ADV  adverbial

      NA  noun, animate

      NI  noun, inanimate

      PART  particle (invariable)

      PV  preverb (occurs prior to main verbs)

      VAI  verb, animate subject, intransitive

      VII  verb, inanimate subject, intransitive

      VTA  verb, transitive, animate object

      VTI  verb, transitive, inanimate object 

Sound Changes in Words: 

      Often in Arapaho, when prefixes and words combine, the sounds change at the combination points. This makes it hard sometimes to recognize what the original form was. The most common changes involve the letter -h-, and are as follows: 

      nih (past tense)  + h- > nih’-

                  he’ih (narrative past tense)  + h- > he’ih’-  

      heet (future tense) + h- > heetn-

      hi (‘his/hers’) + h- > hit-

      hoow (negation) + h- > hoow- 

      A different kind of change occurs when verbs do not have prefixes. In this case, the first syllable lengthens or doubles. Short vowels become long, and long vowels require insertion of an extra -en- or -on-: 

          nih-noohootowoo ‘I saw it’

          nonoohootowoo ‘I see it’ 

          nih-tesbih’iyoo’ ‘it was very dark’

          teesbih’iyoo’  ‘it is very dark’ 

      Verbs are listed with the short form in the glossary, since this is the far more common form in the narratives in this anthology. 

Explanation of Entries: 

      In the glossary, we have provided translation of some longer words which can be broken down into smaller units. There are given in parentheses and quotation marks. Where parentheses are used with actual Arapaho word entries, this indicates that the letter in parentheses may be pronounced, but often is virtually dropped. Where letters are enclosed in brackets in the actual Arapaho word entries, this indicates a fuller form of the word – the more “proper” form – which Richard Moss has cut short in his story. Brackets after the definitions include notes about meanings, questions about meanings or spellings, and information on the base form of the word when it may not be obvious from the form listed in the glossary. Because we know that virtually all users of the glossary will not be fluent in Arapaho, we have listed forms with prefixes and suffixes attached in some cases (when the prefix or suffix is less common) in order to make the words in the stories easier to find in the glossary. We also include a few samples of the use of certain forms which can be hard to pick out otherwise. These are indented after the main entry. Finally, a few Arapaho verbs have special endings for ‘he, she, they’ which are unlike those in the grammar section. The endings are -‘ and -‘i (like inanimate forms). These are put in brackets immediately after the verb to identify these special type of AI verbs. 

bebene PART about, approximately

beebee- VAI to bark

beebee3sohoe- VAI to use sign language or gestures

beebeet PART only, just

beebei’on PART far away

beebenoob- VTA to sniff s.o. all over, sniff all around them

beebesteih’ein- VTA to feel all around s.o.’s belly, abdomen

beebeteentoo- VAI to worship

beebe’einin- VII to be all bloody

beec- VII to snow

beenhehe’ PART a few

beesei3[e’] VAI to be big, to have a big body

beesoo- VII to be big

beesoon- VII to be big

beet- PV to want to do s.t.

beete’ NI bow beete’ NI bow

beetisee- VAI to pass away, die off

beetou3ei- VAI to graduate, finish one’s education

bee3ei NA owl

bee3eini- VAI to be an owl, become an owl

bee3too- VAI to finish doing s.t.

beex- PV should do s.t.

beex- PV a little bit

beexcoonisee- VAI to be barely able to walk

beexeeneihi- VAI to be pretty big

beexeh- PV a little bit in that direction, a little bit off away there [< beex + neh?]

beexei’esei- VAI to be an older woman

beexookee- VAI to be full grown

beexookeihi- VAI to be full grown

beexoo3iihi’ ADV a little while later

beexo’- PV just, only

beexo’oo3ouyeiti- VAI to speak only English

beextonot- VII to be a few holes in an area

beexuuni PV a little bit

beexuu3ou’oo- VII to be a little bit towards evening [< beex + hi3ou’oo-]

beh- PV all

beh- PV all

beheeteihi- VAI to have made everything, to be God

      beeheeteiht NA the creator, the maker of all

behiini PV all

behixooke’ei[ni]- VAI?? all of one’s face ?

beh’eihehi’ NA old man; the Sacred Pipe

bei’ci3ei’i NI money

bei’ci3eiseenook NA chain

bei’ci3ei’i niit3ei’ini’i NI money slot (“where money is put in”), as in parking meter

bei’i’einiiciihehe’ NI Casper, WY (“shell river”)

beneniiniini PV clustered together, gathered in a group of people

beniinis NI someone’s horn, a horn

benii’owoxoo- VII to be the time when the spring thaw arrives, “the spring thaw is arriving”

benii’owuun- VII to be springtime

benoheino’oowu’ NI saloon, bar

benohooxobei- VAI to water horses

benoob- VTA sniff around s.o., sniff them

bes- VTA to hit s.o. when shooting

bes NI stick, piece of wood

beskootee NI ear of corn

besnooo NI wooden plate

beso’o NI one’s butt

betebi NA old woman

betebihehiini- VAI to be an elderly woman

betebihehi’ NA little old lady

beteee- VAI to dance

beteen- VII to be holy, sacred

betooh- VTA to make s.o. dance

be3oowo’bee- VAI to look all around? [bee3-oow-obee ?]

