NA noun, animate
NI noun, inanimate
PART particle (invariable)
PV preverb (occurs prior to main verbs)
VAI verb, animate subject, intransitive
VII verb, inanimate subject, intransitive
VTA verb, transitive, animate object
VTI verb, transitive,
Sound Changes in Words:
in Arapaho, when prefixes and words combine, the sounds change at the
combination points. This makes it hard sometimes to recognize what the
original form was. The most common changes involve the letter -h-, and
are as follows:
nih (past tense) + h- > nih’-
he’ih (narrative past tense) + h- > he’ih’-
heet (future tense) + h- > heetn-
hi (‘his/hers’) + h- > hit-
(negation) + h- > hoow-
different kind of change occurs when verbs do not have prefixes. In
this case, the first syllable lengthens or doubles. Short vowels become
long, and long vowels require insertion of an extra -en- or -on-:
nih-noohootowoo ‘I saw it’
nih-tesbih’iyoo’ ‘it was very dark’
is very dark’
are listed with the short form in the glossary, since this is the far
more common form in the narratives in this anthology.
Explanation of Entries:
the glossary, we have provided translation of some longer words which
can be broken down into smaller units. There are given in parentheses
and quotation marks. Where parentheses are used with actual Arapaho
word entries, this indicates that the letter in parentheses may be pronounced,
but often is virtually dropped. Where letters are enclosed in brackets
in the actual Arapaho word entries, this indicates a fuller form of
the word – the more “proper” form – which Richard Moss has cut
short in his story. Brackets after the definitions include notes about
meanings, questions about meanings or spellings, and information on
the base form of the word when it may not be obvious from the form listed
in the glossary. Because we know that virtually all users of the glossary
will not be fluent in Arapaho, we have listed forms with prefixes and
suffixes attached in some cases (when the prefix or suffix is less common)
in order to make the words in the stories easier to find in the glossary.
We also include a few samples of the use of certain forms which can
be hard to pick out otherwise. These are indented after the main entry.
Finally, a few Arapaho verbs have special endings for ‘he, she, they’
which are unlike those in the grammar section. The endings are -‘
and -‘i (like inanimate forms). These are put in brackets immediately
after the verb to identify these special type of AI verbs.
bebene PART about, approximately
beebee- VAI to bark
beebee3sohoe- VAI to use sign language or gestures
beebeet PART only, just
beebei’on PART far away
beebenoob- VTA to sniff s.o. all over, sniff all around them
beebesteih’ein- VTA to feel all around s.o.’s belly, abdomen
beebeteentoo- VAI to worship
beebe’einin- VII to be all bloody
beec- VII to snow
beenhehe’ PART a few
beesei3[e’] VAI to be big, to have a big body
beesoo- VII to be big
beesoon- VII to be big
beet- PV to want to do s.t.
beete’ NI bow beete’ NI bow
beetisee- VAI to pass away, die off
beetou3ei- VAI to graduate, finish one’s education
bee3ei NA owl
bee3eini- VAI to be an owl, become an owl
bee3too- VAI to finish doing s.t.
beex- PV should do s.t.
beex- PV a little bit
beexcoonisee- VAI to be barely able to walk
beexeeneihi- VAI to be pretty big
beexeh- PV a little bit in that direction, a little bit off away there [< beex + neh?]
beexei’esei- VAI to be an older woman
beexookee- VAI to be full grown
beexookeihi- VAI to be full grown
beexoo3iihi’ ADV a little while later
beexo’- PV just, only
beexo’oo3ouyeiti- VAI to speak only English
beextonot- VII to be a few holes in an area
beexuuni PV a little bit
beexuu3ou’oo- VII to be a little bit towards evening [< beex + hi3ou’oo-]
beh- PV all
beh- PV all
beheeteihi- VAI to have made everything, to be God
beeheeteiht NA the creator, the maker of all
behiini PV all
behixooke’ei[ni]- VAI?? all of one’s face ?
beh’eihehi’ NA old man; the Sacred Pipe
bei’ci3ei’i NI money
bei’ci3eiseenook NA chain
bei’ci3ei’i niit3ei’ini’i NI money slot (“where money is put in”), as in parking meter
bei’i’einiiciihehe’ NI Casper, WY (“shell river”)
beneniiniini PV clustered together, gathered in a group of people
beniinis NI someone’s horn, a horn
benii’owoxoo- VII to be the time when the spring thaw arrives, “the spring thaw is arriving”
benii’owuun- VII to be springtime
benoheino’oowu’ NI saloon, bar
benohooxobei- VAI to water horses
benoob- VTA sniff around s.o., sniff them
bes- VTA to hit s.o. when shooting
bes NI stick, piece of wood
beskootee NI ear of corn
besnooo NI wooden plate
beso’o NI one’s butt
betebi NA old woman
betebihehiini- VAI to be an elderly woman
betebihehi’ NA little old lady
beteee- VAI to dance
beteen- VII to be holy, sacred
betooh- VTA to make s.o. dance
be3oowo’bee- VAI to look all around? [bee3-oow-obee ?]
be3o’oku- VAI to sit hard, to be laying hard on the ground (as snow)
be’ NI blood, bloot clot
be’eek NI blood pudding
be’eekei’i- VAI to make blood pudding
be’eihi- VAI to be red
be’einin- VII to be bloody
be’einootee- VII for there to be blood on the ground
be’e’ei- VAI to have red hair
be’nou’u NA red fox
bih’ih NA deer
bih’ihiinoseino’ NI deer meat
bih’inkuuton- VTA to turn out the lights for s.o., on s.o.
bih’inooyot- VII to appear dark
bih’inoo’oo- VII to be getting dark, to have gotten dark
bih’iyoo- VII to be dark (outside)
biibiiwoohu- VAI to be crying continually
biibinoot NI berries, fruits
biibise’eitee- VII the tops or heads of s.t. are poking out here and there
biicitii- VAI to bead s.t.; to sew s.t.?
biikousiis NA moon
biin- VTA to give s.t. to s.o.
biinee- VAI to have been given s.t., to be the recipient of s.t.
[hi]biineiton NI the one who gave him s.t. [< biin-]
biino NI chokecherries
biinohei- VAI to kick up dirt, kick the ground agressively, as a bull
biino3oon- VTA to load (a horse)
biisiwoo NI one of a ruminant’s stomachs; called “Bible” in Arapaho
biitei NA ghost
biiti’ PART by turns, one-by-one, “my turn”
biito’owu’ NI land, earth, ground
bii3hiin NI food supplies, things to eat
bii3i-[‘] VAI to eat s.t.
bii3ihi- VAI to eat
bii3ihiini- VAI to have things to eat, have food available
bii3oonoo- VII to be steep, to be a canyon
bii3oonoo’(o)b- VII to be steep land
bii3woohu- VAI to cook s.t. for oneself
bii3woot- VTI to cook s.t.
biiwoohu- VAI to cry
biixohko’ NA goat
biixohko’noo’ NA goat
biixuut NI shirt
bii’iih- VTA to find s.o.
bii’in- VTI to find s.t.
bis- PV all
bis- PV to appear, come into view
biscoboo’oo- VAI to come shooting into view
bisisee- VAI to appear, walk into view
bisisenin- VII to appear above the ground, stick up from below the ground (or ice)
bistoo’usee- VAI to come to a stop out in the open while walking
bixoo3- VTA to love s.o.
bi’- PV just
bobooteeneb- VTA to respect s.o.
bohootii- VAI to all camp (together)
boh’o’onoosoo- VII to be a thunderstorm
boobo’oteyoon- VII to be red hills, there are red hills there
boobo’ouut- VII to be red landforms, there are red landforms there
booo NI road
boo3- VTA to fight s.o.
boo3eti- VAI to box (“to fight”)
boo’oet NI boxing, fighting
ceb- VTA to shoot at s.o.
cebeenei’ten- VTI to carry s.t. on, pass it on, continue it, as a custom
cebe’ei- PV beyond, surpassing
cebe’einiihi’ ADV beyond that, more than
cebe’eini’oo- VII to be better than s.t. else
cebiisiiteniihi’ ADV on the right side
cebinoo’oo- VII water is flowing past
cebisee- VAI to walk, walk along
cebiseenoo- VII to happen, occur, go on
cebtee’eekuu- VAI to stand sideways
cec NI year
ceciin- VII to be winter
ceciiniin- VII to be winter
ceciito’on- VTA to greet s.o.
ceciixoniihi’ ADV winter-like
cecinsine- VAI to spend the winter at a place
ceebeh- PV don’t...
ceebih’ohuunoo’ NI a flying machine, anything which flies, such as planes, helicopters, etc
ceeceniini PV near and far
ceece3o’o PART happen quickly
ceece’ese3oo’oo- VAI to be burning with different colors, variegated, flashing colors
ceece’iseihi- VAI to be very different
ceece’isiini PV very different
ceece’iso’oo- VII to be very different
ceeciisiiten- VTA to surprise s.o., grab them by surprise
ceeneib- VII to be not attached to s.t., for a bush to have no berries on it [< cii + heeneib-]
ceenei3oowot- VTI to not believe things [< cii + hi3oowot]
ceeniini PV down, low
ceenoku- VAI to sit down
ceesei- PV alone
ceesey NA/NI one, another one
ceesih- VTA to get s.t., obtain s.t., bring s.t. for s.o.
ceesiton- VTA to get s.t. for s.o.
cee3- PV to do s.t. by accident, to happen to do s.t. by chance
ceexoon NA (obviative) the other one
ceeyow- PV keep on doing s.t.
cee’eyeino’oowu’ NI Ft. Washakie, WY (“rations house”)
cee’ini- VAI to be have been blessed, as through a gift
ceheekuut NI electricity
ceibciinen- VTI to put s.t.down and aside
ceibiihi’ ADV off to the side
ceibi’tou’u- VAI to toss s.o. aside
ceikon- VII to move in this direction as a band or tribe, collectively
ceitee- VAI to be coming this direction
ceitotousee- VAI to walk here while making a warning sound
cei3iihi’ ADV to here
cei3iikohei- VAI to ride in this direction, to here
cencei’soo- VII to be very different
cenis-[i’] VAI to fall straight down, from a place
ceni3- VTA to butcher game
ceno’oh- VTA to knock s.o. straight down, off a place
ceno’ohuuhu- VAI to be knocked straight down by s.o., to be knocked off a place
ceno’oo- VAI to jump
cese’eihii NA animal
cesis- PV to start, to begin to...
