History of LB films       Research Interest


  Irving Langmuir        Katharine Blodgett


When an insoluble organic material is introduced to an aqueous surface, it disperses across the surface (consider petrol from a boat or an oil spillage).

The spreading of oil across the surface of water was the first obsereved example of a monolmolecular film of organic material. The first serious observations of this were carried out by American politician Benjamin Franklin. His astute observations and questioning were followed up by the strong scientific results of Rayleigh, who estimated the thickness of the oil films to be 10-20 angstroms, which is close to more accurate present day measurements of the thickness of monomolecular films of fatty acids (carboxylic acids).

Irvine Langmuir is generally accredited for designing the apparatus that could produce monomolecular, or Langmuir films.

It was with the assistance of Katherine Blodgett that a technique was developed whereby these monomolecular films could be deposited on a glass substrate.

The LB Monolayer