be3o’oku- VAI to sit hard, to be laying hard on the ground (as snow)

be’ NI blood, bloot clot

be’eek NI blood pudding

be’eekei’i- VAI to make blood pudding

be’eihi- VAI to be red

be’einin- VII to be bloody

be’einootee- VII for there to be blood on the ground

be’e’ei- VAI to have red hair

be’nou’u NA red fox

bih’ih NA deer

bih’ihiinoseino’ NI deer meat

bih’inkuuton- VTA to turn out the lights for s.o., on s.o.

bih’inooyot- VII to appear dark

bih’inoo’oo- VII to be getting dark, to have gotten dark

bih’iyoo- VII to be dark (outside)

biibiiwoohu- VAI to be crying continually

biibinoot NI berries, fruits

biibise’eitee- VII the tops or heads of s.t. are poking out here and there

biicitii- VAI to bead s.t.; to sew s.t.?

biikousiis NA moon

biin- VTA to give s.t. to s.o.

biinee- VAI to have been given s.t., to be the recipient of s.t.

[hi]biineiton NI the one who gave him s.t. [< biin-]

biino NI chokecherries

biinohei- VAI to kick up dirt, kick the ground agressively, as a bull

biino3oon- VTA to load (a horse)

biisiwoo NI one of a ruminant’s stomachs; called “Bible” in Arapaho

biitei NA ghost

biiti’ PART by turns, one-by-one, “my turn”

biito’owu’ NI land, earth, ground

bii3hiin NI food supplies, things to eat

bii3i-[‘] VAI to eat s.t.

bii3ihi- VAI to eat

bii3ihiini- VAI to have things to eat, have food available

bii3oonoo- VII to be steep, to be a canyon

bii3oonoo’(o)b- VII to be steep land

bii3woohu- VAI to cook s.t. for oneself

bii3woot- VTI to cook s.t.

biiwoohu- VAI to cry

biixohko’ NA goat

biixohko’noo’ NA goat

biixuut NI shirt

bii’iih- VTA to find s.o.

bii’in- VTI to find s.t.

bis- PV all

bis- PV to appear, come into view

biscoboo’oo- VAI to come shooting into view

bisisee- VAI to appear, walk into view

bisisenin- VII to appear above the ground, stick up from below the ground (or ice)

bistoo’usee- VAI to come to a stop out in the open while walking

bixoo3- VTA to love s.o.

bi’- PV just

bobooteeneb- VTA to respect s.o.

bohootii- VAI to all camp (together)

boh’o’onoosoo- VII to be a thunderstorm

boobo’oteyoon- VII to be red hills, there are red hills there

boobo’ouut- VII to be red landforms, there are red landforms there

booo NI road

boo3- VTA to fight s.o.

boo3eti- VAI to box (“to fight”)

boo’oet NI boxing, fighting

ceb- VTA to shoot at s.o.

cebeenei’ten- VTI to carry s.t. on, pass it on, continue it, as a custom

cebe’ei- PV beyond, surpassing

cebe’einiihi’ ADV beyond that, more than

cebe’eini’oo- VII to be better than s.t. else

cebiisiiteniihi’ ADV on the right side

cebinoo’oo- VII water is flowing past

cebisee- VAI to walk, walk along

cebiseenoo- VII to happen, occur, go on

cebtee’eekuu- VAI to stand sideways

cec NI year

ceciin- VII to be winter

ceciiniin- VII to be winter

ceciito’on- VTA to greet s.o.

ceciixoniihi’ ADV winter-like

cecinsine- VAI to spend the winter at a place

ceebeh- PV don’t...

ceebih’ohuunoo’ NI a flying machine, anything which flies, such as planes, helicopters, etc

ceeceniini PV near and far

ceece3o’o PART happen quickly

ceece’ese3oo’oo- VAI to be burning with different colors, variegated, flashing colors

ceece’iseihi- VAI to be very different

ceece’isiini PV very different

ceece’iso’oo- VII to be very different

ceeciisiiten- VTA to surprise s.o., grab them by surprise

ceeneib- VII to be not attached to s.t., for a bush to have no berries on it [< cii + heeneib-]

ceenei3oowot- VTI to not believe things [< cii + hi3oowot]

ceeniini PV down, low

ceenoku- VAI to sit down

ceesei- PV alone

ceesey NA/NI one, another one

ceesih- VTA to get s.t., obtain s.t., bring s.t. for s.o.

ceesiton- VTA to get s.t. for s.o.

cee3- PV to do s.t. by accident, to happen to do s.t. by chance

ceexoon NA (obviative) the other one

ceeyow- PV keep on doing s.t.

cee’eyeino’oowu’ NI Ft. Washakie, WY (“rations house”)

cee’ini- VAI to be have been blessed, as through a gift

ceheekuut NI electricity

ceibciinen- VTI to put s.t.down and aside

ceibiihi’ ADV off to the side

ceibi’tou’u- VAI to toss s.o. aside

ceikon- VII to move in this direction as a band or tribe, collectively

ceitee- VAI to be coming this direction

ceitotousee- VAI to walk here while making a warning sound

cei3iihi’ ADV to here

cei3iikohei- VAI to ride in this direction, to here

cencei’soo- VII to be very different

cenis-[i’] VAI to fall straight down, from a place

ceni3- VTA to butcher game

ceno’oh- VTA to knock s.o. straight down, off a place

ceno’ohuuhu- VAI to be knocked straight down by s.o., to be knocked off a place

ceno’oo- VAI to jump

cese’eihii NA animal

cesis- PV to start, to begin to...