cesisihcehi- VAI to begin running; to run away or flee
cesisih’ohu- VAI to start to fly, to fly away
cesisiniibei’i- VAI to start to sing
cesisnoonoohowuuni PV beginning to come into view
ces3ou’see- VAI to start off traveling by wagon
ceteyoo- VII to be round and smooth
ceto’oo- VAI to die
ceto’owoo- VAI to trip and fall
ce3ei’oo- VAI to set off, start off, go away
ce3ixoh- VTA to take s.o. away
ce3kohei’i- VAI to leap up and run away
ce3ixotii- VAI to take s.t. away
ce3koohu- VAI to drive off, drive away, run off, run away
ce3i3e’eici3- VTA to lead a horse away from somewhere
ce’- PV back, again
ce’ceixotii- VAI to bring s.t. back here
ce’eeckoohu- VAI to return home
ce’eekutii- VAI to tie s.t. up in a bundle
ce’eenoo NI shoulder, shoulder blade
ce’ehbe’e3iisib- VTA to bend down and reveal one’s butt to someone
ce’eihi- VAI to be round, spherical
ce’ei’in- VTI to fill a container, to put s.t. in a container
ce’ei’inoo- VII to be packed, to be full (a container)
ce’eseihi- VAI to be different
ce’esiihi’ ADV differently
ce’esinoo’oo- VAI to suddenly and quickly become different, to change into s.t. else
ce’esnenitee[no’] NI (various) nations, peoples
ce’e3i’ PART outside
ce’e’eini- VAI to turn one’s head back around, to look back behind one
ce’iinee’iini PV turning back around
ce’iineihcehi- VAI to turn back around quickly
ce’iit- VTI to get scared of s.t. again
ce’iitoyei NI knee
ce’in- VTI to not know s.t.
ce’ini’ih- VTA to make s.o. well again
ce’ini’kuu3- VTA to make s.o. rapidly well again
ce’isee- VAI to come back, to return
ce’iskuu3oo NI movies, television (“makes (pictures) come back”)
ce’koheinoo- VII to be resurrected
ce’ko3ceineeneetoho’oe VAI to make a noise by pulling one’s hand back out of a place
ce’no’xoton- VTA to bring s.t. back for s.o.
ce’oxootii- VAI to camp differently, to camp apart from the group
ce’xoh- VTA to return s.o. to a place
cih- PV this direction, towards the speaker
cih’iinootii- VAI to graze
cih’ox- VTI to cut s.t. up in small pieces
cii- PV not
ciibeh- PV don’t!
ciibeh’ini PV don’t
ciin- PV to quit or stop doing s.t.
ciineec- VII to stop snowing
ciineni- VII to be placed down
ciineyoo NI vegetable, planted thing
ciineyoot NI gardening, planting things
ciini PV not, not happen, not succeed, nothing
ciini’iiniih- VTA to be unable to do anything to s.o., affect them
ciini’itoo- VAI to be up to no good, to do harm
ciini’oo- VII to be not good
ceniini’oo’ NI evil
ciinkuu3- VTA to let s.o. go, release them
ciinoo’on- PV fairly, pretty (big, etc)
ciinoo’onei’oo- VII to be pretty good sized
ciinout NI farming
ciintoo- VAI to quit doing s.t.
ciisibih- VTA to wear out or use up s.o.’s patience
ciisiini PV far, distant
ciisiniihi’ ADV far away
ciisiniihiihi’ ADV far downstream
ciistii- VAI to not do s.t.
ciitee[hinec] NI beer
ciitei- VAI to enter
ciitohuun- VII to be loaded (a gun)
ciitou’oubeihi- VAI to climax sexually, reach or have an orgasm
ciito’un- VTA to put s.t. into s.t.
cii3- PV to the inside, entering
cii3iihi’ ADV inside a close space
cii3oowot- VTI to not believe s.t.
cii3oowoton- VTA to not believe s.t.
cii3o’- PV never
ciixoku- VAI to sit or be located far away
ciixootee- VII to be situated far away
ciiyei’i- VAI to take a step
cisiini PV for some undetermined amount of time
ci’- PV also
cob- VTA to shoot s.o.
coh’oukutoo- VAI to tie one’s hair in a bundle [cooh’oukutoot = Navajo indian]
coo- VAI to come to a place
coocob- VTA to shoot game
coocoo’u3ei’i- VAI to keep bothering people, molesting them
cooco’oowu- VII to be lots of lakes or ponds in an area
cooco’oxet- VII to be clumps of brush scattered about
cooco’oxetiin- VII to be brushy
coon- PV to be unable to do s.t.
coonih- VTA to be unable to handle, manage s.t./s.o.
coonitete’inoneihiinoo- VII to be no longer able to be known, can’t attain knowledge of it
coonteb- VTA to be unable to overtake s.o.
coontow- VTA same as coonteb-
coo’uh- VTA to bother s.o.
coo’u3ei’i- VAI to bother people
cowohwoo- VAI to dance past a place or person
cowoo3itoon- VTA to translate for s.o.; to pass things (stories) on to s.o.
cowo’oo- VAI to get along in life, to get by, survive
cowo’ootiini’ VII “people get along in life, make a living, survive”
co’oekuu- VAI to stand scrunched up, in a ball
co’ooyeitii- VAI to make a pile, to pile things up or on s.t.
co’ooyei3-[i’] VAI to be laying piled up
co’oo’oen- VII to be brushy
co’oteyoo- VII to be a hill, “there is a hill”
co’ouut- VII to be high
co’ouu3ih’ohu- VAI to fly high, to a high place
co’ouu3oo- VII to be high
co’owoh’uune’etii- VAI to live again enjoyably, pleasurably
co’o’wuuteen- VII to be piled in a clumb, as earth or ashes
heebe3niicie NI a big river
hecesnenitee NA dwarf, midget, little person
hecexonoh’oe NA young man
hecexoo’oe’ NI small pistol
hece’eekuu- VAI to stand in the way, to obstruct s.o., to stand guard and prevent passage
hee PART yes
heebeh- PV you might, maybe you...
heebete3eenowoo- VAI to make a big fire for oneself
heebe3ibes NI big log or stick
heebe3ii’eihii NA eagle (“big bird”), especially golden eagle
heebe3kouhu’tinee- VAI to have a big crack in one’s butt
heebe3teh’ei- VAI to have a big stomach or belly
heecet PART before, while not yet
heecis- PV while...
heecisiini PV while...
heecisisee- VAI while s.o. is walking
heeckoohu- VAI to go home
heeco’oo- VAI to recover one’s strength, come to life again [perhaps should be heecoho’oo]
heeh- VAI to say
heehiisetii- VAI to wash things, rinse them out
[NOTE: heenei- derived from hii-]
heeneebe3ce’eihi- VAI to be very big and round
heeneecihi’woon- VTA to protect s.o. by using s.t.
heeneesih’i- VAI however they are called, all those who have names
heeneetoh- PV wherever
heeneetoo- VAI wherever s.o. is located
heenee3- PV from wherever
heenee3ei’nee- PV however much
heeneeyouhuuho NI all kinds of things, anything at all
heeneibiito’owuuwu- VAI to possess lands, private property
heeneiniihi- VAI to move all about nomadically
heeneiniito’eibeti- VAI to become friends with one another, to make peace, establish relations
heeneinoku- VAI to be lying all around, sitting all around
heeneinoo’ei- VAI to hunt all around
heeneinousee- VAI to be well under cover, in hiding
heeneis- PV how, the various ways how
heeneise’enouh- VTA to get s.o. all ready for s.t.
heeneise’enouheti- VAI to get oneself all ready for s.t.
heeneisibi- VAI to all lie down to go to bed, to lie down all around to go to bed
heeneisiiten- VTI to get hold of things, catch things, understand things (including language)
heeneisi3ecoo- VAI the things or ways one is thinking
heeneisko’os-[i’] VAI however or wherever s.o. fell to the ground
heeneite’einooxobei- VAI to lead horses (here)
heeneitouwu- VAI to have blankets
heeneito’oowuuni- VAI to possess houses
heenei3eton- VTA the things one heard
heeneiwo’owoo’oh- VTI to stir s.t. around, move it over with a poker or stick (a fire)
heeneixoowot- VTI to satisfy needs, to get enough of s.t.
heeneixo’osi’i3- VII to have been laid out to dry by someone, as berries
heeneiyoo3ko’ox- VTI to cut things out of s.t. cleanly, properly
heenei’isiihi’ ADV and so forth, etcetera
heenei’i3en- VTI to spread s.t.
heenei’oku- VAI up to where s.o. is located
heenesiiniih- VTA to go around hurting s.o. or various people
heenesiinii3ei- VAI to go around hurting people
heenesoohob- VTA to watch s.o. carefully
heeneti- VAI to speak
heeneti3- VTA to speak to s.o.
heene’in- TI to know all about things, to know lots of things
heene’inoneihi- VAI to be known about in detail, known well
heene’inoo’oo- VAI to get one’s wits back (after being unconscious, hit, etc)
heenoo PART as a rule, customarily, obligation
hees- PV how, what
heesiine’etii- NI someone’s culture (“how s.o. lives”)
heesi3ecoo- VAI what one is thinking
heesniinii3iyei- VAI what various things s.o. has, possesses, uses
heesnoo3oono NI the ones you are hungry for [< hesnoot- VTI to be hungry for s.t.]
heesoo- VII how s.t. is;
heesoo’ NI type, sort, kind
heestei’oo’ NI what is strong
heestoo- VAI what s.o. is doing
heet- PV FUTURE TENSE
heet- PV where
heetee- PV old days, before, traditional
heetee- VAI so it is you who are... (indicating discovery or suprise)
Note: this verb takes a subjunctive ending when animate and singular:
heeteehek nono’oteiht = ‘so you’re the one who is powerful’ (Two Sons)
heeteeneb- VTA to honor s.o.
heeteh- PV where
heeteihi- VAI where s.o. is from
heete(e)niih- VTA take care of, look after s.o.
heete3ein- VTA to collide with s.o., run into them
heete3einobee- VAI to hit a bump on the ground, as in driving
heetih- PV so that, in order that
heetni’bii3woohuutooninoo NI the things they are going to cook with
heetou- VII where s.t. is located
heetoxu- VAI how many there are of s.o., s.t.; all of those in some group or class
hee3- PV from a place
hee3- VTA to say to s.o.
hee3eb- PV there, over there
hee3ebiiten- VTA to steal s.t. from s.o.
hee3ebiikohei- VAI to ride over there
hee3ebko’un- VTI to pluck, pick, take a bit of s.t. over there
hee3eeniini PV why
hee3ei’nee- PV how much, how many
hee3ei’neeniihi’ ADV that much, to that extent
hee3ei’o’bee’ NI the world (“as far as the land extends”)
hee3eyoo’uu- VAI how s.o. is dressed (especially in formal, dressed-up style)
hee3e’eekuu- VAI the direction in which or towards which s.o. is standing
hee3e’eikoohu- VAI the direction in which or place to which one is driving
hee3e’einiine’etii- VAI the path that one’s life is following, the road of one’s life
hee3e’eitee- VII the direction which something faces, towards which it is facing
hee3itoo3ib- VTA to drag s.o. away from a place, out of a place
hee3nee- PV really, very, a lot
hee3ou3eih- VTA how s.o. educated s.o. else
heewoteisee- VAI to make clear, loud, plain noise as one walks
heeyei NA falcon, “swift hawk”
heeyeih- PV it is good that...
heeyou NI what?
