a double rainbow is dark. The reason for this dark band is that, while light below the primary rainbow comes from droplet reflection, and light above the upper (secondary) rainbow also comes from droplet reflection, there is no mechanism for the region between a double rainbow to show any light reflected from water drops. Triple rainbows are impossible. For colours seen by a normal human eye, the most commonly cited and remembered sequence, in English, is Newton's seven-fold red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. However, colour-blind persons will see fewer colors.

      Causes And Visibility 
    Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water. These include not only rain, but also mist, spray, and airborne dew( Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening.). The rainbow effect is also commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. The rainbow effect is also commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day.

      N.B A moonbow (also known as a lunar rainbow, lunar bow or white rainbow) is a rainbow produced by light reflected off the surface of the moon rather than from direct sunlight. Moonbows are relatively faint, due to the smaller amount of light reflected from the surface of the moon. They are always in the opposite part of the sky from the moon. 

      Its Variations 
    * Double rainbow 
    * Supernumerary rainbow or stacker rainbow 
    * Reflected rainbow or reflection rainbow 
    * Monochrome rainbow 
    * Circumhorizontal arc

     
    قوس قزح

    قَوْسُ قُزح يسمى كذلك قوس المطر أو قوس الألوان وهو ظاهرة طبيعية فيزيائية ناتجة عن انكسار وتحلل ضوء الشمس خلال قطرة ماء المطر
    يظهر القوس قزح بعد سقوط المطر أو خلال سقوط المطر والشمس مشرقة
    تكون الألوان في القوس اللون الأحمر من الخارج ويتدرج إلى البرتقالي فالأصفر فالأخضر فالأزرق فأزرق غامق (نيلي) فبنفسجي من الداخل
    ضوء الشمس يحتوي علي العديد من الالوان الطيفية وهي عبارة عن أشعة ذات اطوال موجية مختلفة
    يظهر قوس القزح عادة بشكل نصف دائري وفي حالات نادرة يكون قمرياً حيث يكون انكسار ضوء القمر المسبب لهُ عبر قطرة الماء ملائماً مع مكان وجود القمر في تلك اللحظات. ويظهر للمشاهد نتيجة 
    لضوئهِ الخافت أبيض لأن العين البشرية لا تستطيع ان ترى الألوان في الليل



    Open the landscape picture you like in Photoshop .
    • Add new layer and select the Gradient Tool , it will open the tool option bar up, select the shape like a rainbow ,and choose ,radial gradient and draw a horizontal line , it will draw the bow.Put the the blending mode of the layer to Screen . 
    • Go to Filter Menu - Blur - Motion Blur put the distance to 24to 26 .   
    • Add layer mask to that layer by selecting the layer and click the icon down( the diagram). Put the Foreground color to black and Background color to white .Go again to the Gradient Tool and select now black and white gradient and draw a line from down upward outside the bow .
    • Duplicate the layer and put the Opacity from 10-15.
    • Duplicate the second layer again and select the move tool and move it slightly outside the arc .
    • Select the lower two layers and put them in one group (Ctrl +G).
    • Add a layer mask to the group layer and put the color to black and select soft brush ( put the hardness to 0) and click on the area of the arc on the ground to eliminate it .
    • That's all , save your work .  
    Thanks 

    Artificial Flowers And How To Designing It With Photoshop

    posted 26 Jun 2011, 06:35 by Manal Raafat


    Artificial flowers and imitations of natural flowers are sometimes made for scientific purposes (the collection of glass flowers at Harvard University, for example, which illustrates the flora of the United States), but more often as articles for commercial or residential decoration.


    Materials used in their manufacture
    have included painted linen and shavings of stained horn in Egypt, gold and silver in ancient Rome, rice-paper in China, silkworm cocoons in Italy, colored feathers in South America, and also wax and tinted shells. Modern techniques involve carved or formed soap, nylon netting stretched over wire frames, ground clay, and mass-produced injection plastic mouldings. Polyester is the major material for manufacturing of artificial flowers since 1970s. Most artificial flowers in the market nowadays are made of polyester fabrics.