cesisihcehi- VAI to begin running; to run away or flee

cesisih’ohu- VAI to start to fly, to fly away

cesisiniibei’i- VAI to start to sing

cesisnoonoohowuuni PV beginning to come into view

ces3ou’see- VAI to start off traveling by wagon

ceteyoo- VII to be round and smooth

ceto’oo- VAI to die

ceto’owoo- VAI to trip and fall

ce3ei’oo- VAI to set off, start off, go away

ce3ixoh- VTA to take s.o. away

ce3kohei’i- VAI to leap up and run away

ce3ixotii- VAI to take s.t. away

ce3koohu- VAI to drive off, drive away, run off, run away

ce3i3e’eici3- VTA to lead a horse away from somewhere

ce’- PV back, again

ce’ceixotii- VAI to bring s.t. back here

ce’eeckoohu- VAI to return home

ce’eekutii- VAI to tie s.t. up in a bundle

ce’eenoo NI shoulder, shoulder blade

ce’ehbe’e3iisib- VTA to bend down and reveal one’s butt to someone

ce’eihi- VAI to be round, spherical

ce’ei’in- VTI to fill a container, to put s.t. in a container

ce’ei’inoo- VII to be packed, to be full (a container)

ce’eseihi- VAI to be different

ce’esiihi’ ADV differently

ce’esinoo’oo- VAI to suddenly and quickly become different, to change into s.t. else

ce’esnenitee[no’] NI (various) nations, peoples

ce’e3i’ PART outside

ce’e’eini- VAI to turn one’s head back around, to look back behind one

ce’iinee’iini PV turning back around

ce’iineihcehi- VAI to turn back around quickly

ce’iit- VTI to get scared of s.t. again

ce’iitoyei NI knee

ce’in- VTI to not know s.t.

ce’ini’ih- VTA to make s.o. well again

ce’ini’kuu3- VTA to make s.o. rapidly well again

ce’isee- VAI to come back, to return

ce’iskuu3oo NI movies, television (“makes (pictures) come back”)

ce’koheinoo- VII to be resurrected

ce’ko3ceineeneetoho’oe VAI to make a noise by pulling one’s hand back out of a place

ce’no’xoton- VTA to bring s.t. back for s.o.

ce’oxootii- VAI to camp differently, to camp apart from the group

ce’xoh- VTA to return s.o. to a place

cih- PV this direction, towards the speaker

cih’iinootii- VAI to graze

cih’ox- VTI to cut s.t. up in small pieces

cii- PV not

ciibeh- PV don’t!

ciibeh’ini PV don’t

ciin- PV to quit or stop doing s.t.

ciineec- VII to stop snowing

ciineni- VII to be placed down

ciineyoo NI vegetable, planted thing

ciineyoot NI gardening, planting things

ciini PV not, not happen, not succeed, nothing

ciini’iiniih- VTA to be unable to do anything to s.o., affect them

ciini’itoo- VAI to be up to no good, to do harm

ciini’oo- VII to be not good

      ceniini’oo’ NI evil

ciinkuu3- VTA to let s.o. go, release them

ciinoo’on- PV fairly, pretty (big, etc)

ciinoo’onei’oo- VII to be pretty good sized

ciinout NI farming

ciintoo- VAI to quit doing s.t.

ciisibih- VTA to wear out or use up s.o.’s patience

ciisiini PV far, distant

ciisiniihi’ ADV far away

ciisiniihiihi’ ADV far downstream

ciistii- VAI to not do s.t.

ciitee[hinec] NI beer

ciitei- VAI to enter

ciitohuun- VII to be loaded (a gun)

ciitou’oubeihi- VAI to climax sexually, reach or have an orgasm

ciito’un- VTA to put s.t. into s.t.

cii3- PV to the inside, entering

cii3iihi’ ADV inside a close space

cii3oowot- VTI to not believe s.t.

cii3oowoton- VTA to not believe s.t.

cii3o’- PV never

ciixoku- VAI to sit or be located far away

ciixootee- VII to be situated far away

ciiyei’i- VAI to take a step

cisiini PV for some undetermined amount of time

ci’- PV also

cob- VTA to shoot s.o.

coh’oukutoo- VAI to tie one’s hair in a bundle [cooh’oukutoot = Navajo indian]

coo- VAI to come to a place

coocob- VTA to shoot game

coocoo’u3ei’i- VAI to keep bothering people, molesting them

cooco’oowu- VII to be lots of lakes or ponds in an area

cooco’oxet- VII to be clumps of brush scattered about

cooco’oxetiin- VII to be brushy

coon- PV to be unable to do s.t.

coonih- VTA to be unable to handle, manage s.t./s.o.

coonitete’inoneihiinoo- VII to be no longer able to be known, can’t attain knowledge of it

coonteb- VTA to be unable to overtake s.o.

coontow- VTA same as coonteb-

coo’uh- VTA to bother s.o.

coo’u3ei’i- VAI to bother people

cowohwoo- VAI to dance past a place or person

cowoo3itoon- VTA to translate for s.o.; to pass things (stories) on to s.o.

cowo’oo- VAI to get along in life, to get by, survive

cowo’ootiini’ VII “people get along in life, make a living, survive”

co’oekuu- VAI to stand scrunched up, in a ball

co’ooyeitii- VAI to make a pile, to pile things up or on s.t.