heeyouhuu NI something, a thing
heeyow- PV each, every
Note: this preverb requires the use of the iterative suffix with the verb:
heeyow-eeto3einobee-nooni = ‘every time-be bounced by a bump in the road-I (iterative)’
(George Quiver Visits the Doctor)
heeyow-cowohwoo-ni3i = ‘every time-dance past-they (iterative)’ (Nih’oo3oo and Ducks)
heeyow-[w]o’owoku-3i = every time-scoot over-he (iterative)’ (Strong Bear and the Ghost)
heh- PV EMPHATIC
heihii PART soon
heihno’oxotoneiit NI the one he brought for you [< no’oxoton- VTA]
heiniistootiibin NI the things which we use, our possessions, our gear
heinoku- VAI to be sitting or lying somewhere, located somewhere
heinoo NA your mother
heinootee- VII to be lying somewhere, located or laid out somewhere
heisiihehinoo NA your grandchildren
heisonoo NA your father
hei’- PV up to a point, as far as it goes
hei’- PV when, once it has occurred
hei’iini PV when, once it has occurred
hei‘iibii3woohuutoonin NI the things we cook with
hei’tobee- VAI to say s.t.; to have been told s.t.
hei’towoot- VTI to tell s.t.
hei’towuun- VTA to tell s.o. s.t.
hei’towuunei’eetooninoo NI the things which they told us, said to us
heneecee NA buffalo bull
henetii- VAI to lose s.t.
hentoo-, heentoo- VAI to be at a place, to be present
hesiikooku- VAI to run fast
hesiini PV painful, hurting
hesiiniih- VTA to hurt s.o.
hesitee NI fire
hesitee- VII to be hot
hesnee- VAI to be hungry
hesnih- VTA to make s.o. angry
hesnoo- VAI to be hungry
hesnoot NI hunger, famine
hesnoot- VTI to be hungry for s.t.
het- PV in order to, for the purpose of, so that
het- PV you must to s.t., future command: do s.t. later!
heteb- VTA to overtake s.t. (game)
hetebinouhuuni- VAI to be poor, pitiful (“to wear poor clothing”)
heteinebeihi- VAI to be spending the night, to be laid down to spend the night
heteini- VAI to spend the night somewhere
heten- VTI to take s.t. out of s.t., from s.t.
heti’eis-[i’] VAI to fall and strike s.t. with one’s face or head
hetow- VTA to overtake s.t. (game) [same as heteb-]
he3 NA dog
he3ebceno’oo- VAI to jump to over there
he3ebiiheti’eis-[i’] VAI to fall and hit s.t. there with one’s face or head
he3ewoxow- VTA to give s.o. over there s.t.to eat [< hee3eb + howox]
heyei- PV almost, but not yet; approaching, but not there yet
heyoo- VII to be long
[hii]heyot- VII to be heavy
he’- PV uncertainty, “I wonder...” “I guess...”
he’ih’uu3e’ = he’ + nih + huu3e’ = ‘it was over there, I guess’ or ‘over there somewhere’
(Nih’oo3oo and Ducks)
Note: this preverb often is used with the iterative suffix on the verb:
ne’et-niistoo-nooni = ‘uncertain future-do-I (iterative)’ (Bear Satisfied)
toonhe’-ii3inoo’oo-3i = undefined uncertain-show up suddenly from a place-he (iterative)
= ‘he just suddenly showed up from somewhere or other’ (Nih’oo3oo and Butt)
Note: this preverb can also be used with non-affirmative suffixes:
he’-entoo-no’ = uncertain-be located-they = ‘maybe they’re located there’ (Splitting)
he’ih- PAST TENSE used in narratives, meaning ‘it is said to have happened’
Note: also occurs as he’ih’ii- = he’ih + nii-, meaning ‘it is said to have happened
regularly, it was happening’
he’ih’ii-tounowuu hiicetino = ‘they were holding their hands, they would be holding
their hands’ (Strong Bear Shakes Hands)
he’ii- PV uncertainty, “I wonder...” (see he’-)
he’iicxooyeiniihi’ ADV after a while
he’iisiini PV however, somehow, unclear how s.t. happens
he’iiteihi3i NA someone
he’iitneenini’i NI somewhere
he’iitnei’i NI somewhere
he’iitoo- VAI to be located in an uncertain or unknown place
he’iitou- VII to be located in an uncertain or unknown place
he’iitoxee- VII however many there are
he’iitoxuus PART several days
he’ii3- PV what sort? some sort, some kind
he’ii3inoo’oo3i VAI to appear suddenly from somewhere unknown, to just show up out of nowhere
he’ii3ou’u NI something
he’iiwoniistoo- VAI “I wonder what X is going to do”; to be going to do s.t. or other
he’in- VTI to know s.t.
he’inon- VTA to know s.o.
he’inootii- VAI to have one’s wits, be sane
he’ne’- PV then, so then, next
hibei’iisoowu- VAI to have a doll, to use s.t. as a doll
hibetebihow NA “his old lady”, his wife
hibi NA his older sister
hice’eenoo NI his shoulder
hicobo’o NI the one that he shot [< cob-]
hihcebee PART nearby
hihcebe’ PART above
hiheyeihi’- VAI to possess, have a home
neihoow-uuheyeihi’ = I not-have a home (White Man and the Fox)
hih’iixoohoo3ihei’eetooninoo NI the things which they showed us [hiixoohoo3ih-]
hii- VAI to say s.t.
hiicet NI his hand
hiicoo- VAI to smoke
hiicoonii- VAI to be a pipe, to be the Sacred Pipe
hiihei3-[i’] VAI to be heavy
hiiheyot- VII to be heavy
hiihoot-[e’] VAI to die, be dead [Note: third person iterative is hiihootenei’i, as if from
hiih’ehi- VAI to have a son
hiih’o NA his son
hiii- VAI to camp (individually)
hiii NI a campsite
hiii NA snow
hiiicoo NA pipe
hiikokoyoxoe[yoo] NI boxing ring (“square fenced area”)
hiikon NI lung
hiikoot PART also, too, in addition
hiinco’oocoeniihi’ ADV over and over
hiineesee- VAI to turn back around when walking
hiineihcehi- VAI to turn around quickly
hiine3oon PART instead
hiine’etii- VAI to live
hiine’etiit NI life; way of living, culture
hiine’etiiwoohu- VAI to make a living, earn a living
hiinih’ohuukoohu- VAI to fly all around very quickly, to dart around in flight
hiinisee- VAI to wander around on foot
hiinoono’et- VII to be cloudy
hiinoo’ei- VAI to hunt
hiinousee- VAI to be in hiding, under cover
hiintohoe’e- VAI to get one’s arms/hands back around behind one
hiinwo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along in a wandering fashion
hiis- PV already, finished
heniis-ehtonihe3en = ‘I have tricked you now’ (White Man and Fox)
hiis- PV how
hiis- VTA to be afraid of s.o.
hiiseteen- VII to be ready to eat (ripe, cooked)
hiise’enou- VAI to be ready
hiise’enouh- VTA to get s.o. ready
hiise’enouheihi- VAI to have been gotten ready
hiisi- VAI to be married
hiisibi- VAI to go to bed
hiisibihcehi- VAI to plop oneself down, go to bed quickly
hiisiin- VII to be daytime
hiisiini’etii- VAI to be tame, gentle, friendly
hiisiiten- VTI to grab, catch s.t.; to understand s.t., (language, for ex.)
hiisini’oo’ NI the good, the positive
hiisi’ih’- VTA to raise a child
hiisoo- VII how it is
hiit PART here
hiitcebisee- VAI to walk here; to walk through a place to here
hiiteen NI tribe
hiite’eici3- VTA to lead a horse here
hiitonciinen- VTI to put s.t. down on both sides of s.t.
hiitoniihi’ ADV on both sides, at both ends
hiitoo3noohootiini’ NI telescope (‘one sees things close by with it’)
hiitouk PART well sure enough! just like they said!
hiitox- PV how many
hiitoxcecnibee- VAI how old s.o. is
ne’nih’iitox-cecnibeet = ‘that’s how many-years she had’ (“that’s how old she was”)
(Women in the Park)
hii3- PV from a place
hii3- TA to say to s.o.
hii3e- VAI to be heavy
hii3ee- PV why
hii3einoon NA buffalo
hii3ei’nee- PV how much, how many, to what extent or degree
hii3e’ PART there, from there
hii3e’inon- VTA the source from which one knows about s.o.
hii3iihi’ ADV from there
hii3iton- PV more, additional
hii3itoniini PV more, additional
hii3o’xuuheti- VAI to manage to get oneself away from a place
hiiwo’ PART hey!, gee!, unexpected occurrence or fact
hiix- VTA to be scared of s.o.
hiixokeee- VAI to have already crossed a river (usually by wading)
hiixoke’i- VAI to have alreaded crossed a river
hiixoohoo3ih- VTA to teach s.o. s.t., to show s.o. s.t.
hiixookuh- VTA to fill s.t., as a pipe
hiixoowot- VTI to satisfy a need, to get enough of s.t.
hiixoowoton- VTA to satisfy s.o., fulfill their needs
hiixoowusee- VAI to have completed getting down from a car or horse
hiixoo’otii- VAI to dry s.t., by laying it in the sun
hiixouuhu- VAI to have succeeded in climbing, to have climbed to the top
hiixoxonee- VAI to be full, loaded
hiiyoh- PV truly, really, perfectly
hiiyohoo3inoo’oo- VAI to disappear suddenly, vanish into thin air
hiiyohou’(u)n- VII to be nothing, to vanish, to not exist [c.f. yohou’usee-]
hiiyoo3itii- VAI to clean s.t., keep it clean, polish it
hiiyo’otii- VAI to quarrel, argue
hii’ee- PV clearly, plainly (heard, seen, etc)
hikooo NI his back
hinee PART that
hinen NA man
hinenihiinoseino’ NI moose meat
hineniini- VAI to be a man, to be manly
hinenitee NA person
hinenteeni- VAI to become a person (when formerly an animal)
hiniicito NI his teeth
hiniihei’i NA her parents
hiniine’etiiwooon NA the one with whom he lived [< hiine’etiib-]
hiniiniinii3iyooninoo NI their possessions, the things they keep
hiniiniinsi- VAI to possess, have a horn (as a part of one’s body)
hiniisiihoho NA his/her grandchildren
hiniisonoon NA his father
hiniito’ei NA his relative
hinii3oonin NA his penis
hinit PART right there
hini’ PART that
hinono’ei NA Arapaho
hinono’eitiit NI Arapaho language
hinowoho’oe- VAI to put one’s hand out of sight
hinowunoo’oo- VII to have disappeared from sight quickly
hisei NA woman
hiseihihi’ NA young woman, girl
hiteehib NA strawberry
hitei’towo’o NI what he says, teaches, tells people [< hei’tobee-]
hiten- VTI to take s.t.
hiteneixonowo NI their clothes [< heneixono ‘things worn’]
hitenowuun- VTA to take s.t. for s.o., to take s.t. from s.o.
hitesii NA Cheyenne indian
hitesitee NI his fire [< hesitee]
hitet- VTI to reach/get to a place, to get s.t.
hiteteihi- VAI to have gotten s.t.
