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Food Finds in Britian - Viking

Archeological Botanical Food Finds in Britian - Viking
Catalogued by Jennifer Baker - Hodegon NVG - Dec 2008


Source Reference - Archaeobotanical Computer Database (ABCD ) http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue1/tomlinson/scripts/index-latin.html  



Vegatables
English Names Type Latin Name Found in a Viking Period Archeological site

Beet / Foliage Beet Vegetable Beta vulgaris var. cicla
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Beetroot Vegetable Chenopodiaceae
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Cabbage Vegetable Brassica oleracea (cabbage) cf. only
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Carrot / Wild Carrot Vegetable Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Celery / Wild Celery Vegetable Apium graveolens var. dulce
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York -

Cornsalad / Laterrade lamb's lettuce, Vegetable Valerianella locusta
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Leek Vegetable Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England

Lentil Lens culinaris (lentil)
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England

Parsnip / Wild Parsnip Vegetable Pastinaca sativa
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Pea / Garden Pea / Field Pea Vegetable Pisum sativum
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Swedish Turnip / Rape / Cole / Swede Vegetable Brassica napus
Hungate York 50, York, North Yorkshire, England

Turnip Vegetable Brassica rapa var. rapa
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Wild Cabbage Vegetable Brassica oleracea
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England




Herbs
English Names Herb Latin Name Found in a Viking Period Archeological site

Angelica Herb Angelica sylvestris
Hungate York 50, York, North Yorkshire, England

Black Mustard Herb Brassica nigra (black mustard)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Bog-rosemary Herb Andromeda polifolia
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England

Calendula / Pot Marigold Herb Calendula officinalis
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Caper Spurge Euphorbia lathyris (caper spurge)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Catnip / Cat-Mint Herb Nepeta cataria
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Celery Seed Apium graveolens (celery seed)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Comfrey Herb Symphytum officinale
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Coriander / Cilantro Herb Coriandrum sativum
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Corncockle Herb Agrostemma githago
Hungate York 50, York, North Yorkshire, England

corn chamomile Herb Anthemis cf. arvensis
Hungate York 50, York, North Yorkshire, England

Dill Herb Anethum graveolens
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Horehound / White Horehound Herb Marrubium vulgare
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Mint Herb Mentha sp.
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Savory, Summer Herb Satureja hortensis
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Self Heal Herb Prunella vulgaris
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Strawberry Alpine / Wild Strawberry Herb Fragaria vesca
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -

Violets, Parma Herb Viola sp.
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Orkney (Mainland), Orkney, Scotland -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Yarrow Herb Achillea millefolium
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Grains
English Names Grain Latin Name Found in a Viking Period Archeological site

Barley / six-row barley Grain Hordeum vulgare (barley)
Freswick Castle 79 Freswick, Caithness, Highland, Scotland -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Saevar Howe 77 Birsay, Orkney, Orkney, Scotland

Bread Wheat / Club Wheat Grain Triticum aestivo-compactum
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Flax Seed / cultivated flax Grain Linum usitatissimum (flax seed)
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England

Oats / cultivated oat Grain Avena sativa (oats)
Freswick Castle 79 Freswick, Caithness, Highland, Scotland -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Rye Secale cereale (rye)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Nuts
English Names Nut Latin Name Found in a Viking Period Archeological site

Hazelnuts Nut Corylus avellana (hazelnuts)
Jarlshof 25-35 Sumburgh, Shetland, Shetland, Scotland -
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Brough of Birsay 73-4 Orkney (Mainland), Orkney, Scotland -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Walnut Nut Juglans regia (walnut)
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England



Fruits
English Names Fruit Latin Name Found in a Viking Period Archeological site

Apple / crab apple Fruit Malus sylvestris (apple)
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Bilberries Fruit Vaccinium sp.(bilberries) including V. myrtillus
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Blackberry / Bramble Fruit Rubus fruticosus agg. (bramble)
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England

Crowberry Fruit Empetrum spp
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Dewberry Fruit Rubus caesius (dewberry)
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Elderberry Fruit Sambucus nigra
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Fig Fruit Ficus carica (fig)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Grape Fruit Vitis vinifera (grape)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Plum Fruit Prunus domestica ssp. domestica(plum)
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England

Raspberry Fruit Rubus idaeus (raspberry)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Rose- hip Fruit Rosa sp.(rose-hip)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Rowan Fruit Sorbus aucuparia (rowan)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Sloe or Blackthorn Fruit Prunus spinosa (sloe)
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England

Sour Cherries Fruit Prunus Section Cerasus (sour cherries including P. avium and P. cerasus)
General Accident York 83-4 York, 24-30 Tanner Row, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Wild Plum Fruit Prunus domestica sl (wild plum)
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England -
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England - Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England

Wild Strawberry Fruit Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry)
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England



Other - not sure of classification
English Names Other Latin Name Found in a Viking Period Archeological site

Hops Other Humulus lupulus (hop)
Coppergate 74 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Coppergate 76-81 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England

Rape / Rapeseed Other Brassica napus (rape)
Hungate York 50 York, North Yorkshire, England -
Lloyds Bank York 72-3 6-8 Pavement, York, North Yorkshire, England