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ARRL Sacramento Valley Section News - September 2016

American Radio Relay League
The National Association for Amateur Radio
Sacramento Valley Section

Serving Alpine, Amador, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lassen, Modoc, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Yolo & Yuba Counties in Northern California

Sacramento Valley Section is located in the ARRL Pacific Division.

Sacramento Valley Section Web Resources

ARRL National Page:
Organization, Clubs, Calendar, Nets
Sacramento Valley ARES: SV ARES Brochure

Thanks to Greg Kruckewitt KG6SJT for maintaining our Section ARES web page and for assisting with our Facebook page and Twitter feed.
Thanks to Les Cobb W6TEE for maintaining the Section Net list.

Submit Section News updates to kp4md(at)

Past Section News Archive

Section Media
2015 ARRL Pacificon Photos

Sac Valley Area Events
These events are open to the general public unless otherwise noted in details.

Amateur Radio License Classes and Volunteer Exam (VE) Schedules
Class and VE Session Calendar

Morse Code Beginners' Class
Posted July 29, 2016

Due to the overwhelming popularity of the W6SFM CW Beginners class the SFM ARC is gearing up to start another CW Beginners class starting September 14th 2016. Students in our class will all complete with a good grasp on their entire alphabet, numbers and CW Pro-signs. Students are taught proper Sending and Receiving methods. Students will be provided with a Morse Code Straight Key and an Oscillator to keep and use on-air with their home stations.
The SFM ARC CW (Morse Code) class is a 10 week course held once per week for 2 hours. Our goal is to have all students on the air operating conversational speed CW by week 6.
If you or someone you know is interested in attending our next CW course please email the club at for more information. We hope to see you there!

Details are also posted on our course calendar.

September 17 - Citrus Heights Ham-Cram Session
Posted August 5, 2016

Section member Joe Cardoza, KA6ROM, announces that his Ham-Cram team conducts amateur radio training and testing every other month in Orangevale:

"Our next session will be on September 17, 2016 starting at 8:45 AM at the LDS Church, at the corner of Hazel and Cherry Ave in Orangevale, CA."

Joe Cardoza, KA6ROM, 916-725-6443,

Folsom ARRL Volunteer Exam Schedule
Posted July 20, 2016

Here is our updated exam scheduled for 2016:

  1. July NO EXAM
  2. August NO EXAM
  3. Thursday September 15
  4. Thursday October 20
  5. Thursday November 17
  6. December NO EXAM
All exams start at 6:00 pm.

Round Table Pizza (Small private room by the front door), 2793 E Bidwell St, Suite 100, Folsom, CA 95630
For information see or contact Mike Kirkland, NS6Q at
73, Mike, NS6Q

Redding ARRL VE Schedule
Posted March 1, 2016

The Redding ARRL VE Team will be hosting exams on the following Saturdays in 2016:

  1. March 19
  2. May 21
  3. July 16
  4. September 17
  5. November 19
Our exam sessions are now being held at 2486 Progress Drive in Redding. Exams start at 10:00 AM and candidates are encouraged to pre-register.

More information can be found at: or by contacting Steve K6KS at


New Test Location:
Open Door Community Church, 33883 HWY 44, SHINGLETOWN, CA. 96088
Testing begins at 10:00 AM.
Candidates should arrive 15 to 30 minutes early. We accept walk ins.
Dar Walker W6IO, Shingletown ARRL VE Liaison,, 530-474-3087

Feb 20, Apr 16, Jun 18, Aug 20, Oct 15, Dec 17

Dar Walker W6IO

Other ARRL VE Sessions - Schedule List
  1. BARK Repeater Club - Quarterly - Woodland
  2. Carmichael Elk Lodge ARRL VE - 3rd Sat. at 0700
  3. SFARC ARRL VE at Granite Bay Raley's - 1st Sat. at 0800
Posted November 28
Contact your Senators about the Amateur Radio Parity Act

On September 12, The US House of Representatives passed the "Amateur Radio Parity Act" to protect the rights of Radio Amateurs.
Click here now to easily contact your U.S. Senators to urge them to approve this important legislation.

The Amateur Radio Parity Act

Amateur Radio Parity Act

Clarity on Amateur Radio Parity

Some misconceptions about the Amateur Radio Parity Act are being circulated. Please read full information here.

50 W PEP Maximum Power Limit Area on 70 cm
50 W Power Limit Area on 70 cm

A little recognized portion of FCC Part 97 regulations applies to 420-450 MHz operations in most counties in our Sacramento Valley section:
47 CFR 
§97.313 (f) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 50 W PEP on the UHF 70 cm band from an area specified in footnote US270 to §2.106 of part 2. The indicated affected areas are specified in, in the State of California within a 240-kilometer (150 mile) radius around locations at Beale Air Force Base, California (latitude 39°08' North, longitude 121°26' West).
More information on the additional impact on 70 cm repeater stations is at

Pave PAWS Radar at Beale AFB, CA

The Amateur Radio Service shares the 70 cm band on a secondary basis with the US Government which has priority. The US Department of Defense routinely monitors and locates signal sources on these frequencies.  Our voluntary cooperation is mandatory to avoid interference with the Pave PAWS (Phased Array Warning System) radar at Beale AFB and thus to assure our continued access to these frequencies.

National Parks on the Air 2016 Pacificon 2016

September 2016 News

From the Section Manager

QST Cover

Here are the latest news from our section clubs and members.

Assistant Section Manager Roger Cain KI6FYF and I look forward to visit the Shingletown ARC meeting at 2:00 pm on Saturday Sept 3 at Papa Casey's Grill, 7355 Black Butte Rd in Shingletown, CA. We will present a slideshow of our visit to ARRL Headquarters and an update on Section activities.

A Section-wide net is scheduled for Thursday September 15. The net will commence after the Yuba-Sutter ARES net about 7:20 pm Pacific Time on the WD6AXM 146.085 MHz FM repeater, immediately followed by an HF net on 5330.5 kHz USB. An Official Bulletin will be issued a few days prior to the net.

This month's news announces many upcoming community outreach events around our section. I encourage all amateur radio operators to reach out and welcome the public to learn about our community service and to share the enjoyment of our fascinating hobby. Join one of our upcoming events or plan one in your own community. Your amateur radio demonstration could interest others to join us on the air and become licensed operators.