hiteteihiit NI the thing s.o. has received
hitiicoono NI his ribs
hitohko’o’ NI his chin
hitohoen- VTA to take s.o.’s hand
hitonihi’ NA his horse, his pet
hitonih’i- VAI to have a horse, a pet
hitookuhu’ee NI his head [< hookuhu’ee]
hitoono NA his daughter
hitoonohu- VAI to have a daughter
hitooxniitouuhu- VAI to call or holler out from behind s.o.; to holler out last (in a series)
hitoseinouwu- VAI to possess meat
hitoseino’ NI his meat [< ‘hoseino’]
hitouunen NA Gros Ventre indian
hito’uuwono NI his jerked meat [< ho’uuwono]
hi3- PV later
hi3eihi- VAI to be good
hi3et- VII to be good
hi3etin- VII to be good
hee3nee-noonoxon-ii3etin-i’i = very/really-extremely-good-they = “they are really
extremely good” (Women in the Park)
hi3e’ex NA his son-in-law
hi3kuu3- VTA to grab, seize
hi3oobei- VAI to be correct, right, to speak the truth
hi3oobe’ PART below, underneath
hi3oowot- VTI to believe s.t.
hi3oowoton- VTA to believe s.o.
hi3ou’oo- VII to be evening
hiwoxuu NA elk
hiwoxuunoseino’ NI elk meat
hix NI bone
hixoh- VTA to take s.o.
hiyeihi’ NI his home, lodge
hiyeih’i- VAI to have a home, lodge
hiyoon NA his brother-in-law
hi’- PV INSTRUMENTAL, with this, because of this, thanks to this, about this, from this
Note: often appears as -i’
nii-ni’-hei’towuun-o’ = continuing-about it-tell her-I/her =
“I keep on telling her about it” (Women in the Park)
hi’i NA snow
hi’iihi’ ADV INSTRUMENTAL by, because of, by means of
hi’in PART that, that one
hi’isiinis-[i’] VAI to lay or sleep warmly in the cold
hohe’ NI mountain
hohkonee PART finally
hohoot NA tree
hoho’noo3ehe’ NI a little hatchet or axe
hoh’eni’ NI in the mountains
hokeee- VAI to cross a river
hokok NI soup, stew
hokoo3inoo’oo- VAI to change shape or form (suddenly) [same as following]
hokooxunoo’oo- VAI to change shape or form (suddenly) [same as preceding]
honinoo’oo- VAI to fall over quickly from a standing position
honoh’oe NA young man
honoh’oehi’ NA very young man, boy
honoh’oehihi’ NA very young man, boy
hononcitii- VAI to handle s.t. carefully, protect it by holding it
hononih- VTA to protect and take care of s.o.
honoot PART until
honoyei- VAI to put down liners, protection [honoyeih-owoo?]
hoocei’in- VTI to stretch s.t. out (to dry for ex.)
hookoh PART because
hookootii- VAI to take s.t. home with one
hookoo3- VTA to take s.o. to one’s home
hookoo3ei- VAI to bring home meat
hoonii PART after a long time
hoonooten- VTI to hook s.t. up to s.t.
hoonoo3oo’o’ NI/NA all the others
hoonowooyeiti- VAI to pray for, about things
hoonowoo’oo- VAI to pray about things
hoonoxow- VTA to feed regularly
hoonoyoohoot- VTI to watch out for s.t.
hoonoyoohootowoo- VAI to watch out for oneself
hoonoyoohob- VTA to watch out for s.o.
hoono’ PART not yet, before
hootii- VAI to camp (as a group)
hoo3itee- VAI to tell a story
hoo3itoo NI story
hoo3itoon- VTA to tell a story to someone
hoo3itoot- VTI to tell a story about s.t.
hoo3onci3- VTA to fail to manipulate s.o., handle s.o.
hoo3oniini PV fail
hoo3ontii- VAI to fail to do s.t.
hoo3ontoo- VAI to fail to do s.t.
hoo3oo’o’ NI/NA others
hoow- PV not
hoowoh- PV lots, plenty
hoowoh’oe PART wait!
hoowooh- PV no longer, not any more
hoowooh’ini PV no longer, not any more
hoowoonoosoo’oo- VAI to come tumbling downwards, out of control
hoowuh- PV too, excessively
hoowuh’ohuukoohu- VAI to swoop down, fly down quickly
hoowuniihiihi’ ADV downstream
hoowuniihisee- VAI to walk downstream, alongside the stream to the east
hoowuniihkoohu- VAI to run downstream
hoowusee- VAI to walk downwards
hoowuuhu’ ADV no, not
hoowuuni PV no, not
hoowuus- PV not already, not done [< hoow + hiis]
hoowuus- VTA not afraid of s.o. [< hoow + hiis]
hooxeb NI a spring
hooxoeheti- VAI to laugh to oneself
hooxohoen- VTA to pay s.o. back, get vengeance
hooxono’o NI Riverton, WY (“over the river”)
hooxoo3- VTA to laugh at s.o.
hooxuu3iiw NI bridge
hooxuuxonoo’oo- VAI to dry s.t. [c.f. 3ooxuuxonoo’oo- ]??
hooxuuxotii- VAI to carry s.t. across s.t.
hooxuuxoton- VTA to carry s.t. across s.t. for s.o.
hooyei PART most
hoseino’ NI meat
hoseitisee- VAI to walk back, to walk backwards
hosei3iihi’ ADV old times, former times left behind
hotii NA wagon, car, wheel; the Sacred Wheel
hotitoo3ib- VTA to drag s.o./s.t. out of a place
hotoob-[e’] VAI to eat s.t. up, consume it
hotonih’in NA our horses; our pets or domestic animals
ho3 NI arrow
ho3es PART in plain sight, in the open
ho3iiw NI boat
ho3i’eebee- VAI to have been asked to do s.t. for s.o.
ho3o’uunesitee NA charcoal, coal
ho3ton- VTA to pay s.o. back, get vengeance on them
hou NI blanket
hou3etii- VAI to set s.t. out
hou3e3ei’i- VAI to set a fishing line [houu3- ?]
houu NA Crow tribe
houunen NA Crow Indian man
houunenitee NA Crow Indian
houunoneenoo- VAI to be difficult
houu3-[i’] VAI to be hanging; to be X moon or time of year
Note: In Arapaho, one says “September is hanging,” meaning “the September moon
is hanging” in order to say “it is September” (The Women in the Park)
howoh- PV with pleasure, enjoyably
howoo PART also
howoo3itoo- VAI to enjoy s.t., do s.t. for fun
howoto’oo- VAI to wake up
howouun- VTI to have sympathy for s.t., be in sympathy with it
howouunon- VTA to have mercy or pity on s.o.
how3o’uuni PV never
hoxob- VTA to feed s.o.
hoxtoono’ NI cliff, excavated area in a bank, overhanging area
hoxtoono’uun- VII to be cliffs, for there to be cliffs in an area, “there is a cliff”
ho’(o)nookee NA rock
ho’wohoe’e- VAI to close one’s hand
hunit PART right there (same as hinit)
huut PART here
huutiino PART around here
huu3e’ PART there, over there
huuwoonhehe’ PART today, now
kocoo’o3ih- VTA to kill s.o.
koe’sohoe’e- VAI to clap one’s hands
koe’tees- VII to go off, explode (as a bullet)
koheisihcehi- VAI to leap up suddenly
kohei’i- VAI to stand up, get up
kohk- PV through a hole or passageway; through a ceremony or experience
kohkno’oehi- VAI to go outside through s.t. (such as an opening)
kohtobetouuhu- VAI to holler out strangely, call out strangely, make a funny noise
kohtowuh- VTA to harm s.o.
kohtowuuni PV funny, strange, unusual, harmful
kohooxoe- VII to be burning
kohooxoen- VII to be burning
koh’ei- PV quite a few
koh’usetii- VAI to break or crack s.t. in half
koh’ux- VTI to cut s.t. open, cut it in half
kokoh’oeneet- VTI to think about s.t.
kokuy NI gun
kokuyoono3 NI bullet
konoh- PV everything, completely, entirely
konoo’ PART anyway
konou’u’ei- VAI to have a wrinkly face ???
konow- PV while, during, as s.t. else is going on, as s.t. is in the process of happening
konowunootee- VII while s.t. is burning, as it is in the process of burning
kookoh’unoo’oo- VII to crack apart in all directions
kookokoh’uut- VTA to examine s.o.
kookon PART for no reason, without purpose, just to be doing s.t., just anything
kookoonooku- VAI to open one’s eyes
kookoo’uhcehi- VAI to ejaculate
kookoseinoon- VII to be/make crackling sounds, popping sounds
kookou’(u)neihii PART please (used in prayers)
kooko’ox- VTI to cut things out of s.t., as entrails out of an animal
kooko’uyei- VAI to pick various kinds of berries, gather berries
kookuyon PART for no reason, for just any reason or purpose, just anything
koonoku- VAI to open one’s eye(s)
kootee- VII to be burning (a fire)
koox- PV yet again, once more
koo’oeniihi’ ADV slowly and carefully
koo’oeniini PV slowly and carefully
koo’oh NA coyote
koseineekuutii- VAI to make a snapping or clicking sound
koseinoonin- VII to make a clicking sound, for there to be a clicking sound
kotous-[i’] VAI to be covered, as by a blanket; to be covered by clouds (moon)
kotousine- VAI same as kotous-[i’]
kotousihcehi- VAI to jump under cover, duck into cover
kotoyus- VII to drip down from s.t.
ko3einiihi’ ADV old
ko3oo3- VTA to miss s.o., as in shooting
kounooho’ohei- VAI to stir a mixture, to prepare for making gravy
koxcei’i- VAI to be fat, plump
koxcis- VII to be mired, stuck in mud or sand
koxoh- VTI to dig s.t. up, as a root for food or medicine
koxo’- PV slowly
koxo’nootee[n]- VII to burn slowly
kox3iihi’ ADV on the other side, over the hill
koxu3kuu3- VTA to place s.o. over s.t., so that they extend over to the other side
koxuutenih- VTA to catch s.o. off guard, do s.t. suddenly to s.o.
koxuuteniini PV suddenly
koxuuton PART suddenly
ko’eiciibe’e- VAI to meet in a circle, such as in smoking, telling stories, etc.
ko’einoon- VII to be round
ko’einoxoeyoo NI corral, fenced circular area
ko’eino’ohtoo NI tire, rim (of wooden wheel)
ko’ohowuun- VTA to take, cut, or remove s.t. for s.o.
ko’os-[i’] VAI to fall to the ground, hit the ground
ko’sine- VAI to fall to the ground, land on the ground
ko’xohei’i- VAI to cause lightning and thunder (the Thunderbird); rumbling of thunder
ko’xootowoo- VAI to clear one’s throat
ko’uyei- VAI to gather or pluck berries
nebesiibehe’ NA my grandfather
nebesiiwoho’ NA my grandfathers
nebi NA my older sister
nebihceheinosohoe’e- VAI to make a quick movement as if to clap one’s hands
nebihcehi- VAI to make a quick movement as if to do s.t.
nec NI water
nec-[e’] VAI to die
necesiihi’ ADV a little [< heces-]
neebeh- PV I might...