    Types of flowers according to its material 
    • Polyester and paper.
    Today the major material used in artificial flower production is polyester fabric.
    • Nylon Stocking Flowers .
    The basic materials needed to make nylon flowers include: wire, stem wire, nylon stocking, nylon threading, floral tape and stamen. Some flowers require cotton balls or sheets (or you can use batting), white glue, acrylic paint and paint brushes.
    • Silk Flowers.
    It make the flowers and the entire plant look more life-like .These days’ silk flowers make use of a real touch technique which gives the plant a fairly realistic look.
    • Colored Soap .
    Both Carved ,and Molded soap 
    • Clay.
    Clay flowers are made by hand from special air-dry polymer clay or cold porcelain, steel wire, paint, glue, tape and sometimes paper and foam as a filler. With the help of cutters .
    • Plastic.
    Injection moulding is used for mass manufacture of plastic flowers. Plastic is injected into a preformed metal die.
    • Glass ( the one I had imitated in my design) .
    Flowers made of glass are typically more stylized and contemporary. Glass is melted and blown by hand into the shapes of the flower. Working with glass at high temperatures to form the flower is very difficult which is why glass flowers are much more expensive than typical artificial flowers.
    This picture shows collection of artificial flowers with matching colors ,and glass appearance .
    I wanted to draw a garden but, it comes like this .That artwork can be a card design if we save it in jpeg format . 
    I liked it what is your opinion? 

    Obesity (Weight loss with Photoshop with video tutorial)

    posted 26 Jun 2011, 06:30 by Manal Raafat   [ updated 26 Jun 2011, 06:40 ]


    BEFORE look for the face and cheeks also .
    AFTER
     Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.

     
      Body mass index  BMI : 
     It is defined as the individual's body weight divided by the square of his or her height. BMI = mass( kg ) / height ( m )square  Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2 . Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. The most commonly used definitions, established by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the BMI is : Any BMI between 20-25 is  overweight (pre-obese) and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2 . Any BMI ≥ 35 or 40 is severe obesity A BMI of ≥ 35 or 40–44.9 or 49.9 is morbid obesity A BMI of ≥ 45 or 50 is super obesity.


      Causes of obesity : 
     Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness.  Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.


      Treatment of obesity :
    • Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Moreover, it is important to improve diet quality by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. 
    • To supplement dieting and physical exercise  , or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption.
    • In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.

    Mortality : 
    Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide.Large-scale American and European studies have found that mortality risk is lowest at a BMI of 20–25 kg/m in non-smokers and at 24–27 kg/m2 in current smokers, with risk increasing along with changes in either direction .


      Morbidity : 

    Obesity increases the risk of many physical and mental conditions .It leads to Metabolic Syndrome,a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. 
    HOW TO DO THAT ? Please wach the video up.