Plan to attend the October 14-16 ARRL Pacificon Convention at the San Ramon Marriott. Register online at before October 3 or at the door. A limited number of hotel rooms remain available at a discounted convention rate of $129/night.

Attention YLs!  Click here or on the new "YLRL District 6" tab at the top of this page for YL news. Join us at the Pacificon Convention YL Forum Saturday, Oct 15 at 4 pm.

Our website, Facebook and Twitter pages are a work in progress, and your suggestions and submissions are always welcome. 

This website is visited most during the first week of each month, but do check back as it is updated weekly with late breaking news.

We look forward to see you at the ARRL Booth at the September 17 WPARC Hamfest in Lincoln!

73, Carol Milazzo, KP4MD
American Radio Relay League Sacramento Valley Section Manager

You can always send compliments, suggestions and submissions for inclusion in our Section News to kp4md(at)

Amateur Radio Booth at September 24 Scout Fellowship Weekend in Elverta
Posted August 14, 2016

Amateur Radio in Scouting
Scouts from the Golden Empire Council will experience the fascinating world of amateur radio at our exhibit at the Saturday, September 24 Golden Empire Council Scout Fellowship Weekend at Gibson Ranch in Elverta. From 300 to 500 Boy Scouts, Cub Scouts, and Girl Scouts are expected to attend the event that lasts from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm and features exhibits and booths related to scouting. The Amateur Radio booth will consist of tables with promotional and informational literature on amateur radio, local clubs, the ARRL, the Boy Scouts Radio Merit Badge and the Girl Scouts Radio and Wireless Technology Patch, Morse code practice stations, working HF and VHF stations (with solar and battery power), and opportunities for Scouts to communicate on the air. Booth volunteers will provide hands-on guidance, answer inquiries about amateur radio and licensing and serve as station control operators.

Special Event Station Callsign N6S has been reserved for this event..

Girl ScoutsBoy ScoutsDo not miss this opportunity to promote our area radio clubs and to recruit youth into amateur radio. Your club may decide to follow this event up with support for a local scout troop to participate in the October 14-16 Jamboree on the Air.

If interested in participating in this September 24 youth outreach activity, please contact me promptly at kp4md(at)

Carol Milazzo, KP4MD, ARRL Sacramento Valley Section Manager

ARRL Exhibit & Special Event Station at Oct 1 Rocklin Maker Faire
Posted August 20, 2016

ARRL Exhibit at Rocklin Mini Maker Faire
Attention Sacramento Area Hams and Groups:

The ARRL Sacramento Valley Section will sponsor an exhibit (Booth #53 - The DIY Magic of Amateur Radio) promoting Amateur Radio at the Mini Maker Faire at Sierra College in Rocklin on Saturday October 1 from 10 am - 5 pm. We will display homebrew amateur radio equipment and antenna projects, Morse Code practice stations, and offer opportunities for attendees to learn about the many facets of the amateur radio and to communicate on the air with amateur radio operators via an operational on-site Amateur Radio Special Event Station N6M. We will offer literature and information on licensing, local clubs, the ARRL and amateur radio's role in community service and promoting careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math.

2015-10-03 Rocklin Maker Faire

Radio hams were the original Makers and Hackers, using new, used and scavenged parts to make transmitters, receivers, and antennas capable of communicating with other hams anywhere on Earth, and beyond. In this hobby, communicating is the keyword. And, when computers came along, they fit right in to the ham's wide world. Using their technical skills and imagination, hams put together advanced communication networks connected by radio waves instead of wires.

When amateurs began experimenting with radio more than a century ago, they had no choice but to build everything they needed. You might or might not be able to get a signal on your smartphone, but it is truly liberating to be able to communicate using equipment you've built yourself — using just the natural phenomenon of radio-wave propagation and without our telecommunications infrastructure. Radio amateurs don't develop radio-communication skills and capabilities just for ourselves, but also to serve our communities and country through public service and emergency preparedness.

For more information or to help plan or participate in this public outreach, please e-mail kp4md(at)

October 14-16 PACIFICON Convention

Register online now at for the October 14-16 ‪‎Pacificon‬ ‪‎ARRL‬ Pacific Division Convention at the San Ramon Marriott. PACIFICON is the annual ARRL Pacific Division convention, held each year in October. It is THE premier amateur radio conference in the western U.S.

Attention YLs! Plan to attend the YL Forum at Pacificon! More here.


October 14-16 Jamboree on the Air

If you do not plan to attend the Pacificon convention, consider reaching out to your local Brownies, Cubs, Boys or Girl Scout troop to offer an Amateur Radio demonstration and to support their participation in the Oct. 14-16 Jamboree on the Air (JOTA) to communicate with other scouts around the world.  Offer to help your local Brownies, Cub Scouts, Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts earn the Scouting Radio Merit Badge and the ARRL Girl Scout Radio and Wireless Technology Patch.

National Parks on the Air January through December 2016

National Parks on the Air

In 2016, the National Parks Service (NPS) will celebrate its 100th anniversary, and radio amateurs will be able to help mark the occasion with the ARRL National Parks on the Air (NPOTA) event. The fun begins at 0000 UTC on January 1, 2016.

Click on these links for information on NPS entities within the Sacramento Valley Section:

*Although some sites such as Sutter's Fort and the B.F. Hastings Building are under California State Parks administration, NPOTA activations may be conducted there with appropriate permission. "Operations within 100 feet of National Historic Trails are permitted at any point along the route. Operations from private property must receive permission." See NPOTA Rules 13(k) and (m). ARRL Headquarters advises amateur radio operators to contact and register with the corresponding local NPS unit administration in advance to inform them of planned NPOTA operations within their entity. Visit for more information. Follow NPOTA activation updates on, Facebook and Twitter.

Do you plan an NPOTA activation in our section?
Send e-mail to kp4md(at) for posting on this page.

Update from Bob Wortman, WB6VYH, Section Technical Coordinator
Updated September 2, 2016

Lava Beds and Lassen NPOTA Activations

We did the Lava Beds National Monument again and we did Lassen NP. I was cool and fun. Plans were changed a bit. I had plans to do the activation from the peak parking lot but there was about 500 people there. They were have a naturalization ceremony there instead of at Manzanita Lake. So we drove back down the street a few blocks to Helen Lake to do the thing. Wonderful rangers and they were full of questions. We were going to go up to Crater Lake but because of the fires and all the emergency vehicles we decided that was out for this trip. In October we are planning a trip to Kings canyon and Sequoia to activate them………..