neec- PV for a while
neecee NA chief
neeceentoo- VAI to remain somewhere for a short time
neeciini PV for a while
neecisee- VAI to go on along
neeckoohu- VAI to go home; to go to heaven
neeckuutii- VAI to get s.t. started, get it going
neehebehe’ NA brother-in-law
neehii3ei’ PART the middle, in the middle
[NOTE: neenei- derived from hii-]
neeneh- PV let it be, leave it alone
neenehiini PV let it be, leave it alone
neeneh’eihiinoo- VII for things to have been killed, to have been killed
neeneicxooyei’oo- VII how far along the time of year is, what season it is
neeneinootee- VII to be arranged, laid or sat out all around
neeneinowus[i’] VAI to have gone out of sight
neeneis- PV how
neeneisih’- VTA to name s.o.
neeneisih’i- VAI how s.o. is named, called (habitually)
neeneisinihiitoono’ VII “the things that people are saying”
neeneitohboo3eti3i’ niiyou hee3ei’o’bee’ NI world war (“where they fought all over the world”)
neenei3oo3itoon- VTA the stories that s.o. tells to s.o. (habitually)
neenei’towuun- VTA to say things to s.o. (habitually)
neeneno’oo- VII to be dying away, dying off, approaching death, endangered (language)
neene’ee- VAI here is...
neenih’owuuni PV too far, push things too far, try too much
neenii3nowoo- VAI to have things for oneself, own them
neenonih- VTA to murder s.o., kill s.o.
neenoniseenoo- VII to have vanished, disappeared, died off
neenono’oo- VAI to vanish, disappear, die off
neenou- VAI to get prepared for s.t., to do s.t.
neenout- VTI to get s.t. prepared, ready
neeno’xoton- VTA to keep bringing s.t. for s.o.
nees- PV behind, remaining behind
neesco’oowusee- VAI to walk and leave a puddle (of blood) behind one
neeseh’e NA my older brother
neeseinootee- VII to be left laying behind
neesiini PV behind, remaining behind
neesi’owoo- VAI to be the third one
neetehee3ei- VAI to take off one’s clothes
neetineih- VTA to scare s.o. to death, to scare them and cause them to faint
neetinoo’oo- VAI to be getting tired
neetitoo3ib- VTA to drag s.o. completely out of a place
neetokooyei- VAI to die of thirst
neeton- VTA to kill s.o. for s.o. else; to kill s.o. as a way of hurting s.o. else
neeto3-[i’] VAI to freeze to death
nee3nee- PV really, very, a lot
neeyou PART there it is
nee’ee PART wait! (woman speaking)
nee’eeneestoo- VAI to do just like that
nee’eeneete’in- VTI “thoses are the sources from which they knew things”
nee’eeneetoxunihii- VAI to have said enough about things
nee’eenee3oxuuheti- VAI “those are the reasons why you have brought yourself here”
nee’ees- PV thus, like that
nee’eesih’- VTA that’s what s.o. calls s.o. else
nee’eesis- VII to end in that way
nee’eesixoh- VTA to take s.o. like that (to that place, or to do that thing)
nee’eesoo- VAI to be thus, to be like this, like that
nee’eestoo- VAI to do that, like that
nee’eet- PV that’s where
nee’eetoo- VAI that’s where s.o. is located
nee’eetoxee- VII to be enough
nee’ee3iniih- VTA that’s how s.o. scared s.o. else into fainting or to death
nee’ee3sohowuun- VTA to make a certain sign or gesture to s.o., as with sign language
neh- PV away from here (where the speaker is)
Note: often occurs as -eh:
ne’nii’eh-ceibi’tou’ut = ne’ + nii’ + neh- = ‘that’s when away from him-he tossed them aside’ (Nih’oo3oo and Ducks)
heetneh’e3eb-ceno’oot = heet + neh + he3eb- = ‘he will from where he is to over there-
jump’ (Jumping the Canyon)
hee3ebeh-no’koohut = hee3eb + neh- = ‘there away from where he started-he arrived by running’ (Jumping Canyon)
ne’eh-ce’ii3o’kuuhetit = ne’ + neh- = ‘then from there-he got himself back to where
he started from’ (Jumping Canyon) [xuuheti ??]
ne’eh-ciiteinoo = ne’ + neh- = ‘then I went in there from outside’ (George Quiver Visits
nehe’ PART this
nehtonih- VTA to trick s.o.
nehyonih- VTA to check up on s.o., check s.o. out
neh’- VTA to kill s.o.
neh’ehei- VAI to kill s.t. [same as neh’ei’i-]
neh’ei’i- VAI to kill s.t. [same as neh’ehei-]
neh’i- VAI to be three
nei- PV could (if)..., would (if), potentially
neih- PV could have (if), would have, potentially (past)
neih- VTA to frighten s.o.
neihoow- PV not
neih’kuu3- VTA to kill s.t. on a hunt
neii NI sand
neii’iine’ LOC “in the sand”
neini’einei- VAI to be dizzy, get dizzy
neini’iice3oono NI the ones I like the taste of [< ni’iicet- VTI to like to eat s.t., like the taste of it]
neinoo NA my mother
neisiini PV how (same as niisiini)
neisonoo NA my father
neitooto’oneitooninoo NA the one who lives real close to us, right nearby us (< tooto’on-)
neito’ei NA my relative, my tribesperson
nei3ecoo- VAI to be of a frightened mind, have frightened thoughts, be frightened
neiwoo NA grandmother!
neixoo NA father!
nei’eihi- VAI to hold on to s.t. (metaphorically), remain attached to it
nei’en- VTA to hold s.o. tightly
nei’iin- VII to be stuck tight
nei’iitibi- VAI to hold on tightly to s.t.
nei’i’i’otou3enee- VAI to be stuck tight someplace
nei’oohob- VTA to look at s.o.
nei’oohoot- VTI to look at s.t.
nei’ooku’oo- VAI to look at s.t.
nei’towuun- VTA to be telling s.o. s.t. habitually, or over and over, keep telling them
nenebiihi’ ADV in the north
neneebeeniini PV taboo
neneenin NA you, you are the one who..., it is you who...
neneenini’ NI it
neneeninoo NA I, I am the one who..., it is I who...
neneenino’ NA we, us
nenee’ NI it
nenee’i’iihi’ ADV at least
neniniixoo3- VTA to shake s.o.’s hand
neniniixouhu- VAI to shake hands with s.o.
nenitee NA person
neteenetiit NI my language [< heenetiit]
netineniteewo’ NA my people, my tribespeople [< hinenitee]
ne3it NI my butt
neyei- PV to try to...
neyeisiini PV separating from each other
neyeiso’oo- VAI to get separated from one another
neyeitii- VAI to try to do s.t.; to learn s.t.
neyei3eih- VTA to teach s.o. s.t.
neyei3eitee- VII to be taught, promoted
neyei3ih- VTA to challenge s.o., try s.o. out, test them
neyei3itoo- VAI to try s.t., to try to do s.t.
neyo’o NA my brother-in-law
ne’- PV then, next
ne’- PV that...
ne’nih’iis- “that was how...”
ne’nih’iit- “that was where...”
heetne’niis- “that will be how..., that is how X will...”
heetne’niit- “that will be where... that is where X will...”
ne’niis- “that is how...”
ne’eeneis- “those are the ways how...”
nih’et- PV was supposed to, was going to but didn’t
nihii- VAI to say s.t.
nihii PART well...
nihi’koohu- VAI to run, to run fast
nihi’kuutii- VAI to pull the trigger of a gun, shoot a gun
nihi’nee- PV a lot, greatly
nihi’neenoo’oo- VII to be flowing swiftly (water)
nihkuu3- VTA to rub s.o.’s genitals, manually stimulate them
nihoonkoo- VII to be September (“the leaves are yellow”)
nih’onii- VAI to try hard, persist
nih’oniitowoo- VAI to try hard at s.t.
nih’oo3oo NA white man
nih’oo3ounec NI whiskey
nih’oo3oune’iyei- VAI to know things in a white man way
nih’oo3ouniini PV white culture, ways, people
nih’oo3ousei NA white woman
nih’oo3ouyeiti- VAI to speak English
nih’oo3ouyeitiit NI English language
nii- PV indicates regular or habitual action
nii- VAI to say s.t. habitually
niibe- VAI to take s.t. along with one, have s.t. with one
niibei’i- VAI to sing
niiboon- VTA to sing for s.o.
niicii NI river
niiciihiinen NA Kiowa indian (“river person”)
niihen- PV for oneself, by oneself, on one’s own
niiheniihi’ ADV by myself, on my own
niiheyoo PART on one’s own
niine’ee- VAI here is....
niiinon NI tepee
niinen NI tallow, fat
niinih’ohuunoo’ NI airplane (“it flies”)
niinono’eiti- VAI to speak Arapaho habitually
niinooxoo NI tripe
niinou’oo’ hinee heeteci’ NI ocean liner (“it floats on the ocean”)
niinwo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along in a wandering fashion, habitually, as nomads
niis- PV how (habitually)
niisee- VII to be two
niiseekuu- VAI to get married (“to stand as two”)
niisehtoneihi- AI to be clever, to be tricky
niiseihi- VAI to be one
niisen- VTI to wrap s.t.
niiset- VII to be one
niisi- VAI to be two
niisie NA grandchild
niisihee- VAI how s.o. is habitually treated
niisihi- VII to be made (habitually, regularly)
niisih’ee- VAI to be called a name (habitually)
niisih’iit NI name
niisiini PV how
niisinen- VII to be wrapped in s.t., enveloped in s.t.
niisis- VII to be wrapped
niisisee- VAI how one (habitually) gets by, makes it through (life, hard times, etc)
niisi3ei’i- VAI to work
niisi3oo NI work, working, a job
niisiyoo3oo NI bag, wrapper
niisnenii- VAI to be alone
niisootii- VAI to camp alone
niisootoxee- VII to be seven
niisootoxuuus NI seven days
niiso’ PV together, as a pair
niistii- VAI to do s.t., to make s.t.
niiston- VTA to work for s.o.
niistoo- VAI to do
niit- PV where
niiteekuuw- VTA to stand as one, stand united
niiteheib- VTA to help s.o.
niitei’eekuu- VAI to stand in line, in a row
niiten- VTA to kiss s.o.
niiteneti- VAI to kiss each other
niitiine3eiheti3i’ NI boxing ring (“where they knock each other around”)
niitisee- VAI where s.o.is walking
niitobee- VAI to hear news, information
niitobeekuu- VAI to be the best, be the champion (“to stand first”)
niitoh- PV where
niiton- VTA to hear s.o.
niitoo- VAI where s.o. is located
niitootosoo’ NI sixty
niitoukutooxowootiini’ NI hitching post (“where people tie up horses”)
niitouuhu- VAI to holler, cry out, call out
niitowoot- VTI to hear s.t.
niito’- PV first
niito’iini PV first
nii3- VTA to say to s.o. habitually, repeatedly [see hii3-]
nii3- PV with s.o. else
nii3in- VTI to have s.t.
nii3iyei- VAI to have things
nii3iyoo NI the thing one has, possesses, uses, one’s “material culture”
nii3oon- VTA to accompany s.o.