    Eighth Wonder of the World

    posted 26 Jun 2011, 06:06 by Manal Raafat


    Eighth Wonder of the World is a term sometimes used to describe things in comparison to the Seven Wonders of the World, For understanding the meanings of this . Wonders of the World are lists according to the age of man made constructions to.
      Seven Wonders of the Ancient World : the popularly known ancient list.( there is a post in the blog please just click the link)
      Wonders of the World : New Seven.
     Wonders of the World : contemporary attempt to create a list of new seven wonders to update the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World concept with a modern list of wonders.It is
    1. Chichen Itza ,Yucatán, Mexico .
    2. Christ the Redeemer ,Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
    3. Colosseum, Rome, Italy.
    4. Great Wall of China, People's Republic of China.
    5. Machu Picchu , Peru.
    6. Petra ,al-Batrāʾ Ma'an Governorate, Jordan .
    7. Taj Mahal, Agra, India.  
    Things labeled as the Eighth Wonder of the World 
    •   Natural places 
    * Grand Canyon, in Arizona, in the United States. * Halong Bay, in Vietnam * Milford Sound, New Zealand; called so by Rudyard Kipling. * Natural Bridge, in Virginia . * Pink and White Terraces near Rotorua, New Zealand, destroyed by volcanic eruption in 1886, re-discovered under 60m of water in 2011 . * Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland. * Burney Falls in California; called so by Theodore Roosevelt.
    • Pre-1900 creations
    Banaue Rice Terraces, Philippines
    * Great Wall of China, China. * The Taj Mahal, India. * Stonehenge, United Kingdom. * Machu Picchu, Peru. * Banaue Rice Terraces, Philippines [ are 2000-year old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the indigenous people. The Rice Terraces are commonly referred to by Filipinos as the "Eighth Wonder of the World"] * The Terracotta Army of Xi'an, China. * Amber Room in the Catherine Palace near Saint Petersburg, Russia. * The monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, Spain. * The rock-hewn churches at Lalibela, Ethiopia (Church of Saint George, Lalibela) * The stelae of Axum, Ethiopia. * Sigiriya, Sri Lanka. * Royal Palace in Amsterdam, Netherlands. * Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, United States * Angkor Wat, Cambodia. * The moai statues of Easter Island, Chile.
    • Post-1900 creations
    Palm Islands of Dubai.
    * Empire State Building, New York City. * Palm Islands of Dubai. * Panama Canal. * Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia;[34] the story of its construction was recounted in the opera The Eighth Wonder * Thames Barrier, London, England. * Bahá'í terraces, on Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel. * Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China. * Reliant Astrodome in Houston, Texas. * Akshardham Delhi. * West Baden Springs Hotel. * Pikeville Cut-Through in Pikeville, Kentucky; given the title by The New York Times. * International Space Station in Orbit around Earth; given the title by the Americans and Russians. * Forra di Tremosine Road, on the coast of Lake Garda, Italy; given the title by Winston Churchill * Great Manmade River Project in Libya; title given by Muammar Gaddafi for the world's largest irrigation project * Karakoram Highway a road built on mountains nearly 4693 m high and a engineering milestone. situated between the Pakistani Gilgit-Baltistan region and Mainland China Xinjiang region.
    • Popular culture
     * King Kong was introduced as the "Eighth Wonder of the World" in the 1933 RKO Pictures movie of the same title, as well as in the 2005 remake. * André the Giant, a professional wrestler, was referred to as the 8th Wonder of the World by the World Wrestling Federation.Similarly, when female professional wrestler, Chyna, joined the organization several years later, she was billed as "The Ninth Wonder of the World."

    Bananas

    posted 13 Jun 2011, 16:16 by Manal Raafat

     

    The original picture  



    The photoshop manipulated picture I just used the Spot Healing Brush Tool to clean it  

    Very easy way 



    Never, put your banana in the refrigerator!!!

    This is interesting.

    After reading this, you'll never look at a banana in the same way again...

    Bananas contain three natural sugars - sucrose, fructose and glucose combined with fiber. A banana gives an instant, sustained and substantial boost of energy.


    Research has proven that just two bananas provide enough energy for a strenuous 90-minute workout. No wonder the banana is the number one fruit with the world's leading athletes.


    But energy isn't the only way a banana can help us keep fit. It can also help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses and conditions, making it a must to add to our daily diet..


    Depression:

    According to a recent survey undertaken by MIND amongst people suffering from depression, many felt much better after eating a banana. This is because bananas contain tryptophan, a type of protein that the body converts into serotonin, known to make you relax, improve your mood and generally make you feel happier.


    PMS:

    Forget the pills - eat a banana. The vitamin B6 it contains regulates blood glucose levels, which can affect your mood.


    Anemia:

    High in iron, bananas can stimulate the production of hemoglobin in the blood and so helps in cases of anemia.