co’ooyei3-[i’] VAI to be laying piled up

co’oo’oen- VII to be brushy

co’oteyoo- VII to be a hill, “there is a hill”

co’ouut- VII to be high

co’ouu3ih’ohu- VAI to fly high, to a high place

co’ouu3oo- VII to be high

co’owoh’uune’etii- VAI to live again enjoyably, pleasurably

co’o’wuuteen- VII to be piled in a clumb, as earth or ashes

heebe3niicie NI a big river

hecesnenitee NA dwarf, midget, little person

hecexonoh’oe NA young man

hecexoo’oe’ NI small pistol

hece’eekuu- VAI to stand in the way, to obstruct s.o., to stand guard and prevent passage

hee PART yes

heebeh- PV you might, maybe you...

heebete3eenowoo- VAI to make a big fire for oneself

heebe3ibes NI big log or stick

heebe3ii’eihii NA eagle (“big bird”), especially golden eagle

heebe3kouhu’tinee- VAI to have a big crack in one’s butt

heebe3teh’ei- VAI to have a big stomach or belly

heecet PART before, while not yet

heecis- PV while...

heecisiini PV while...

heecisisee- VAI while s.o. is walking

heeckoohu- VAI to go home

heeco’oo- VAI to recover one’s strength, come to life again [perhaps should be heecoho’oo]

heeh- VAI to say

heehiisetii- VAI to wash things, rinse them out

[NOTE: heenei- derived from hii-]

heeneebe3ce’eihi- VAI to be very big and round

heeneecihi’woon- VTA to protect s.o. by using s.t.

heeneesih’i- VAI however they are called, all those who have names

heeneetoh- PV wherever

heeneetoo- VAI wherever s.o. is located

heenee3- PV from wherever

heenee3ei’nee- PV however much

heeneeyouhuuho NI all kinds of things, anything at all

heeneibiito’owuuwu- VAI to possess lands, private property

heeneiniihi- VAI to move all about nomadically

heeneiniito’eibeti- VAI to become friends with one another, to make peace, establish relations

heeneinoku- VAI to be lying all around, sitting all around

heeneinoo’ei- VAI to hunt all around

heeneinousee- VAI to be well under cover, in hiding

heeneis- PV how, the various ways how

heeneise’enouh- VTA to get s.o. all ready for s.t.

heeneise’enouheti- VAI to get oneself all ready for s.t.

heeneisibi- VAI to all lie down to go to bed, to lie down all around to go to bed

heeneisiiten- VTI to get hold of things, catch things, understand things (including language)

heeneisi3ecoo- VAI the things or ways one is thinking

heeneisko’os-[i’] VAI however or wherever s.o. fell to the ground

heeneite’einooxobei- VAI to lead horses (here)

heeneitouwu- VAI to have blankets

heeneito’oowuuni- VAI to possess houses

heenei3eton- VTA the things one heard

heeneiwo’owoo’oh- VTI to stir s.t. around, move it over with a poker or stick (a fire)

heeneixoowot- VTI to satisfy needs, to get enough of s.t.

heeneixo’osi’i3- VII to have been laid out to dry by someone, as berries

heeneiyoo3ko’ox- VTI to cut things out of s.t. cleanly, properly

heenei’isiihi’ ADV and so forth, etcetera

heenei’i3en- VTI to spread s.t.

heenei’oku- VAI up to where s.o. is located

heenesiiniih- VTA to go around hurting s.o. or various people

heenesiinii3ei- VAI to go around hurting people

heenesoohob- VTA to watch s.o. carefully

heeneti- VAI to speak

heeneti3- VTA to speak to s.o.

heene’in- TI to know all about things, to know lots of things

heene’inoneihi- VAI to be known about in detail, known well

heene’inoo’oo- VAI to get one’s wits back (after being unconscious, hit, etc)

heenoo PART as a rule, customarily, obligation

hees- PV how, what

heesiine’etii- NI someone’s culture (“how s.o. lives”)

heesi3ecoo- VAI what one is thinking

heesniinii3iyei- VAI what various things s.o. has, possesses, uses

heesnoo3oono NI the ones you are hungry for [< hesnoot- VTI to be hungry for s.t.]

heesoo- VII how s.t. is;

heesoo’ NI type, sort, kind

heestei’oo’ NI what is strong

heestoo- VAI what s.o. is doing


heet- PV where

heetee- PV old days, before, traditional

heetee- VAI so it is you who are... (indicating discovery or suprise)

      Note: this verb takes a subjunctive ending when animate and singular:

      heeteehek nono’oteiht = ‘so you’re the one who is powerful’ (Two Sons)

heeteeneb- VTA to honor s.o.

heeteh- PV where

heeteihi- VAI where s.o. is from

heete(e)niih- VTA take care of, look after s.o.

heete3ein- VTA to collide with s.o., run into them

heete3einobee- VAI to hit a bump on the ground, as in driving

heetih- PV so that, in order that

heetni’bii3woohuutooninoo NI the things they are going to cook with

heetou- VII where s.t. is located

heetoxu- VAI how many there are of s.o., s.t.; all of those in some group or class

hee3- PV from a place

hee3- VTA to say to s.o.

hee3eb- PV there, over there

hee3ebiiten- VTA to steal s.t. from s.o.