ARRL Sacramento Valley Section Technical Coordinator, VHF Award Manager, HF Award Manager and DXCC Award Manager Bob, WB6VYH reminds us he can count cards and check applications for VUCC and WAS and DXCC............... Bob will be at some of the Ham Swaps this year and most likely Ham Club meetings throughout Northern California. If you can't travel let Bob know and he can work something out. Please contact Bob ahead of time at or for information and appointment.

73, Bob Wortman, WB6VYH, ARRL Pacific Division DXCC Awards Manager, Sacramento Valley Section Technical Coordinator, WAS Award Manager, VUCC Awards Manager

Photos (Left to Right) Bob Wortman WB6VYH NPOTA Activations
1 & 2. Lassen Volcanic NP, 3. Lava Beds NM

WB6VYH at Lassen Volcanic NP WB6VYH at Lassen Volcanic NP WB6VYH at Lava Beds NM

From Duane Wyatt, WAØMJD, Section Youth Coordinator
Posted April 29, 2016

Kid's Club Project Update

Duane Wyatt WA0MJD has been working on a project to expose children with health issues to amateur radio and morse code. He has developed Kid's Club units to accomplish this. Script and photos of Kid's Club are seen in the project website at

Child Life staff at St. Jude's Research Hospital for Children have gladly agreed to accept a Kid's Club donation.

Duane is requesting help to pay for the assembly of a Kid's Club unit to give them. Each unit costs approximately $500 to assemble. Please contact Duane at duanewyatt(at) or (916) 677-9799

Duane Wyatt, WAØMJD,
ARRL Sacramento Valley Section Youth Coordinator
(916) 677-9799
Public Information Officer Training at Pacificon Convention
Posted September 3, 2016

Does your club or group have a Public Information Officer?

Do you wish to promote and publicize your club or group activities and to be better prepared to respond to inquiries about amateur radio from the media and your local authorities?  Are you interested in updating skills to more effectively deliver your message to our 21st century interconnected audience?  Those describe some key roles of the Public Information Officer (PIO)--a valuable player for your club or group's community relations and growth.

ARRL Public Information Coordinator Suellene Petersen, K6CPA, strongly encourages current and aspiring PIOs to pre-register now for the PIO course that she will offer on Saturday, October 15, at the ARRL Pacificon Convention.  The course material can be downloaded here and is useful for your club PIO, photographers, newsletter editors, and webmasters.

From Norm Lucas, WB6RVR, Section Official Observer Coordinator
Posted January 11, 2016

Do you have what it takes to be an ARRL "Official Observer?"

FCC Amateur Auxiliary
The Official Observer (OO) program has been sponsored by the ARRL for more than 85 years to help Amateur Radio operators assist each other to operate their stations in compliance with Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations.
Official Observer appointees have assisted thousands of Amateur Radio operators to maintain their transmitting equipment and comply with operating procedures and regulations. The object of the OO program is to notify amateurs of operating and technical irregularities before they come to the attention of the FCC and to recognize good operating practices.
The OO program serves as the first line of "eyes and ears" for the FCC. It is the backbone of the Amateur Auxiliary. OOs are certified in the Auxiliary by passing a mandatory written examination.

For someone to speak about the OO program at your next club meeting, please contact:
Norm Lucas (WB6RVR)
ARRL Official Observer Coordinator (SV)

Amateur Radio Emergency ServiceSeptember 17 - Sacramento County ARES Training
Posted August 31, 2016

The Sacramento County ARES February training meeting will be Saturday, September 17, from 0900-1200 hours at Sacramento County Sheriff's Florin Substation, 7000 65th St, Sacramento, CA 95823.

Volunteer Operators Needed for Oct. 15 Overlook Endurance Run
Posted July 31, 2016

We are looking for amateur radio communication volunteers to help support Ann Trason’s (Overlook Endurance Runs) 50K and 30K running event on October 15th, 2016.

This event covers areas of the historic Western States Trail, Tevis Cup Trail and the American River Canyon. The 50K distance starts in Stone's Brew in Foresthill, CA. The 30K distance starts at Driver's Flat and Foresthill Road. Both distances finish at the American Canyon Park Overlook (Auburn Dam Overlook) in Auburn, CA.

If you are interested in volunteering please send email indicating your interest, availability and contact information and I will contact you directly to confirm. A couple of the aid stations are on fire roads and so high clearance vehicles or 4WD is ideal.

More information about the Overlook Endurance Runs and this event can be found here: This event is conducted under the auspices of the non-profit 501(c)(3) BAUR (Bay Area UltraRunners).

Thank you for your interest.

Submitted by Joe Steinmetz, K6SAT

Club and Member News

Jennifer Hughes, NS3O, Silent Key
Jennifer Hughes, NS3O, Silent Key
Posted September 2, 2016

We are saddened to report that ARRL SV section member Jennifer Hughes NS3O, formerly KJ6YLS, passed away suddenly in her sleep in a Phoenix, AZ hotel room on August 31.

Jennifer was on vacation doing her favorite thing--riding her motorcycle (she was a member of the Capital City Wings and other motorcycle clubs)--about to embark on the 3FlagsClassic again, riding all the way from Mexico to Canada. She had just arrived in Phoenix to visit a friend following a long motorcycle trip. Her friend found Jennifer in the hotel room bed. She had otherwise been in good health.

Jennifer was a U.S. Navy veteran, an active member of the River City ARCS, the Samuel F. Morse ARC, ARES, and other amateur radio groups, and served as a Volunteer Instructor and Examiner.

A Celebration of Life event will be held on Sunday, September 18, 10:30 am-12 noon at 3511 Ronk Way, Sacramento, CA 95821 with further details at

Al F. Hoffmeyer, WA6WER, Silent Key
Posted September 15, 2016

Wednesday, September 14
I found out today that Al Hoffmeyer, WA6WER, had passed away this morning.

I got the news from Al’s good friend, Lawrence Richmond, KJ6SHE, who has been checking in on Al regularly since Al had to go to the emergency room / intensive care several weeks ago and was then released to go over to the Golden Empire Nursing and Rehab Center.

Al was a good friend and a long time, enthusiastic, ham who was always willing to help. He will be missed.

I’ll pass along any further information, including announcements of any services to held for Al, as soon as I get it.