    Blood Pressure:

    This unique tropical fruit is extremely high in potassium yet low in salt, making it perfect to beat blood pressure. So much so, the US Food and Drug Administration has just allowed the banana industry to make official claims for the fruit's ability to reduce the risk of blood pressure and stroke.


    Brain Power:

    200 students at a Twickenham (Middlesex) school ( England ) were helped through their exams this year by eating bananas at breakfast, break, and lunch in a bid to boost their brain power. Research has shown that the potassium-packed fruit can assist learning by making pupils more alert.


    Constipation:

    High in fiber, including bananas in the diet can help restore normal bowel action, helping to overcome the problem without resorting to laxatives.


    Hangovers:

    One of the quickest ways of curing a hangover is to make a banana milkshake, sweetened with honey. The banana calms the stomach and, with the help of the honey, builds up depleted blood sugar levels, while the milk soothes and re-hydrates your system.


    Heartburn:

    Bananas have a natural antacid effect in the body, so if you suffer from heartburn, try eating a banana for soothing relief.


    Morning Sickness:

    Snacking on bananas between meals helps to keep blood sugar levels up and avoid morning sickness.


    Mosquito Bites:

    Before reaching for the insect bite cream, try rubbing the affected area with the inside of a banana skin. Many people find it amazingly successful at reducing swelling and irritation.


    Nerves:

    Bananas are high in B vitamins that help calm the nervous system.


    Overweight:

    And at work? Studies at the Institute of Psychology in Austria found pressure at work leads to gorging on comfort food like chocolate and chips. Looking at 5,000 hospital patients, researchers found the most obese were more likely to be in high-pressure jobs. The report concluded that, to avoid panic-induced food cravings, we need to control our blood sugar levels by snacking on high carbohydrate foods every two hours to keep levels steady.


    Ulcers:

    The banana is used as the dietary food against intestinal disorders because of its soft texture and smoothness. It is the only raw fruit that can be eaten without distress in over-chronicler cases. It also neutralizes over-acidity and reduces irritation by coating the lining of the stomach.


    Temperature control:

    Many other cultures see bananas as a "cooling" fruit that can lower both the physical and emotional temperature of expectant mothers.. In Thailand , for example, pregnant women eat bananas to ensure their baby is born with a cool temperature.


    Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):

    Bananas can help SAD sufferers because they contain the natural mood enhancer tryptophan.


    Smoking &Tobacco Use:

    Bananas can also help people trying to give up smoking. The B6, B12 they contain, as well as the potassium and magnesium found in them, help the body recover from the effects of nicotine withdrawal.


    Stress:

    Potassium is a vital mineral, which helps normalize the heartbeat, sends oxygen to the brain and regulates your body's water balance.. When we are stressed, our metabolic rate rises, thereby reducing our potassium levels. These can be re balanced with the help of a high-potassium banana snack.

    Strokes:

    According to research in The New England Journal of Medicine, eating bananas as part of a regular diet can cut the risk of death by strokes by as much as 40%.


    Warts:

    Those keen on natural alternatives swear that if you want to kill off a wart, take a piece of banana skin and place it on the wart, with the yellow side out. Carefully hold the skin in place with a plaster or surgical tape!


    So, a banana really is a natural remedy for many ills. When you compare it to an apple, it has four times the protein, twice the carbohydrate, three times the phosphorus, five times the vitamin A and iron, and twice the other vitamins and minerals. It is also rich in potassium and is one of the best value foods around So maybe its time to change that well-known phrase so that we say, "A banana a day keeps the doctor away!"


    PASS IT ON TO YOUR FRIENDS

    PS: Bananas must be the reason monkeys are so happy all the time! I will add one here; want a quick shine on our shoes?? Take the INSIDE of the banana skin, and rub directly on the shoe...polish with dry cloth. Amazing fruit !!!

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