hee3ebiikohei- VAI to ride over there

hee3ebko’un- VTI to pluck, pick, take a bit of s.t. over there

hee3eeniini PV why

hee3ei’nee- PV how much, how many

hee3ei’neeniihi’ ADV that much, to that extent

hee3ei’o’bee’ NI the world (“as far as the land extends”)

hee3eyoo’uu- VAI how s.o. is dressed (especially in formal, dressed-up style)

hee3e’eekuu- VAI the direction in which or towards which s.o. is standing

hee3e’eikoohu- VAI the direction in which or place to which one is driving

hee3e’einiine’etii- VAI the path that one’s life is following, the road of one’s life

hee3e’eitee- VII the direction which something faces, towards which it is facing

hee3itoo3ib- VTA to drag s.o. away from a place, out of a place

hee3nee- PV really, very, a lot

hee3ou3eih- VTA how s.o. educated s.o. else

heewoteisee- VAI to make clear, loud, plain noise as one walks

heeyei NA falcon, “swift hawk”

heeyeih- PV it is good that...

heeyou NI what?

heeyouhuu NI something, a thing

heeyow- PV each, every

      Note: this preverb requires the use of the iterative suffix with the verb:

      heeyow-eeto3einobee-nooni = ‘every time-be bounced by a bump in the road-I (iterative)’

            (George Quiver Visits the Doctor)

      heeyow-cowohwoo-ni3i = ‘every time-dance past-they (iterative)’ (Nih’oo3oo and Ducks)

      heeyow-[w]o’owoku-3i = every time-scoot over-he (iterative)’ (Strong Bear and the Ghost)


heihii PART soon

heihno’oxotoneiit NI the one he brought for you [< no’oxoton- VTA]

heiniistootiibin NI the things which we use, our possessions, our gear

heinoku- VAI to be sitting or lying somewhere, located somewhere

heinoo NA your mother

heinootee- VII to be lying somewhere, located or laid out somewhere

heisiihehinoo NA your grandchildren

heisonoo NA your father

hei’- PV up to a point, as far as it goes

hei’- PV when, once it has occurred

hei’iini PV when, once it has occurred

hei‘iibii3woohuutoonin NI the things we cook with

hei’tobee- VAI to say s.t.; to have been told s.t.

hei’towoot- VTI to tell s.t.

hei’towuun- VTA to tell s.o. s.t.

hei’towuunei’eetooninoo NI the things which they told us, said to us

heneecee NA buffalo bull

henetii- VAI to lose s.t.

hentoo-, heentoo- VAI to be at a place, to be present

hesiikooku- VAI to run fast

hesiini PV painful, hurting

hesiiniih- VTA to hurt s.o.

hesitee NI fire

hesitee- VII to be hot

hesnee- VAI to be hungry

hesnih- VTA to make s.o. angry

hesnoo- VAI to be hungry

hesnoot NI hunger, famine

hesnoot- VTI to be hungry for s.t.

het- PV in order to, for the purpose of, so that

het- PV you must to s.t., future command: do s.t. later!

heteb- VTA to overtake s.t. (game)

hetebinouhuuni- VAI to be poor, pitiful (“to wear poor clothing”)

heteinebeihi- VAI to be spending the night, to be laid down to spend the night

heteini- VAI to spend the night somewhere

heten- VTI to take s.t. out of s.t., from s.t.

heti’eis-[i’] VAI to fall and strike s.t. with one’s face or head

hetow- VTA to overtake s.t. (game) [same as heteb-]

he3 NA dog

he3ebceno’oo- VAI to jump to over there

he3ebiiheti’eis-[i’] VAI to fall and hit s.t. there with one’s face or head

he3ewoxow- VTA to give s.o. over there eat [< hee3eb + howox]

heyei- PV almost, but not yet; approaching, but not there yet

heyoo- VII to be long

[hii]heyot- VII to be heavy

he’- PV uncertainty, “I wonder...” “I guess...”

      he’ih’uu3e’ = he’ + nih + huu3e’ = ‘it was over there, I guess’ or ‘over there somewhere’

            (Nih’oo3oo and Ducks)

      Note: this preverb often is used with the iterative suffix on the verb:

      ne’et-niistoo-nooni = ‘uncertain future-do-I (iterative)’ (Bear Satisfied)

      toonhe’-ii3inoo’oo-3i = undefined uncertain-show up suddenly from a place-he (iterative)

            = ‘he just suddenly showed up from somewhere or other’ (Nih’oo3oo and Butt)

      Note: this preverb can also be used with non-affirmative suffixes:

      he’-entoo-no’ = uncertain-be located-they = ‘maybe they’re located there’ (Splitting)

he’ih- PAST TENSE used in narratives, meaning ‘it is said to have happened’

      Note: also occurs as he’ih’ii- = he’ih + nii-, meaning ‘it is said to have happened

            regularly, it was happening’

      he’ih’ii-tounowuu hiicetino = ‘they were holding their hands, they would be holding

            their hands’ (Strong Bear Shakes Hands)

he’ii- PV uncertainty, “I wonder...” (see he’-)

he’iicxooyeiniihi’ ADV after a while

he’iisiini PV however, somehow, unclear how s.t. happens

he’iiteihi3i NA someone

he’iitneenini’i NI somewhere

he’iitnei’i NI somewhere

he’iitoo- VAI to be located in an uncertain or unknown place

he’iitou- VII to be located in an uncertain or unknown place

he’iitoxee- VII however many there are

he’iitoxuus PART several days

he’ii3- PV what sort? some sort, some kind

    he’ii3inoo’oo3i VAI to appear suddenly from somewhere unknown, to just show up out of nowhere

he’ii3ou’u NI something

he’iiwoniistoo- VAI “I wonder what X is going to do”; to be going to do s.t. or other

he’in- VTI to know s.t.