Walt, N6HNS

Al's Funeral will be at St. Patrick's on Saturday September 24 at 10:00 AM.  The Rosary will be at 9:30 AM.

Western Placer ARC
Update from Western Placer ARC
Posted September 14, 2016

Greetings from the Western Placer Amateur Radio Club:

There is a lot of new information in this newsletter so be sure to read it all (tip – the Amateur Radio Parity Act passed the House!).

The WPARC 10th Annual Hamfest is this Saturday! Only 3 days to the big event at McBean Park in Lincoln (65 McBean Park/Highway 193)! Gates open at 7:00 AM (5:00 for vendors to set up). Look lower in this newsletter for a drawing prize list. We are expecting a large turnout of vendors this year including Hi-Tec Liquidators, the people from Costa Mesa who occupy 5 – 6 spots every year. They have tables full of great and rare stuff with a huge overflow on the ground. I have bought many items from them including a new 240 volt variac last year. You don't want to miss them – lots of good stuff! There will be many other vendors, too, to provide you with just what you need to finish a project. See the attached flyer for more information.

If you haven't met our new ARRL Section Manager, Carol KP4MD, she will have a League booth next to the WPARC booth. Come and introduce yourself and pick up some League information or membership application.

We will have something new at the Hamfest this year. WPARC members are setting up a “power & test station” with 12 and 120 volt connections and HF/VHF/UHF antennas. We will also have a watt meter available. If you want to see if a piece of equipment works before you buy it, you can take it to the power station and turn it on. Thanks to Jerry N6JKH for coming up with this clever idea.

SPECIAL NOTE for VENDORS! We will have roving club members available to watch your booth if you need to use the restroom.

We haven't increased the cost for vendors since the first Hamfest 10 years ago. It is still $10 per parking spot. I think that is helping to drive the growth of the event. We will have coffee, donuts, and water available at the club booth. Club President, Bill KJ6YCO and past President Katy, KJ6YCP, will be manning the club booth, selling drawing tickets and refreshments. We will have free hot dogs available starting at about 9:30 AM thanks to the Lions Club. See the end of this email for a full list of prizes.

The gates open at 7:00 AM but we need several volunteers to be there around 5:00 AM to set up and to manage parking for buyers and sellers. Gates open at 5:00 AM for vendors. Katy KJ6YCP has been coordinating the hamfest for several years and does a terrific job every year. If you would like to help out please email Katy at This is a big event for the club and how we operate it reflects on the club so please volunteer. We all (and especially Katy) appreciate it. We have our city permit and our liability insurance in order so the event is set to go.

We will have VE sessions at an off site location. If you are interested in taking a test please email Dennis KI6HHA at

If you need directions or other information we will use the club repeater, K6PAC, for the talk in frequency. It is 147.300 (+) 179.9 and will be monitored.

We can now announce the Drawing Grand Prize and the 2 First Prizes. The Grand Prize is a Yaesu FTM-3200DR System Fusion Radio. This is the radio many club members use on the System Fusion Net on Monday nights. KK6NFM recently hit the repeater from Los Banos. It is a super compact 65 watt mobile unit with great features. This radio has great reviews and is the hot setup to use with the WPARC repeater for both digital and analog FM. We now have a C4FM net at 8:30 PM Monday nights and it is growing rapidly (W6ETJ, Erik, is net control). There are several people with a lot of System Fusion experience to help you out with any information you may need. The net starts in analog so you can ask questions before the net switches to digital in case you don't have a C4FM radio but are considering purchasing one (or winning one at the Hamfest!) The net is open to everyone, not just WPARC members. New update – several new people have checked into the net with a new System Fusion radio in the past couple of weeks. A few weeks ago someone called in from Elk Grove with full quieting into the repeater with just 5 watts (!) and a quarter wave mag mount.

The two First Prizes are something many of us are familiar with now: BaoFeng UV-5R Dual Band HT Two Way Radios. These are very popular radios and are handy to keep in the car, backpack, or on your belt. We will also have several smaller prizes. Make sure to be there to win big!

In addition, we have two ARRL $50 and two $25 gift certificates and many other goodies to drool over. Thanks to the ARRL for donating the gift certificates. My pitch – please join the ARRL. The organization does the heavy work to keep our ham frequencies free. There is lots of competition for bandwidth throughout the world for cell phones and other Internet of Things – for example, WiFi. The ARRL works with government officials in the US and throughout the world to protect the ham frequencies from being auctioned off to the highest bidder. An important part of that work is to coordinate frequencies with countries and agencies in almost every nation. The ARRL is a powerful player in the international fight for bandwidth and they have had many victories. Look at what they are doing for the Amateur Radio Parity Act!

More BIG ARRL news! The US House of Representatives just passed the Amateur Radio Parity Act! The Act, HR 1301, was approved on a voice vote and now goes to the Senate for approval. There will undoubtedly be lots of discussion and probably some compromises but the outlook is good. For those of you not familiar with the act, it allows amateur operators who live in deed restricted communities (almost all new developments in the past 20 or more years) to erect a communications antenna that will fit in specific guidelines. This is a great boon to the amateur community as too many people cannot participate because they cannot put up a reasonable antenna.

So what can you do? It is important for every amateur to write to your US Senator and encourage them to pass this act. It is an important issue nationally because we need amateurs to be able to communicate in emergency situations. Remember that the only communications for the first 10 days in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina were provided by amateurs. It was an important service that saved many lives and made rescue efforts possible. The ARRL has worked tirelessly with the House to pass this bill and will now do the same with the Senate. I'm sure everyone knows that our US Senators are Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. Their addresses are: Boxer, Barbara - (D – CA), 112 Hart Senate Office Building, washington DC 20510 (202) 224-3553 Contact:
Feinstein, Dianne - (D – CA), 331 Hart Senate Office Building, Washington DC 20510, (202) 224-3841, Contact: If you click on their name it will give you their primary email address.

The ARRL publishes a magazine for members every month called QST. It is a very informative periodical with lots of new equipment reviews, tricks, tips, ideas, and much other relevant information for amateur operators. If you want to learn something new every month or find some information that improves your operating skills then you need to join the ARRL to receive QST every month. Further, the entire issue is available on line so you don't have to wait for it to show up in your mail box every month. In the October issue there were several good articles on making and improving antennas, all the way up to microwave antennas. One interesting article that caught my eye was a tool for predicting solar conditions for DX operating for a month at a time. Check out the website to find out how it works. Just put in your QTH location and a couple of other bits and it will give you a map of probable DX propagation so you have a visual idea of how far your signal will go and who you will be able to hear for the next month.

