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Cairo - Egypt

posted 17 Apr 2011, 06:38 by Manal Raafat   [ updated 27 Apr 2011, 13:54 ]
Cairo, and the area around it are considered to be the heart of Egypt.

Cairo is the Egyptian capital.The meaning of the name is" The Vanquisher" or "The Conqueror".

It is the capital of Egypt, the largest city in Africa and the 16th most populous metropolitan area in the world[ The first city is Tokyo of Japan ]. 


Cairo is also ranked as one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets"[ Minarets are distinctive architectural features of Islamic mosques- generally tall spires with onion-shaped or conical crowns, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure; the basic form includes a base, shaft, and gallery. Styles vary regionally and by period. They provide a visual focal point and are used for the call to prayer ] for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life.  

The city's original name in Arabic is "Al-Qahira", which became "Cairo" after Europeans corrupted the name. Egyptians today often refer to Cairo as Maṣr, the Arabic pronunciation of the name for Egypt itself.

Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab World, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, al-Azhar University[ is an educational institute in Cairo, Egypt. Founded in 970~972 as a madrasa, it is the chief centre of Arabic literature and Sunni Islamic learning in the world. It is the oldest degree-granting university in Egypt after Cairo University. In 1961 non-religious subjects were added to its curriculum.]. Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city, and the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence.Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt.


Its Geography and location

Cairo is located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt, 165 kilometers (100 mi) south of the Mediterranean Sea and 120 kilometers (75 mi) west of the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal.The city is along the Nile River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into the low-lying Nile Delta region. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in all directions, the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of 453 square kilometers .


Famous places in Cairo

  • Tahrir Square: The middle picture in the collection  
  • The Egyptian Museum
  • Khan El-Khalili
  • Old Cairo
  • Cairo Tower : The Cairo Tower is a free-standing concrete TV tower in Cairo. It stands in the Zamalek district on Gezira Island in the Nile River, in the city centre. At 187 meters, it is 43 meters higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 km to the southwest. The upper right picture in the collection. 
  • Gates to the Ancient City of Cairo : Cairo was called the citadel or tabia or forte, i.e. stronghold. It looked like a square; 1200m2 in length and 1100m2 in width. It was surrounded with El Bahr El Azeim (the great sea) from the east, the gulf from the west, from the north gardens extended to Mataria and the mount Gabal El Guishi from the south.


    When the Fatimid reign (969-1171) settled in Cairo under the leadership of El Moez Li-Dinellah it was called "Cairo of El Moez" because they decorated its four suburbs with luxurious buildings, delightful spots and gardens. This increased its delightfulness and beauty. It was the settlement of rulers and princes.


    El Fostat city was big and important due to plenty of buildings, many people and much of livelihood means, that is why Gawhar El Sakaly was so keen on it. He established the fortified gates (bab) and installed them around it in the four-sided wall. He built El Kantara at Bab El Shairia Street. He also built a wall to quickly surround the Palace. But this was destroyed completely.


Purposes of the gates

Those gates did not only defend the country against enemies, but were built also for management and administrative purposes. No one was allowed to enter Cairo or stay there except for its residents, or those who go in for certain reasonsand in daytime only. 

There are many gates like , Bab El Barkia 1st gate ,Bab El Barkia 2nd gate ,El Bab El Gadid, Bab Zuweila,Bab El Wazir,Bab El Nasr, and many other gates[ Bab mean gate in Arabic ]


If I will write every thing about Cairo Egypt It will be very long post you might get tired of reading.

I had collected some pictures in a collection in the upper left side the picture of the Nile River ,the lower left side is Salah El Deen Citadel .The middle picture for Tahrir Square ,the upper right picture for Cairo Tower .The last picture is the lower right picture ,which is the picture of Baron Empain Palace who was the designer of one of the most important places of Cairo.


The new thing in that post is the 3D text in the middle of the picture.


There is another simple text in the next design. 



HOW TO DO THE 3D TEXT?

There are two ways :

 The first is the simple way  in the second design .

  •  Open new document ,and use the Text Tool to write what you like ,using thick font type and big size.
  • Copy the text layer [Alt +drag using the Move Tool]  
  • Use the lower and right arrow keys to move the copied layer 1 pixel right and down.
  •  Repeat the last step until you reach the thickness you like.
  • Drag the original text layer to be the upper layer then add to it gradient overlay [ from add layer style button at the bottom of the layer panel ]  .
  •  Save your work.


The second way is more complicated .

  • Open new document ,and use the Text Tool to write what you like ,using thick font type and big size.
  • Rasterize the text [ select the text layer ,and right click it in the layer panel -select Rasterize Type]
  • Add stroke to the text [ from add layer style button at the bottom of the layer panel]choose the color you likes for it .
  • In the layer panel select the text layer and right click the icon of the stroke(fx)select Create Layer so you will separate the text from the stroke.
  • Right click the stroke layer and select Duplicate Layer,move it with the arrow keys 2 or 3 pixels to right and down.
  •  Ctrl +Alt +Shift +T  to add the thickness and repeat it until you like the view.  
  • Merge the layers. 
  •  Save your work.

Thanks

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