he’inon- VTA to know s.o.

he’inootii- VAI to have one’s wits, be sane

he’ne’- PV then, so then, next

hibei’iisoowu- VAI to have a doll, to use s.t. as a doll

hibetebihow NA “his old lady”, his wife

hibi NA his older sister

hice’eenoo NI his shoulder

hicobo’o NI the one that he shot [< cob-]

hihcebee PART nearby

hihcebe’ PART above

hiheyeihi’- VAI to possess, have a home

      neihoow-uuheyeihi’ = I not-have a home (White Man and the Fox)

hih’iixoohoo3ihei’eetooninoo NI the things which they showed us [hiixoohoo3ih-]

hii- VAI to say s.t.

hiicet NI his hand

hiicoo- VAI to smoke

hiicoonii- VAI to be a pipe, to be the Sacred Pipe

hiihei3-[i’] VAI to be heavy

hiiheyot- VII to be heavy

hiihoot-[e’] VAI to die, be dead [Note: third person iterative is hiihootenei’i, as if from


hiih’ehi- VAI to have a son

hiih’o NA his son

hiii- VAI to camp (individually)

hiii NI a campsite

hiii NA snow

hiiicoo NA pipe

hiikokoyoxoe[yoo] NI boxing ring (“square fenced area”)

hiikon NI lung

hiikoot PART also, too, in addition

hiinco’oocoeniihi’ ADV over and over

hiineesee- VAI to turn back around when walking

hiineihcehi- VAI to turn around quickly

hiine3oon PART instead

hiine’etii- VAI to live

hiine’etiit NI life; way of living, culture

hiine’etiiwoohu- VAI to make a living, earn a living

hiinih’ohuukoohu- VAI to fly all around very quickly, to dart around in flight

hiinisee- VAI to wander around on foot

hiinoono’et- VII to be cloudy

hiinoo’ei- VAI to hunt

hiinousee- VAI to be in hiding, under cover

hiintohoe’e- VAI to get one’s arms/hands back around behind one

hiinwo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along in a wandering fashion

hiis- PV already, finished

      heniis-ehtonihe3en = ‘I have tricked you now’ (White Man and Fox)

hiis- PV how

hiis- VTA to be afraid of s.o.

hiiseteen- VII to be ready to eat (ripe, cooked)

hiise’enou- VAI to be ready

hiise’enouh- VTA to get s.o. ready

hiise’enouheihi- VAI to have been gotten ready

hiisi- VAI to be married

hiisibi- VAI to go to bed

hiisibihcehi- VAI to plop oneself down, go to bed quickly

hiisiin- VII to be daytime

hiisiini’etii- VAI to be tame, gentle, friendly

hiisiiten- VTI to grab, catch s.t.; to understand s.t., (language, for ex.)

hiisini’oo’ NI the good, the positive

hiisi’ih’- VTA to raise a child

hiisoo- VII how it is

hiit PART here

hiitcebisee- VAI to walk here; to walk through a place to here

hiiteen NI tribe

hiite’eici3- VTA to lead a horse here

hiitonciinen- VTI to put s.t. down on both sides of s.t.

hiitoniihi’ ADV on both sides, at both ends

hiitoo3noohootiini’ NI telescope (‘one sees things close by with it’)

hiitouk PART well sure enough! just like they said!

hiitox- PV how many

hiitoxcecnibee- VAI how old s.o. is

      ne’nih’iitox-cecnibeet = ‘that’s how many-years she had’ (“that’s how old she was”)

      (Women in the Park)

hii3- PV from a place

hii3- TA to say to s.o.

hii3e- VAI to be heavy

hii3ee- PV why

hii3einoon NA buffalo

hii3ei’nee- PV how much, how many, to what extent or degree

hii3e’ PART there, from there

hii3e’inon- VTA the source from which one knows about s.o.

hii3iihi’ ADV from there

hii3iton- PV more, additional

hii3itoniini PV more, additional

hii3o’xuuheti- VAI to manage to get oneself away from a place

hiiwo’ PART hey!, gee!, unexpected occurrence or fact

hiix- VTA to be scared of s.o.

hiixokeee- VAI to have already crossed a river (usually by wading)

hiixoke’i- VAI to have alreaded crossed a river

hiixoohoo3ih- VTA to teach s.o. s.t., to show s.o. s.t.

hiixookuh- VTA to fill s.t., as a pipe

hiixoowot- VTI to satisfy a need, to get enough of s.t.