New Event! We will provide SAG and Rest Stop support for the Tour de Rocklin this year! We have supported the event in the past but it was cancelled the past 2 years due to health issues with one of the organizers. This year it will be on Sunday, October 9th. We will need a full contingent of volunteers to drive, work rest stops, etc. Put it on your calendar today and send me an email if you want to volunteer. I hope to coordinate the event, depending on some health issues. More to come about this event.

Important Note: Frank KB6KYK has been the club Drawing Master for many years and has done an exceptional job finding goodies for us. He now has some other concerns to deal with and will not be able to continue as Drawing Master. If you would like to help out the club and volunteer, please let any board member or Frank know.

I ran across an interesting book a few days ago. The name of it is “Signal Processing for Communications.” It evolved from lectures the authors gave to college students over several years. If you are an engineer you will probably love it. If you aren't an engineer, skip over the stuff that is too technical and you will still learn some valuable insights into signal processing and how it is used to improve our communications. It is a free book for downloading at this url:

The club website,, has a new look and new information. Jey KQ6DK is now Clay's (K6AEP) backup and is updating the the site. Clay has been traveling a lot and has not had time to keep up the pages. Although Clay's traveling is over for now, Jey is helping out and bringing a new look to the site. Thanks to Clay and Jey for all their work on the website.

While on the subject of media, the club now has a Facebook page. Board Member Arturo KK6NFM created it for Field Day and you can find it at: Want more? We now have a Twitter account! Just search for @k6pac (the club repeater call sign with the “@” symbol). We are following the ARRL, the ARRL Sacramento Valley Section, Kenwood, and Yaseu for a few. If you think of someone we should follow, please email me. I know there are a few local clubs with Twitter accounts and I will add them.

Don't forget our regular weekly nets on the repeater. NEW! We now have a Monday evening C4FM net! Featuring Yaesu System Fusion radios, this digital net is at 8:30 PM on the club repeater and is hosted by C4FM guru Erik W6ETJ. As noted above, the net starts in analog so you can ask questions, etc. This net is growing fast so check in now and join the fun! More new nets! There will be another C4FM net at (get this) 10:00 PM on Monday nights. Many of the System Fusion operators are night people or work late so we will pick up again later in the evening. We are also considering a 6 meter net and a 2 meter SSB net. Further, we are thinking of adding a C4FM net after the Wednesday AM net. Your input and participation is important for these nets so let us know if you want to see them happen. We also have analog FM nets on Wednesday morning at 10:00 AM and Thursday at 7:30 PM. The morning net is always hosted by Katy KJ6YCP and the 2 nets on Thursday evenings start at 7:30 PM. Bill, KJ6YCO, is the net coordinator now and often hosts the 2 meter net. When he isn't on, the trusty Dennis, KI6HHA, is on, and handles the net with his usual style and skills. They all do a fine job and it is a pleasure to hear them lead the net. Many thanks to all of them for dedicating time to the club net to make it a success. If you would like to be a Net Control for one of our nets, please contact Bill at Five minutes following the 2 meter net we have an HF net. LC, N7VQC, is on the spot to handle the HF net. LC is also an excellent Net Control and it is always a pleasure to hear him on the bands. He is very good at answering technical questions, too. This net changes bands every week so listen to the 2 meter net for any change in the announced frequency. The usual schedule starts from the first Thursday of the month on 10 meters, then 15, then 40, and finally 75 meters at the end of the month. If there are 5 Thursdays in a month, the last one will be on 10 meters. Here is the schedule for the next 5 weeks – also, the HF net frequencies are on the club website. (Remember to listen for the HF frequency on the 2 meter net as it may change):
September 15 – 40 (7.225 MHz)
September 22 – 75 Meters (3.855)
September 29 – 10 Meters – or should we try 6 meters or 2 meters SSB?
October 6 – 10 meters (28.410 MHz) A good chance for Techs to join in!
October 13 – 15 meters (21.355 MHz)

I have mentioned many times that I use Amazon Smile for my shopping on Amazon. Smile is a program Amazon has that donates .5% of all of your qualifying purchases to a non-profit of your choice (and that participates in the program). The ARRL is my choice and I saw today that I have made 130 purchases that qualify. I buy some medical supplies and bulk items on Amazon so I am confident that the ARRL has benefited from my purchases. If you buy anything from Amazon, please enroll in their Smile program and make the people at ARRL HQ smile!

73, Michael Buck K6BUK

Nevada County ARC
Update from Nevada County ARC
Posted September 14, 2016

The Nevada County Fair – 2016

This was another good year for the club at the fair. We had lots of people stop by our setup. Many were interested in ham radio and others had their license and expressed interest in the NCARC. We also had several families stop by who were thinking about ham radio for the family or for one or more of their children.

I’m guessing most days there were about 10 people stopping by who said they were interested in ham radio and I’m sure we handed out almost 50 of the club W6DD QSL type info cards to let people know about the club and the club website.

Thanks to all of the club members who manned the club:
Larry Latta, K6LRL (4 shifts even though still struggling with his pneumonia)
Alan James, KZ6B (3 shifts)
Doc Dashiell, NM6K (2 shifts)
Jon Gicker, WA6TNC
Ed Flower, KK6SIF
Dennis Seaton, W7BOK
Bert Wheeler, AI6LZ
John Hart, KI6FIQ
Peter Mason, N6ERL
Chuck Murphey, KI6CM
Cal McKitrick, AI6MC (and several partial shifts)

Thanks also to all of the club members who were out at the fair with other booths and stopped by our booth to visit and help.

Also, a special thanks to Ed Flower, KK6SIF, who helped with the booth setup and did most of the booth take down.