nii3ootee’eeni- VAI to be braided, wound
nii3oo3itee- VAI how s.o. habitually tells a story
nii3wo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along with s.o. else
niiwohoe NI flag
niiwoho’on- VTI to carry s.t., have it with you [same as niiwoh’un]
niiwoho’on- VTA to carry s.t. along with one, as a pipe
niiwoh’un- VTI to carry s.t., have it with you [same as niiwoho’on]
niiwookoxon- VTA to give s.o. food to carry along on a trip, supply them with provisions
niixoo PART too, also
niiyou PART here it is
nii’- PV when
nii’eihii NA bird; eagle
nii’eikuu3- VTA to throw s.t. in s.o.’s face [niih’eikuu3- ?]
nii’e’ee PART for sure, surely, plainly, it’s plain to see
nisice NA antelope
nisicehiinoseino’ NI antelope meat
nisih’oxonee- VAI to have brown skin
ni’- PV to be able to do s.t.
ni’ec NI lake
ni’eeneb- VTA to like s.o.
ni’eenii- VAI to manage to do s.t., succeed in doing s.t.
ni’iicet- VTI to like to eat s.t., to like the taste of s.t.
ni’iini PV good, be good
ni’iit- VTI to call s.t. X
ni’iitoo3noohootiini’ NI telescope (‘one sees things as if close by with it’)
ni’ii3- VTA to call s.o. X
ni’itii- VAI to do good
ni’i’(o)h’- VTA to raise animals, livestock
ni’obee- VAI to agree with people
nii’obee3i’ = I agree with them (?)
ni’oo- VII to be good
ni’otobee- VAI to hear well
ni’o3inoo’oo- VII to be freezing up
ni’owoo3- VTA to agree with s.o.
NOTE: respective roles are the reverse of English
nii’owoo3e3en = you agree with me (NOT ‘I agree with you’)
nii’owoo3in = I agree with you (NOT ‘you agree with me’)
noehi- VAI to go outside
noh PART and
nohco’oo- VAI to participate, take part in s.t.
nohk- PV with
nohkcebii’oo- VAI to be created with s.t., having s.t. special
nohkou3etii- VAI to add s.t. to a stew, for ex. [to hang things with other things?]
nohkuh’ebi- VAI to drink s.t. with s.t. else, some other food
nohkuseic PART in the morning
nohkuusiii’oo- VAI to grow up with s.t., accompanied by it
nohokoo3oo- VII to be bitterly cold outside
noho’koohu- VAI to run uphill
noho’kosot- VII to appear shiny
noho’ou’uhu- VAI to climb upwards
noho’usee- VAI to walk uphill
noho’uuhu’ ADV uphill
nohuusoho’ PART that’s how it is, that’s it
noh’- VTA to kill s.o.
noh’eisisib- VTA to scatter s.o., s.t. [noh’eisib- ?]
noh’en- VTI to lift s.t.
noh’oe3ee- VII to be shining (moon), lit, visible
noh’ookenen- VII to be light (in the morning), to be dawn
noh’oowuhcehi- VAI to make
a flapping motion, as with arms
noh’uhcesine- VAI to slip and fall; to be bounced
noh’uusiiyoo- VII to be illuminated, as by moonlight
nokohu- VAI to sleep
nokooyei- VAI to fast as part of a vision quest
nokooyeisibeti- VAI to set oneself down or “install” oneself at a fasting site
noko3ton- VTA to imitate s.o.
nonoukooku- VAI to run while bent over, crouched over
nonousee- VAI to walk bent over, hunched or crouched over
nono’ei NA Arapaho person
non3enouuhu- VAI to make a bizarre, crazy, or unnatural noise, call out in that way
noobe’einiihi’ ADV in a southerly direction, downstream
noobe’eisee- VAI to go in a southerly direction
noohob- VTA to see s.o.
noohobeihi- VAI to be seen by s.o.
noohoot- VTI to see s.t.
noohoo3ei- VAI to see things
noohowkuu3- VTA to catch a glimpse of s.o., see them suddenly
nookbei’ci3e’ NI silver (“white metal”)
nookeihi- VAI to be white
nooken- VII to be dawn, to be day again
nookenen- VII to be dawn, to be day again
nookoni’isiins[i’] VAI to sleep warmly all night long
nookoohuuh- VTA to ride a horse back home [< hookoo-]
nookoo3iihi’ ADV off to the side
nookoo3in- VAI to stay off to the side [?]
nooko3onii’eihii NA golden eagle (“white rumped bird”)
nookoxonee- VAI to have white skin
nooko’wuutee- VII to be white ground, a white mark or streak in the ground
nookuhnen NA Plains Cree indian
noonoh’- VTA to kill things (game)
noonokohuutooni’ “it is bedtime, everyone is asleep”
noonoko’ PART might as well, what the heck, give it a shot
noononoo’oo- VAI to soar in circles
noonoote’eih- VTA to beat s.o. on the head
noonoo3itoohu- VAI to habitually tell stories for oneself (and others), to be telling stories
to entertain oneself and others
noonoo’oexooten- VTA to walk all around s.o.
noonotiih- VTA to look all around for s.o.
noonotnoohob- VTA to look all around trying to see s.o.
noonotnoo’eini- VAI to be looking here and there, all around
noonotoow- VTA to consume s.t. [< hotoob-]
noonoxon- PV extremely
noonoxon3o’oen- VTI to crush s.t. brutally, cruelly, without mercy
noonoyei- VAI to go fishing
noono’out- VII for storm clouds to arrive
noono’unoo’oo- VII to be flooding, when the high waters of spring arrive
nootii- VAI to camp habitually
nootii- VAI to save things up [should be neyeinootii- ?]
nootneihi NA Sioux indian
noo3- VTA to fetch, get; steal [sometimes pronounced no3-]
noo3ee- VAI to be left behind, unloaded and dumped
noowou’oo- VII to float downstream
noowuuhu’ ADV south, in the south
noowuunono’ei NA Southern Arapaho (“south Arapaho”)
noowuutesii NA Southern Cheyenne (“south Cheyenne”)
nooxebi’ NA those who live at the spring [< hooxeb]
nooxeihi’ PART maybe, perhaps
nooxoh- VTI to dig for s.t.
nooxohei- VAI to dig for s.t.
noo’einowuun- VTA to drive s.t. someplace, to drive for them
noo’oebeebenoob- VTA to sniff all around s.o.
noo’oeeniihi’ ADV around
noo’oekuh’ohuuton- VTA to fly around s.o.
noo’oexooten- TA walk around s.o.
noo’oeyei’i- VAI to take the edible entrails out of an animal
noo’oeyoo NI the edible entrails of game
noo’ooh- VTA to slaughter s.o., kill s.t. in hunting
noo’ootii- VAI to fritter s.t. away, waste it, “to make nothing out of something”
noo’ouhu- VAI to lack for things
nosou- PV still, continuing
nosouseenoo- VII to survive, keep going
notiih- VTA to look for s.o., s.t.
notinoo3- VTA to sneak up on s.o.
notio’n- VTA to search for s.o.
notnoohoot- VTI to try to see s.t.
notno’eini- VAI to turn all around, turn head all around, while looking for something
notonih- VTA to doctor s.o.
notoniheihii NA doctor
notonihisei NA nurse
notoonoot- VTI to stand up for s.t., defend it
notoonoo3- VTA to stick up for s.o., support them, defend them
notoyeic NI hide of an animal
no3 PART “I’m telling you that...” “it’s well known that...” “you should agree that...”
nous-[i’] VAI to be stuck
nouso’on- VTA to chase s.o. outside, out of the house
nouteesisee- VAI to go outside and get in a car, on a horse
noutokusee- VAI to crawl outside of a place
noutow- PV constantly, continually; keep on, continue doing s.t.
nouxon- VTA to meet s.o.
nou’u NA swift fox
nou’u be’eih NA red fox
nou’uuxooton- VTA to arrive very close to s.o. [< no’ + hiixooton-]
nowoh- PV to like, enjoy doing s.t. habitually [c.f. howoh-]
nowo’ NA fish
noxonisee- VAI to go rapidly, “get a move on”
noxoonooteihi- VAI to be or behave dangerously
noxootoohob- VTA to stare at s.o. with mouth agape, in a quizzical or confused way
noxow- PV very close, very near; general intensive
noxowunoo’oo- VAI to faint
noxoxoohowu- VAI to look at s.t. or s.o. eagerly, with great desire or envy
noxoyotii- VAI to sew s.t. up
noxuhu PART hurry!
noxuuteiniihi’ ADV upriver direction, to the west
noxuutei’ PART upriver, in the west
noxuute’eini- VAI to turn one’s head and look upriver
no’eeckoohu- VAI to arrive home
no’koohu- VAI to arrive by running or driving
no’oe’eini- VAI to have one’s face right up close to s.t., right at a place
no’oocein- VTI to string an arrow on a bowstring, ready it for shooting
no’ookei- VAI to bring back meat to a place, to camp, from a hunt
no’oo’ohuut NI moving camp way out away from normal settlement areas
no’oteec- VII to snow a lot
no’oteheihii NA a powerful one, a powerful person
no’oteihi- VAI to be tough, strong
no’oteihiit NI strength, power
no’o3- PV many, a lot
no’o3einoku- VAI a lot of s.t. is sitting or lying on the ground
no’o3ibii3ihiini- VAI to have a lot of things to eat
no’o3ih- VTA to be cruel to s.o.
no’o3iici3oon- VII to be very long
no’o3iitoo- VAI to be bleeding a lot
no’o3oubee- VAI to have a lot of blankets
no’oxoh- VTA to bring s.o. to a place
no’oxoo- VII to arrive (a time)
no’o’ PART a long ways from camp, out in a remote area
no’o’kuutii- VAI to remove s.t. from water ??
no’o(o)’oo- VAI to arrive (as a result of jumping, flying, being thrown, etc)
no’o’usee- VAI to go far out away from camp
no’unoo’oo- VII to reach a place, arrive there (as a result of jumping, flying, being thrown, etc)
no’usee- VAI to arrive by walking
no’useenoo- VII to arrive, to come to pass
no’uuhu’ ADV to a place, reach destination
no’uukohei- VAI to arrive by riding
no’uusi’oo- VAI to close one’s eyes
no’xuuheti- VAI to manage to get oneself to a place with great effort
no’yoohu- VAI to make a bed for oneself, make one’s bed
nouxon- TA to meet s.o.
nuhu’ PART this
sebiyoh- VTA to aim at s.o.
sebyih- VTA to aim at s.o.
seenook NA rope
seh- PV to over there, from here to there
seh-woteihceihinoo = ‘I got on the road going from here to town’ (George Quiver
Visits the Doctor)
sehiis-no’xuuhetinoo = seh + hiis- = ‘from here to there already-he managed to get
himself moved’ (George Quiver Visits the Doctor)
sehsei’oohob- VTA to look at someone from here over there
ses3oon- VII to be the edge of s.t., to be an edge
se’esoonee- VAI to cut meat thin and flat (in order to dry it)
se’is-[i’] VAI to lie flat, to lay down
se’sine- VAI to lie flat, to lay down
se’tebe’eih- VTA to slap s.o.