hiixoowoton- VTA to satisfy s.o., fulfill their needs

hiixoowusee- VAI to have completed getting down from a car or horse

hiixoo’otii- VAI to dry s.t., by laying it in the sun

hiixouuhu- VAI to have succeeded in climbing, to have climbed to the top

hiixoxonee- VAI to be full, loaded

hiiyoh- PV truly, really, perfectly

hiiyohoo3inoo’oo- VAI to disappear suddenly, vanish into thin air

hiiyohou’(u)n- VII to be nothing, to vanish, to not exist [c.f. yohou’usee-]

hiiyoo3itii- VAI to clean s.t., keep it clean, polish it

hiiyo’otii- VAI to quarrel, argue

hii’ee- PV clearly, plainly (heard, seen, etc)

hikooo NI his back

hinee PART that

hinen NA man

hinenihiinoseino’ NI moose meat

hineniini- VAI to be a man, to be manly

hinenitee NA person

hinenteeni- VAI to become a person (when formerly an animal)

hiniicito NI his teeth

hiniihei’i NA her parents

hiniine’etiiwooon NA the one with whom he lived [< hiine’etiib-]

hiniiniinii3iyooninoo NI their possessions, the things they keep

hiniiniinsi- VAI to possess, have a horn (as a part of one’s body)

hiniisiihoho NA his/her grandchildren

hiniisonoon NA his father

hiniito’ei NA his relative

hinii3oonin NA his penis

hinit PART right there

hini’ PART that

hinono’ei NA Arapaho

hinono’eitiit NI Arapaho language

hinowoho’oe- VAI to put one’s hand out of sight

hinowunoo’oo- VII to have disappeared from sight quickly

hisei NA woman

hiseihihi’ NA young woman, girl

hiteehib NA strawberry

hitei’towo’o NI what he says, teaches, tells people [< hei’tobee-]

hiten- VTI to take s.t.

hiteneixonowo NI their clothes [< heneixono ‘things worn’]

hitenowuun- VTA to take s.t. for s.o., to take s.t. from s.o.

hitesii NA Cheyenne indian

hitesitee NI his fire [< hesitee]

hitet- VTI to reach/get to a place, to get s.t.

hiteteihi- VAI to have gotten s.t.

hiteteihiit NI the thing s.o. has received

hitiicoono NI his ribs

hitohko’o’ NI his chin

hitohoen- VTA to take s.o.’s hand

hitonihi’ NA his horse, his pet

hitonih’i- VAI to have a horse, a pet

hitookuhu’ee NI his head [< hookuhu’ee]

hitoono NA his daughter

hitoonohu- VAI to have a daughter

hitooxniitouuhu- VAI to call or holler out from behind s.o.; to holler out last (in a series)

hitoseinouwu- VAI to possess meat

hitoseino’ NI his meat [< ‘hoseino’]

hitouunen NA Gros Ventre indian

hito’uuwono NI his jerked meat [< ho’uuwono]

hi3- PV later

hi3eihi- VAI to be good

hi3et- VII to be good

hi3etin- VII to be good

      hee3nee-noonoxon-ii3etin-i’i = very/really-extremely-good-they = “they are really

      extremely good” (Women in the Park)

hi3e’ex NA his son-in-law

hi3kuu3- VTA to grab, seize

hi3oobei- VAI to be correct, right, to speak the truth

hi3oobe’ PART below, underneath

hi3oowot- VTI to believe s.t.

hi3oowoton- VTA to believe s.o.

hi3ou’oo- VII to be evening

hiwoxuu NA elk

hiwoxuunoseino’ NI elk meat

hix NI bone

hixoh- VTA to take s.o.

hiyeihi’ NI his home, lodge

hiyeih’i- VAI to have a home, lodge

hiyoon NA his brother-in-law

hi’- PV INSTRUMENTAL, with this, because of this, thanks to this, about this, from this

      Note: often appears as -i’

      nii-ni’-hei’towuun-o’ = continuing-about it-tell her-I/her =

      “I keep on telling her about it” (Women in the Park)

hi’i NA snow

hi’iihi’ ADV INSTRUMENTAL by, because of, by means of

hi’in PART that, that one

hi’isiinis-[i’] VAI to lay or sleep warmly in the cold

hohe’ NI mountain

hohkonee PART finally

hohoot NA tree

hoho’noo3ehe’ NI a little hatchet or axe

hoh’eni’ NI in the mountains

hokeee- VAI to cross a river

hokok NI soup, stew

hokoo3inoo’oo- VAI to change shape or form (suddenly) [same as following]

hokooxunoo’oo- VAI to change shape or form (suddenly) [same as preceding]

honinoo’oo- VAI to fall over quickly from a standing position

honoh’oe NA young man

honoh’oehi’ NA very young man, boy

honoh’oehihi’ NA very young man, boy

hononcitii- VAI to handle s.t. carefully, protect it by holding it

hononih- VTA to protect and take care of s.o.

honoot PART until

honoyei- VAI to put down liners, protection [honoyeih-owoo?]

hoocei’in- VTI to stretch s.t. out (to dry for ex.)

hookoh PART because

hookootii- VAI to take s.t. home with one

hookoo3- VTA to take s.o. to one’s home

hookoo3ei- VAI to bring home meat

hoonii PART after a long time

hoonooten- VTI to hook s.t. up to s.t.

hoonoo3oo’o’ NI/NA all the others

hoonowooyeiti- VAI to pray for, about things

hoonowoo’oo- VAI to pray about things

hoonoxow- VTA to feed regularly

hoonoyoohoot- VTI to watch out for s.t.

hoonoyoohootowoo- VAI to watch out for oneself

hoonoyoohob- VTA to watch out for s.o.