73, Walt, N6HNST        September Newsletter

Shinigletown ARC
Update from Shingletown ARC
Posted September 5, 2016

Shingletown Amateur Radio Club (STARC) was contacted by Lisa Chadwick through Steve Masconi (K6KS) and asked to provide radio communications for a fifty mile equestrian endurance ride. The ride, which was dubbed the Hat Creek Hustle, took place in a portion of Lassen National Forest that afforded no cell coverage. There was a need for communication between the event coordinator and several check points along the route in case of any emergencies that might arise. Steve Lynch (KQ6CS), on short notice, was able to muster several radio volunteers in the club to offer their services for the event. He and Phil Graham were able to set up a base station at the base camp and three others, Chuck (KI6WAU), Benny MacOmber (W6BEN), and Marlene MacOmber (KF6JAQ), were stationed along the route at check points to pass any info about the horses or riders back to the event coordinator. Many of the participant riders expressed their thankfulness for the presence of the operators on the route and the National Forest Service officials were satisfied with the communications provided by STARC in case of wild fire or any other emergency that might arise. Also Floyd (KD6NYQ), who was there as part of the support staff for the event was able to help with passing messages during the event. Once again Ham Radio proved to be a valuable resource for public service were other forms of communication were unavailable.

Submitted by Steve Lynch KQ6CS

Thanks to members of the Shingletown ARC and to members of the Redding and Shingletown ARRL VE teams Phil Richardson WA6SEU, Dar Walker W6IO, Jim Perkins K6YM, Phil Marquis K6HSV, Rick Booth W6RKK, Steve Lynch KQ6CS, Tom Cleminson KF7FTJ, Steve Mosconi K6KS and all others who attended for their kind hospitality during their Sept 2 meeting.  - Carol, KP4MD

Glenn ARS
Update from Glenn ARS
Posted September 4, 2016

Since the 1st of September was on a Thursday, our regular 2nd Thursday of the month meeting comes quickly this month (September 8th!)


Hope to see many of you this Thursday as we have some very important business to accomplish. Among the agenda items are: Election of 2017 officers, Update on the Em Com Disaster Response Trailer

73, Phil, GARS Secty/Treas, DDRC for CNH District KI6SMN    Newsletter

Buddipole Antennas
Update from River City ARCS
Posted September 3, 2016


Last month’s meeting was a first. We heard from Ed Fong, WB6IQN, via Skype, discussing his antenna creations. Thanks to our Treasurer, Phil, KD6RM for providing the wireless access and all the assorted infrastructure to make the presentation work.

This month we have the pleasure of hosting Bud Drummond, W3FF who will be traveling half way down the state to speak to us. Bud is the inventor of the Buddipole antenna system. This off-center fed dipole system is the portable DXpedition friend. His company has many other Ham related items that I hope he will discuss. We are fortunate to have Bud at our meeting.  Link to Program Video.

October is our white elephant sale – start the shack cleaning. November is our election and we will hear from Carol, KP4MD about her Puerto Rico DX exploits.

Rounding out the busy and productive year will be our Christmas party at Sam’s. My tower project is slowly progressing. Random packages drop in from DX Engineering. The trenching crew is scheduled for Wednesday. They are coming here in between bigger jobs so hopefully they show up. My clay soil will be a challenge – we’ll see how they do.

Finally, I was extremely shocked and saddened to hear of the passing of Jennifer Hughes, NS3O (SK). I enjoyed talking to her about her many motorcycle exploits, VE exams, her new job, and especially her humorous comments at the CW class. She was a great member of the club and will be missed.

See everyone at the meeting. Until next month - 73, Bob, N6PGQ     September Newsletter

Sierra Foothills ARC
Update from Sierra Foothills ARC
Posted September 3, 2016

Sierra Foothills ARC is now 103 members strong. Our VE Testing, Elmer Net and club activities have helped the club to be strong. Check out the club and activities at:

September Meeting is Friday, the 9th… everyone welcome! Club Nets: Thursdays at 7:30 for the club net and September 7 & 21 for the Elmer Net. October meeting is the BIG White Elephant Auction.

Summer Picnic - Thanks to Scott, K6SVW and Laura, K6LXW for organizing the event. Fun time for all.

Ham Family - Alex gets KM6EPX as a new Technician. Son of proud Mom, W6EVA & Dad, K6BAA.

Field Support - George, KG6LSB thanks everyone for supporting events so far and is looking for help 11/08 Cystic Fibrosis Nike Ride and 10/29 - Enduro in Georgetown. Thanks for all your help George!

VE Results - The VE Testing keeps cranking out Hams and Upgrades all year. Thanks to all the VEs and for Al, NI2U keeping it together. Had: 9 candidates, 6new Technicians, 1 General and 1 Extra.

See everyone September 17th at the Lincoln Swap and at Pacificon October 14-16.

de WF6J, ARRL PIO    September Newsletter

Golden Empire ARS
Update from Golden Empire ARS
Posted September 3, 2016


What a wonderful time many of us had visiting the museum of Jerry, W6JRY here in Forest Ranch this past month. I believe that everyone walked away in a state of awe and wonder regarding what they had just experienced! If you missed it and would like to go visit Jerry, he can be reached at 343-1131.

There are lots of fun activities coming up in the next 30 days for us all. On Friday September 16th will be our General Meeting. Our meeting will be full of lots of different things, including the guest speaker, Chris Huber, N6ICW from Sacramento will talk about repeaters, how they work and his widespread system. There will also be a memorable, special presentation, so we hope to see you all there!

The next day, Saturday the 17th is our annual SteakBake, full of food, fun and fellowship, so if you have not done so yet, please make your reservation with Evelyn or Dorothy – see flyer in this issue.

On Saturday October 8th we will hold an all-day workshop at the Search & Rescue building. Details are still being worked out but we will have several hands-on activities for all hams and those checking out our hobby. We will have such things as:
- Buddipole antenna construction
- SWR Bridge and Antenna Analyzer operation and use
- Proper soldering techniques and coax connector installation
- Power pole construction and installation
- Checking of rigs and h/t’s for proper calibration and deviation
- On-site operating of HF, VHF and UHF stations
- And more!

We will start selling raffle tickets at all club events for the wonderful Buddipole antenna system ($450 value) that Dick – W6BIN so graciously donated. Tickets are $5 each or 5 for $20. The drawing will take place at our Christmas party in December.

We will soon be taking orders for an “official” beautiful GEARS coffee mug – with your call and name on it as well as GEARS logo. Stay tuned for ordering information.

I hope to talk with you on the air soon, 73, Larry Marcum, KA6GND, GEARS President  Newsletter

North Hills RC
Update from North Hills RC
Posted September 2, 2016

September 20 - What is Amateur Radio Night

The North Hills Radio Club will once again be holding our annual event called What Is Amateur Radio Night.