sii- PV EMPHATIC
siikoocei3ooxe NI rubber glove
siisiikou’ NA duck
siiwohei’i- VAI to slide on s.t., to ice skate, to go sledding
sii’iheitii- VAI to put s.t. into water
sii’ihkuutii- VAI to toss s.t. into water
si’in- VTA to take or steal things from s.o. by raiding or plundering
sosoni’ NI Shoshoni, WY
sosoni’ NA Shoshone indian
so’o’wuutee- VII to be flattened, scraped flat (ground)
tebe’eikuu3- VTA to cut or break off s.o.’s head, break their neck
tebi’ineec- VII to have snowed and piled up deeply
teceeneet- VTI to calculate s.t., to measure s.t. mentally, to estimate s.t.
tecenoo NA door
tece’ NI night
tecinihiit- VTI to compare things (verbally)
teco’on- PV always, constantly
teebe PART just now
teecxo’ PART long ago
tees- PV on, on top of
teescebisee- VAI to walk on top of s.t.
teesciiyei’iit NI a step, steps (concrete, material steps), stairway
teesen- VTA to put s.t. on s.t.
teesiisibi- VAI to lay down on top of s.t.
teesisee- VAI to walk or get on top of s.t.
teesi’ PART on top
tees3i’oku- VAI to sit on top of s.t.
teeteb- VII to be deep all over (water)
teexokuut NA saddle horse
teexoono3ei- VAI to load s.t. onto a wagon, car, etc. (Strong Bear and Wagon)
teexoono3ei- VAI to carry s.t. on oneself (Blood Clot Boy)
teiitooyoo- VII to be calm, peaceful
[hi]teixo’o NI clothing
tei’eekuu- VAI to stand strong, to endure
tei’eihi- VAI to be strong
tei’eihiit NI strength, being strong
tei’koohuut- VTI to tough things out, to remain strong in one’s journey or path
tei’ox (Personal Name) Strong Bear
tei’yoon NA child
tes- PV really, a lot, completely
tesiini PV really, a lot
tesi’isiinis-[i’] VAI to lay or sleep very warmly in the cold
te3eiciihi’ ADV each one, each person
te’ecxoh’- VII to melt and run down due to heat from a fire
tih- PV when (in the past)
tih’et- PV was supposed to (but didn’t) happen
tii’en- VTA to touch s.o. on purpose to get their attention
ti’iihiinen NA Apache indian (southwestern, not plains – probably Jicarilla Apache)
toh- PV when (past)
tokohu- VAI to flee
tokohub- VTA to flee from s.o.
tokooxuuniihi’ ADV across, to the other side
tokooxuusee- VAI to walk across to the other side
tonot- VII to be hole in a place, to be a hole, “there is a hole”
tonotin- VII to be a hole in a surface
tonoun- VTI to use s.t.
tonoun- VTA to use s.t., s.o.
too- PV almost
toon- PV Iindicates indefiniteness
toonheeseihi- VAI whatever kind or sort it is
toonheetniicisiini PV for whatever length of time it will be (that s.t. goes on)
toonhei’- PV sometime, whenever
toonhei’iini PV whenever, sometime when...
toonheniinotonihooo NA whomever is the one being doctored
toot PV where?
tootisee- VAI to walk up close to s.t. or s.o.
tootoku- VAI to be sitting close, near
tootooyeit- VTI to scream
tooto3ih- VTA to place, bring, put s.o. very close
tooto3ihi- VAI to have been placed, brought, or put very close
tootou3- PV what? how?; “oh, how very...!”
tootou3-ii3e-nino = “oh how very heavy they are!” (Women in the Park)
tooto’on- VTA to be very close to s.o. (usually in a spatial, not emotional sense)
too3- PV near, close
too3iihi’ ADV close by, near, close to
too3iini PV close by, near
too3no’en- VTA to bring s.o. close to a place
too3no’enoen- VII to have been brought close to a place (as by a telescope)
too’uhcehi- VAI to stop driving, stop a car or horse
too’usee- VAI to stop walking
totoonee PART all around, everywhere
totoub- VTA to warn s.o. not to do s.t.; to rebuke them
totou’utoo- VAI to have hard times
to3ih- VTA to follow s.o., stay close to them
to3ihee- VAI to be followed
toukoyeiniihi’ ADV in the shade
toukuhu- VAI to be tied up
touku3- VTA to tie s.o. up, to tie s.o. to s.t.
toun- VTI to hold s.t.
tous- PV what?
tous PART then, as a consequence
heetni’iini tous = “it will be good, then” (White Man and Fox)
tousihi’ VAI what is his name?
tousinihii- VAI what say?
heitousinihii = “what are you saying?” (Women in the Park)
toustoo- VAI what do?
tou3- PV what? how?; “oh, how...!”
tou3ei’- PV how many? to what extent or degree?
tou3e’ein- VTA to bestow s.t. on s.o., give them s.t. valuable in a permanent way
tou3ou’oubeihi- VAI how does s.o. feel?
touyoo NI cup, stirrup, clamp
tou’uukohei- VAI to come to a stop while riding
towoh- VTI to remove s.t. (by cutting or breaking it off)
towohei’i- VAI to remove s.t.
toxuu’oot- VTI to cross over s.t., jump over and across s.t. [should be tokooxuu’oot- ?]
toxu’kosei- VAI to have sharp claws
toyeinous-[i’] VAI to rest
toyoohob- VTA to wait for s.o.
toyo3oo- VII to be cold
toyouniihi’ ADV in the fall
toyouno’oxoo- VII to be the time when autumn arrives, for autumn to arrive
to’ob- VTA to hit s.o.
to’osetii- VII to fall and hit against the ground (a body part)
3eb- PV there, over there
3ebiici3iihi’ ADV over there some distance
3ebiihciihi’ ADV up there
3ebiihi’ ADV there, over there
3ebiis- PV to there, over there in that direction
3ebiisiikohei- VAI to ride over in that direction [he’ih-3ebiisiikohe’]
3ebiisno’usee- VAI to arrive at that place over there, off in that direction
3ebnoho’uuhu’ ADV up there
3eboowuniihiikohei- VAI to ride down along a stream over there
3ee3oo NI finger
3eeyooteen- VII to be pulled taut, ready to shoot (bowstring)
3eici’ NI root
3ein- VTI to put s.t. inside s.t. [same as 3ei’in-]
3einoo’oon- VII to go, pass into s.t., penetrate into it
3eis-[i’] VAI to be laying inside s.t., be inside s.t.
3ei’iinoot- VTI to carry s.t. on one’s back
3ei’iiwoonohu- VAI to carry s.t. on one’s back
3ei’iiwoonoot- VTI to carry s.t. on one’s back
3ei’ikuutii- VAI to put s.t. inside s.t.
3ei’in- VTI to put s.t. inside s.t. [same as 3ein-]
3ei’ini- VII to be put inside s.t.
3ih- PV maybe
3iik NA skeleton, ghost
3iikon NA skeleton, ghost
3iikonii- VAI to be a ghost, be a goner
3iikonookuhu’ee NI skull
3iikoto’oyoneihceihi- VAI to have wrenched one’s back
3iikoto’oyoni- VAI to have pulled one’s back, back muscles
3ii3i’e’eite’ NI Washakie Needles, Wyoming (“lots of pointy protuberances”)
3iwoo PART well now, let’s see
3i’is-[i’] VAI to slip down, to slip and fall
3i’oku- VAI to sit
3i’okuutooo NI chair
3i’ookuu3oo NI a parking meter (“a thing which stands”)
3i’ookuu- VII to be stood, placed standing [3i’ookuuhu- ?]
3i’ookuu- VAI to stand
3i’ookuuh- VTA to stand s.o. somewhere, make them stand somewhere
3onceihi- VAI to be naked
3ookusee- VAI to crawl (a person)
3ookwo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along following s.o. else
3oontece’iin- VII to be midnight
3oo3ooniihi’ ADV right in the middle
3oo3ooxut- VTI to miss s.t., regret its absence or passing
3oo3o3ouutei’iiniini PV lots of ridges or ridge-like areas
3oo3o’ohoen- VTA to crush s.o.’s hands
3oo3o’ohoenei’i- VAI to crush people’s hands
3ooxuu NI intestines, guts
3ooxuun- VTI to notice s.t.
3ooxuunon- VTA to notice s.t., to notice s.t. about s.o.
3ooxuuxonoo’oo- VAI to be drying up, congealing
3o3ouniini PV ridges, ridge-like
3ouxoh’owoo- VAI to cook s.t. for oneself by boiling it
3owo3ihcehi- VAI to stand erect quickly
3owo3nenitee NA Indian
3owounoo’oo- VAI to fall apart, be destroyed
3o’oen- VTI to crush s.t.
3o’ostii- VAI to bust s.t. up by dropping it
3o’unoo’oo- VII to collapse, crumble to pieces
wohei PART well, then, so, okay
wohe’ PART maybe
wohoe’- PV INDICATES UNCERTAINTY, DOUBT
Note: when used with first and second person, verbs have affirmative endings:
wohoe’et-niistii-no’ = uncertain future-do-we = ‘we don’t know
what we’re going to do’ (Old Ways 2)
when used with third person, verbs have non-affirmative endings:
siineihoowoe’in wohoe’et-wonoo3iine’etii = uncertain future-keep on living =
‘I really don’t know if he will live much longer’
(Strong Bear and the Boxing Champion)
wohoono’ NI mint, peppermint
won- PV to go to do s.t.
wonoot- PV to continue doing s.t., persist at it
wonoote’in- VTI to remember continually, to keep s.t. in mind, continue knowing it
wonootxootiini’ VII “people keep going, keep walking along”
wonoo3iine’etii- VAI to keep on living, remain alive
wonot NI belly, abdomen
woohoniini PV united, together
woohoneentoo- VAI to stay together, united
wookec NA cow
woon- PV new, recent, young; most recently, last (do s.t.)
woonusee- VAI to arrive soon (after)
wootii PART like, as if
wootooyeino’usee- VAI to arrive early, earlier than expected
woo3ee- VII to be many
woow PART now, already
woowoteisibeti- VAI to bump into s.t. over and over and make a sound
woowoti’eyei’i- VAI to remove things
wooxe NI knife
wot- PV “I guess”, supposedly, apparently
woteekoohu- VAI to drive to town
woteeniihi’ ADV in town
woteesee- VAI to go into the camp circle; to go to town; to assimilate to the larger culture
woteihcehi- VA to set off for town, get on the road to town
woteinoxonous-[i’] VAI for bones to clatter together as they come to rest
woti’ees-[i’] VAI to be blown away by the wind
wotowuhuu PART you son of a bitch! you dirty rotten scoundrel!
wotowusoo PART you brat!, you young son of a bitch!
wotoyeic NI an animal hide
wottonee- VAI to make a fire
wottonouhu- VAI to make a fire for oneself
wouuceh PART “well what do you know! well how about that!”
wox NA bear
woxhoox NA horse
woxhooxebihi’ NA little horse
woxuusoo NA hail (“bear cubs”)
woxu’uu NI medicines
wo’eii3ow PART just then, right then, right away
wo’ei3 PART or
wo’oben- VTI to focus a telescope, binoculars, etc (‘to move [the lens] farther along’)
wo’oe3eiho’ PART “you’re pushing things too far” “you’re taking advantage of the situation”
“there’s no need to be doing that”
wo’oe’onoun PART on and on, still going, still at it
wo’oh NI shoe
wo’oon- PV to try but fail to do s.t.
wo’oteeyoo- VII to be black, to be a paved road
wo’o3tii- VAI to gather s.t. up, for keeping, storage, use, etc
wo’ow NI ice
wo’ow- PV further, more, additionally
wo’owoku- VAI to scoot over
wo’owoo’oh- TI to move s.t. farther along
wo’owtoo3iini PV closer
wo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along
wo’owxoo- VAI to move farther along on foot [< wo’owusee-]
wo’o’oto’ PART just then, right at that moment
wo’teeneihtee- VAI to have black feet [woo’teeneihtee3i’ = Blackfeet indians]
wo’woo’oh- VTI to move s.t. over or along with a stick, poker, or similar tool
wo’wuni’iini PV better
xonou PART right away, immediately
xook- PV through a thing or a place
xou’ouwuuckoohu- VAI to go straight home, to go straight to heaven upon dying
xou’uben- VTA to straighten s.o. out (metaphorically)
xo’oeyoo NI ointment, gel
yeh PART hey! well! gee!
yeih’on- VTA to chase s.t. (game) ???
yeinio’woo- VII to be the fourth time
yeino’ NA tomato
yeiyoo’ NI forty
yihoo- VAI to to to a place
yihoon- VTA to go to s.o., to where s.o. is
yihxotii- VAI to take s.t. away over there, off in that direction
yih’oow- VTA to chase s.t.
yiiscesisihcehi- VAI to begin running towards over there
yiisiihi- VAI to move camp over in that direction
yiisiikohei- VAI to ride over to there
yii3e’einiihi’ ADV towards that direction there, in that direction there
yii3ni’ihi- VAI to depend on s.t. or s.o.
yohou’usee- VAI to walk out of sight, to disappear
yoo3oniini PV in the fifties (age, etc)
‘eee PART hmm...
‘eiyo’ PART oh oh!
-‘ihoo VAI to go
‘ii PART oh! gee! wow!
‘ine PART okay! (woman speaking)
‘oh PART but, and
‘ooeii PART oooh!
‘oohoohei’ PART oh my gosh! (expresses negative reaction to events)
‘oonei PART my goodness! (expression of surprise and interest, but also sense of
modern words only)
adopt a way of life, to hiten- (< ‘to take something’)
airplane niinih’ohuunoo’ (“it flies”)
assimilate, to woteesee- (< ‘to go into the camp circle’)
bank (the institution and building) bei’ci3eiyo’oowu’ (“money house”)
blacktop road woo’oteeyoo’ (“it is black”)
wo’teenbooo (“black road”)
boss neecee (< ‘chief’)
box, to boo3eti- (< ‘to fight each other’)
hiine3eiheti- (“to knock each other around”)
boxing (the sport) boo’oet (< ‘fighting’)
boxing ring hiikokoyoxoeni’ (“it is fenced in a square”)
koo’einoxoeyoo (“fenced ring”)
bridge hooxuu3iiw (“across the water boat”)
bump in the road, to hit a hete3einobee- (“collide with the ground”)
car hotii (< ‘wagon, wheel’)
car, to get into hiixouuhu- (“to climb to the top”)
teesisee- (“to step on top”)
car, to get out of hoowusee- (“to step down”)
chain bei’ci3eiseenook (“iron rope”)
challenge s.o. (as in a sport) neyei3ih- (“to test s.t., to try s.o. out”)
champion (in a sport, such as boxing) niitobeekuut (“he stands first”)
coal ho3o’uunesitee (“star fire”?)
coal wagon ho3o’uunesiteehotii (“coal wagon”) [s/b -notii?]
coin slot (for depositing money) bei’ci3ei’i niit3ei’ini’i (“where money is put inside”)
culture heesiine’etiit (“how he lives”), hiine’etiit (“life”)
custom, a; tradition, a heesniinii3iyeit (“what he has/owns/possesses”)
defend one’s country, to notoonoot- (< ‘stand up for, support’)
deposit money, in a bank ceibciinen- (“to put it aside”)
deposit money, in a coin slot 3ei’ikuutii- (“to put it inside”)
doctor (modern) notoniheihii
doctor’s office niitoot notoniheihii (“where the doctor is”)
doctrine, teachings hei’towo’o (“things said”)
drive a car, to noo’ein-
electricity ceheekuut (< ‘lightning’)
employee niisi3eihii (“worker”)
employment niisi3ooo (“work, job”)
endangered (language) heyeihneeneno’oo- (“to be approaching death”)
heyeihneenoniseenoo- (“to almost disappear”)
enlist, in the armed forces he3ebwoteesee- (“go into the group there”)
examination table (at a doctor’s office) niiteesiisibit (“where [the patient] lays down on top”)
extinct (language, culture) neeneno’oo- (“dead”)
fence nii3oxoeyoo (“thing for enclosing”)
filled (a job or position) hiixoxonee- (< ‘to be full’)
fish, to noonoyei- (< ‘to trap’)
fishing line, to set out a hou3e3ei- (“to place or hang s.t. out”)
flag niiwohoe (“held in the hand”?)
flag, to serve the; to enlist woteesee- niiyou nuhu’ niiwohoe
flying vehicles(in general) ceebih’ohuunoo’ (“it flies past”)
focus, to (a telescope, for example) wo’oben- (“to move [the lens] farther along”)
gardening ciineyoot (“planting things”)
gate tecenoo (< ‘door’)
get in, a car teesisee- (< ‘to get on a horse’)
get out of, a car hoowusee- (“to stop down”)
go, to, by wagon -ou’see- [a medial form]
go off, explode, as a bullet ko’etees- (“to have made a popping sound”)
goat biixohko’ (“hairy chin”)
biixohko’noo’ (“it is hairy-chinned”)
graduate, to beetou3ei- (“to finish learning”)
heritage henii3iyoonin (“the things we have”)
hire someone, to ho3i’eeb- (“to ask someone to do something for you”)
hitch s.t., to a wagon, to hoonooten-
hitching post (for horses) niitoukutooxowootiini’ (“where people tie up horses”)
house, to own heeneito’oowuuni-
ice skate, to siiwohei- (< ‘to slide’)
job niisi3ooo (“working, work”)
lit, by electricity, illuminated noh’oeseitee’
livestock, to raise ni’ih-
load, to, a gun 3ein- (< ‘to put s.t. inside’)
load, to, a wagon teexoono3ei- (“to put things on top”)
loaded (a gun) ciitohuuni’ (“has something inside”)
magnify, to (as with a telescope) cih’ii3itoniini (“added [size/closeness]”)
cihwo’owtoo3no’en- (“to make it move more close to here”)
magnified, enlarged he3ebtoo3iini (“closer there”)
maintain, preserve (language, c ulture) nih’oniitowoo- (< ‘to try hard, persist’)
nei’iitiibi- (“hold on tight to s.t.”)
tei’koohuut- (“to run strongly in the face of s.t.”)
money bei’ci3ei’i (“pieces of metal”)
movies/television ce’iskuu3oo (“makes (pictures) come back”)
nation, country (one’s own) heetoh’uune’etiino’ (“where we live”)
nations (various) ce’esneniteeno’ (“different peoples”)
nurse notonihisei (“doctor woman”)
ocean liner niinou’oo’ hinee heeteci’ (“it floats on the ocean”)
ointment xo’oeyoo (< ‘salve, poultice’)
opening, a job, look for notiitii- niisi3ooo (“look for work”)
niiitowoo- niisi3ooo (“to ask for work”)
order, to, as in a restaurant hei’towuun- heetbii3hiit (“tell [the waiter] what he is going to eat”)
outlook, on life, viewpoint, perspective heenee3e’ino’ (“the ways he knows it”)
patient (at a doctor’s office) toonheniinotonihooo (“whomever is being doctored”)
park a car, to tou’uhcehi- (“to stop running/driving”)
parking meter 3i’ookuu3oo (“standing thing”)
paved road heetwo’oteeyoo’ booo (“where the road is black”)
petroleum jelly, vaseline xo’eyoo (< ‘salve, ointment’)
pistol to’oo’ (“it kicks”?)
pothole tonoti’ (< ‘hole’)
private property, to own heeneibiito’owuuwu- (“to have land”)
pull the trigger of a gun, to nihi’kuutii- (“to act quickly on s.t.”)
race, ethnic group neito’ei (< ‘my relative’)
recover a language, to get it back ce’hiisiiten- (“to catch it again”)
replacement worker heetnoxoeeniihi’ niisi3eit (“he will work in exchange for me”)
reservation, for Indians nuhu’ heetoono’ (“this place where we are”)
restaurant bii3hiino’oowu’ (“eating house”)
revived/revitalized (a language) ce’koheinoo- (“to rise up again”)
rim, of a wagon wheel ko’eino’ohtoo (“round shoe”)
road to town, to get on the woteihceihi- (“to run to town”)
rubber glove siikoocei3ooxe (“rubber glove”)
saloon, bar benoheino’oowu’ (“give someone a drink house”)
save up money, to wo’3itii- (< ‘to gather up, collect’)
ship 3iiw, ho3iiw (< ‘canoe’)
shoot a gun, to nihi’kuutii- (“to make it act rapidly”)
silver nookbei’ci3e’ (“white metal”)
steps, staircase teesciiyei’iitono (“things one steps on top of”)
stirrup, clamp (as in doctor’s exam table) touyoo (< ‘cup’)
suitcase ce’eiinox (< ‘bag’)
survive, a language, to nosouseenoo- (“to be still going”)
team of horses woxhooxebii (“horses”)
telescope ni’iitoo3noohoo(3oo)tiini’ (“one sees things close by with it”)
tip (in a restaurant) bei’ci3ei’i cebe’einiihi’ (“extra money beyond [the cost]”)
tip, to leave a ciinen- bei’ci3ei’i (“to put money down”)
town hoowoh’oowuu’ (“many houses”)
town, in woteeniihi’ (< ‘in the camp circle’)
tribes, political groups ceneece’iseihi3i’ 3owo3neniteeno’ (“different Indians”)
vegetable ciineyoo (“thing which is planted”)
waiter no’uxotiit (“he/she brings [food]”)
wheel hotii (< ‘sacred ceremonial circle/wheel’)
wheel rim ko’eino’ohtoo (“round shoe”)
window noh’oeseihoo (“thing for allowing illumination”)
world hee3ei’o’bee’ (“as far as the land extends”)
world war neeneitohboo3eti3i’ niiyou hee3ei’o’bee’
(“they fought all over the world”)
noo’oeeniihi’ biito’owuu’ ce’esnenitee[no’]
tohuubooboo3eti3i’ (“when various nations fought around the world”)