This year, it will take place on Tuesday evening, September 20th from 6:00 until 8:00 P.M. At What Is Amateur Radio Night, (WIARN), We try to showcase as many aspects of the amateur radio service as we can. From the early days of tube-type and military gear to today's modern radios and cutting-edge digital modes and just about everything in between! We invite all NHRC members as well as hams from other clubs to come and display your favorite part of the hobby. In the past we have had persons from ARES/RACES, CERT, Skywarn and even the CHP. We would like for you to come and look at all of the various displays or, bring something to display of your own! If you're from another club, how about bringing some literature about your club as well as applications for perspective members. Nothing wrong with trying to get more members into your club.

WIARN well be held at the former SMUD building located at 5026 Don Julio Blvd. at the northeast corner of Don Julio and Elkhorn Blvds in Sacramento.

A map showing how to get to the WIARN site can be found here.

One more thing; How about bringing a non-ham friend to our event. We would especially like to see young people from the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Cub Scouts or Brownies. Be sure to know that everyone, young or old is welcome to attend. Don't be afraid to bring that non-ham friend to the show.

There have been several instances where persons have come to WIARN and have gone on to get their ticket. If you have any questions or would like to come, you can contact Doug, N6NFF on the club's K6IS repeater on the frequency of 145.190Mhz with a minus offset and a ctcss tone of 162.2Hz. You can also send an e-mail to:

The North Hills Radio Club looks forward to seeing all of you at What Is Amateur Radio Night (WIARN). Until then, the very best of 73. From Doug Emerson, President, North Hills Radio Club. Amateur callsign, N6NFF

We are planning an ARRL Booth for WIARN  - Carol, KP4MD

Samuel F. Morse ARC
Update from Samuel F Morse ARC
Posted September 2, 2016


The W6SFM CW BEGINNERS CLASS WILL BE HELD STARTING WEDNESDAY SEPTEMBER 14th. The club has locked a date for the beginning of our next semi annual CW Beginners Course. The course is a once per week 2 hour class that meets for 10 consecutive weeks. At this course students will learn how to both send and receive Morse Code. Students will be supplied a straight key and Oscillator to keep at the completion of the course. Students will also learn proper on-air pro-signs and other interesting information about Morse Code and On-air practices. If you or someone you know is interested in joining this course please be sure to contact the club ASAP. This is a FIRST COME FIRST SERVE enrollment with VERY limited seating. Those who contact the club via email are eligible to be placed on a 7 day 'seat reservation' while we await your payment. For more information be sure to contact us by going to

The W6SFM Samuel F Morse Radio Club August meeting was called to order by club President Mike, N6MQL on August 4 at the Carmichael Presbyterian Church in Carmichael CA, with 12 members in attendance. Mike, N6MQL read the Month's budget report and announced the current funds available. Club Secretary, Chris, AI6U followed by reading the minutes of last month's in-person meeting. Chris also reported the totals for our W6SFM On-line/On-air net meetings for the month of July. Thank you to Tony, W6VFW for providing this months snacks.

Some topics of discussion at this months meeting included various ARRL section news and club business. The amateur Radio Parity Act (Hr1301) was discussed by the entire group in attendance. Also discussed was the FCC taking comments on its RM11708, to change the Part 97 rule from "Symbol Rate" for data transmissions to a set 2.8 KHZ. Members were urged to comment to the FCC.

Also under discussion were the FCC's proposal to create an entry-level license class, The National Parks On The Air (NPOTA)stations and FCC RM11667 to lift the current 15 DB gain limitation for manufacturers of linear amplifiers. Again the members were urged to comment to the FCC.

This month Chris, AI6U sent in an article he thought would be of interest to our members: From the August 4th ARRL Letter Chatham Marconi Maritime Center Acquires "Creed Machine" from Georgia Radio Amateur

For the club's “show and tell” portion of our meeting member Mike, K6LQ presented 2 classic straight keys. The first was a Marconi "Z50" Key circa 1950s: This key (example shown above) had a very smooth movement with a very light touch to the downward motion. The second key that Mike presented to the group was the very popular and generally now costly Amplidan 50713 made in Denmark circa 1950s: This Danish Navy key is known for it's very smooth, accurate movements and adjustability. Spring tension, as Mike noted, is in the "tensioned" positioned. When the key lever is pressed the spring is pulled on as opposed to compressed as on a J38 type key. Thank you to Mike for bringing in these treasures for the club to see. After our "Show and Tell" portion of the meeting Vice president Rob,

For our presentation Vice President Rob, N6KIX presented the members with a brief presentation on the making of a proper QSL card to be sent via U.S. Postage mail. Rob brought up important facts about how the postal service uses electronic machines to sort and cancel the mail. Rob also shared some key notes on where to place 'empty' spaces so that cards can be more accurately sorted without causing damage or loss during the process. A template of the front side of an envelope, or QSL card in this case, was shown to indicate where all cancellations and bar codes would be placed by the post office. Thank you to Rob for sharing this important information with the club members, along with a few examples of some letters and cards that indicated issues he had experienced. One of which was a beautiful QSL card from W6MRV. Louis's QSL was made out of wood.. That's right, a WOOD QSL card!

Please be sure to join us for our next SFM ARC in-person meeting to be held at its normal time and address Sep. 1st (followed by our Oct 6th meeting). The SFM ARC in-person meeting will be held in the Howard Crowley room upstairs at the Carmichael Presbyterian Church. More information including a Google Map is available on the homepage of our website:

At our September meeting we will be discussing the W6SFM's participation in the California QSO Party event.

As usual, current events, News regarding Amateur radio and other ARRL items will be discussed. As always we will have our Tech (show and tell) portion where members and visitors are asked to share their Ham Radio related items they find of interest. Feel free to visit our In-Person meeting with items that you purchased or were given that you would like to share with the group. Visitors are always welcome to join us.

Each Tuesday of the week 8:00 PM on 3.545 MHz the SFM ARC enjoys getting on the air with CW for our weekly Nets. You do NOT need to be a member of the SFM ARC to check into our nets and we encourage you to invite a friend to join us as well. Although our nets usually run around 13 wpm code, we are all happy to accommodate those that are slower and need us to oblige. If you are unable to copy Morse Code or need some code practice please feel free to visit our on-line LIVE streaming broadcast of both the Audio and a CW to Text decoding of the meeting. The “LIVE FEED” link can be found on our home page of our website.

Those visiting the on-line site are welcome to make themselves known by using the ‘contact us’ link to let the net op (NCS) know you are there. This of course is not mandatory, just a way of making everyone feel more involved in our on-air nets.

Very 73., Michael N6MQL -W6SFM Club President

Yuba Sutter ARC
Update from Yuba-Sutter ARC
Posted September 2, 2016


Jeffery Brown (KK6GBM) will be demonstrating his homebuilt emergency go-box with HF and UHF/VHF radios. Our next general YSARC membership meeting will at the Caltrans Building in Marysville.<

Last month’s meeting was a buffet dinner and social get together at the Tasty Buffet in Yuba City. If you were unable to attend you missed a good meal and fun time talking with friends.


The club will again be sponsoring a technician class. Classes will be held at the American Red Cross Center, 2125 East Onstott Frontage Road, Yuba City, Ckassroom 1. It will be taught from 6:30 to 8:30 Monday and Wednesday evenings from Jan 2nd thru Feb 28th.

There is no cost for the classes, however you will need an up-to-date manual. You can obtain a Kindle version from Amazon, purchase a copy from a bookstore, ARRL, or order one thru the instructor.

The instructors will be Curtis (KF6VFP) and ??

Please get the word out to family, friends and anyone you know who is interested in getting their license.

More information can be obtained from Curtis at (530) 743-3003 or

Curtis, K6VFP


Steve Sweetman (K6TAZ) has agreed to act as YSARC’s ramrod for the Veterans Day Parade to be held Nov. 11, 2016 at 11:00 a.m. in Marysville. Let Steve know If you are willing to help out. About 12 volunteers are needed. Volunteers will start at about 9:00 a.m. helping participants find their starting positions.


The next VE session will be 3 Sep at 715 King Ave., Yuba City at 9:00 A.M. VE’s are needed to administer the exam. The elements for Technician, General and Extra class will be offered. If you are planning on taking an exam you will need two forms of ID, at least one of them must be a picture ID. A fee of $15.00 is required. A calculator may also be used as long as it has had all of its memories cleared and there are no built in or preprogrammed formulas.

If you are upgrading to a higher class you need to bring your license and a photocopy of the license.

If you take an exam and pass, you can take the next higher class exam for no additional cost. If you do not pass and wish to try again an additional fee will be required.

Congratulations to new technician George Rebane (KM6DYA) who passed the test with score of 100%, Antonio Santiago Ramirez (KK6YFS) for upgrading to general, and to Dan L. Holmes (KM6CTH) for upgrading to extra.    Newsletter

El Dorado County ARC
Update from El Dorado County ARC
Posted August 31, 2016


I hope this message finds all of you well and happy.

It has been another slow month for me due to my sore feet but I am getting along in spite of them. The VA came through with a set of orthopedic shoes that has reduced my discomfort considerably. Some people complain about the VA but not me. They are doing quite well on my account. Well, enough about me, on with the show.

Another SK (William Hawks, WA6CAP, a former EDCARC member) estate sale has presented itself and this one is a pretty good one including a Collins transceiver and what looks like a Motorola repeater. I only saw the case (it could be empty for all I could tell). There is also plenty of test equipment and RF Amps. There are antennas, towers, and a rack full or large batteries (WWII submarine style???) A1er two hours of looking around at it all my head was reeling. Anyway, if you think you have a lot of (good) stuff, you ain't seen nun yet. If this excites the bargain hunter in you, plan to come up to Garden Valley on Saturday the 27th. Meet me on 2 or 6 meters and I'll guide you in or meet me about 10:30 at GV park. (My apologies for those who I failed to meet last Saturday.)

Anyway, 2016 is huffin' on to a finish and it is not to early to consider who you would like to see as next year's officers. We are fortunate to have some really dedicated people in the club and I encourage all of you to consider making yourself available for service as a club officer. Its not hard work but it does require a small additional amount of your free time, mostly geng to the monthly meeting about an hour ahead of time, and performing the other duties of the office.

Well, that is about all I can think of except to urge you all to support our Nets on Mondays and Tuesdays. Will Nancy ever log 25 persons on the Tuesday night? Be there and find out. You can help and it'll be fun. I hope to see you all at the monthly meeting on this coming Thursday, the 25th.

Don McCallum, AF6ND.    Newsletter

Oroville ARS
Update from Oroville ARS
Posted August 31, 2016

The OARS Monthly Breakfast will take place this Saturday, 27 August 2016, 9 am, at The Waffle Shop, 2107 Feather River Blvd (across the street from Applebee’s) in Oroville. Hope to see everyone there.

73, Jim, W7XZ

PS Sorry for delay getting this out—things are still settling down after XYL Trudy’s medical crisis last weekend.

Update on an old time member... Billy Christian, KG6AYF who lives at 760 Grand Avenue in Oroville. Billy has been in a bad way for a couple of years and in and out of Country Crest several times. Billy is home now but is not doing well and he admits that he is close to his last QSO. He would like to have some visits by the guys. Not a big group but a few at a time if the guys who remember Billy would like to spend a few minutes with him. I work with his grandson Gary Judd, at the Gold Country Casino. Gary says his grandpa needs some visits and interaction with others. Maybe we can talk him into getting back on the air. I don't know if his email is still connected but it's

Thanks, Larry, W6LAT

Feedback from Aaron Jones K6ABJ
Posted July 7, 2016

Hi Dr. Milazzo,

Thank you for your contributions and service to the ARRL Sacramento Valley Section! I enjoy reading the Section Valley News each month. It is my favorite radio publication I receive each month! I attended my first field day last month, and made it to the River City ARCS, SARK's, and SHARP's field day events. It was a busy 24+ hours, and I had a blast. Thank you!!!!

Aaron Jones, K6ABJ

Aaron, thanks for your kind words. I am proud of the many active members and clubs in our section who make ours a truly vibrant amateur radio community! - Carol, KP4MD

Carol F. Milazzo,
Oct 3, 2016, 9:03 PM
Carol F. Milazzo,
Oct 3, 2016, 9:03 PM
Carol F. Milazzo,
Oct 3, 2016, 9:03 PM
Carol F. Milazzo,
Oct 3, 2016, 9:03 PM
Carol F. Milazzo,
Oct 3, 2016, 9:03 PM
Carol F. Milazzo,
Oct 3, 2016, 9:03 PM