hoono’ PART not yet, before

hootii- VAI to camp (as a group)

hoo3itee- VAI to tell a story

hoo3itoo NI story

hoo3itoon- VTA to tell a story to someone

hoo3itoot- VTI to tell a story about s.t.

hoo3onci3- VTA to fail to manipulate s.o., handle s.o.

hoo3oniini PV fail

hoo3ontii- VAI to fail to do s.t.

hoo3ontoo- VAI to fail to do s.t.

hoo3oo’o’ NI/NA others

hoow- PV not

hoowoh- PV lots, plenty

hoowoh’oe PART wait!

hoowooh- PV no longer, not any more

hoowooh’ini PV no longer, not any more

hoowoonoosoo’oo- VAI to come tumbling downwards, out of control

hoowuh- PV too, excessively

hoowuh’ohuukoohu- VAI to swoop down, fly down quickly


hoowuniihiihi’ ADV downstream

hoowuniihisee- VAI to walk downstream, alongside the stream to the east

hoowuniihkoohu- VAI to run downstream

hoowusee- VAI to walk downwards

hoowuuhu’ ADV no, not

hoowuuni PV no, not

hoowuus- PV not already, not done [< hoow + hiis]

hoowuus- VTA not afraid of s.o. [< hoow + hiis]

hooxeb NI a spring

hooxoeheti- VAI to laugh to oneself

hooxohoen- VTA to pay s.o. back, get vengeance

hooxono’o NI Riverton, WY (“over the river”)

hooxoo3- VTA to laugh at s.o.

hooxuu3iiw NI bridge

hooxuuxonoo’oo- VAI to dry s.t. [c.f. 3ooxuuxonoo’oo- ]??

hooxuuxotii- VAI to carry s.t. across s.t.

hooxuuxoton- VTA to carry s.t. across s.t. for s.o.

hooyei PART most

hoseino’ NI meat

hoseitisee- VAI to walk back, to walk backwards

hosei3iihi’ ADV old times, former times left behind

hotii NA wagon, car, wheel; the Sacred Wheel

hotitoo3ib- VTA to drag s.o./s.t. out of a place

hotoob-[e’] VAI to eat s.t. up, consume it

hotonih’in NA our horses; our pets or domestic animals

ho3 NI arrow

ho3es PART in plain sight, in the open

ho3iiw NI boat

ho3i’eebee- VAI to have been asked to do s.t. for s.o.

ho3o’uunesitee NA charcoal, coal

ho3ton- VTA to pay s.o. back, get vengeance on them

hou NI blanket

hou3etii- VAI to set s.t. out

hou3e3ei’i- VAI to set a fishing line [houu3- ?]

houu NA Crow tribe

houunen NA Crow Indian man

houunenitee NA Crow Indian

houunoneenoo- VAI to be difficult

houu3-[i’] VAI to be hanging; to be X moon or time of year

      Note: In Arapaho, one says “September is hanging,” meaning “the September moon

      is hanging” in order to say “it is September” (The Women in the Park)

howoh- PV with pleasure, enjoyably

howoo PART also

howoo3itoo- VAI to enjoy s.t., do s.t. for fun

howoto’oo- VAI to wake up

howouun- VTI to have sympathy for s.t., be in sympathy with it

howouunon- VTA to have mercy or pity on s.o.

how3o’uuni PV never

hoxob- VTA to feed s.o.

hoxtoono’ NI cliff, excavated area in a bank, overhanging area

hoxtoono’uun- VII to be cliffs, for there to be cliffs in an area, “there is a cliff”

ho’(o)nookee NA rock

ho’wohoe’e- VAI to close one’s hand

hunit PART right there (same as hinit)

huut PART here

huutiino PART around here

huu3e’ PART there, over there

huuwoonhehe’ PART today, now

kocoo’o3ih- VTA to kill s.o.

koe’sohoe’e- VAI to clap one’s hands

koe’tees- VII to go off, explode (as a bullet)

koheisihcehi- VAI to leap up suddenly

kohei’i- VAI to stand up, get up

kohk- PV through a hole or passageway; through a ceremony or experience

kohkno’oehi- VAI to go outside through s.t. (such as an opening)

kohtobetouuhu- VAI to holler out strangely, call out strangely, make a funny noise

kohtowuh- VTA to harm s.o.

kohtowuuni PV funny, strange, unusual, harmful

kohooxoe- VII to be burning

kohooxoen- VII to be burning

koh’ei- PV quite a few

koh’usetii- VAI to break or crack s.t. in half

koh’ux- VTI to cut s.t. open, cut it in half

kokoh’oeneet- VTI to think about s.t.

kokuy NI gun

kokuyoono3 NI bullet

konoh- PV everything, completely, entirely

konoo’ PART anyway

konou’u’ei- VAI to have a wrinkly face ???

konow- PV while, during, as s.t. else is going on, as s.t. is in the process of happening

konowunootee- VII while s.t. is burning, as it is in the process of burning

kookoh’unoo’oo- VII to crack apart in all directions

kookokoh’uut- VTA to examine s.o.

kookon PART for no reason, without purpose, just to be doing s.t., just anything

kookoonooku- VAI to open one’s eyes

kookoo’uhcehi- VAI to ejaculate

kookoseinoon- VII to be/make crackling sounds, popping sounds

kookou’(u)neihii PART please (used in prayers)

kooko’ox- VTI to cut things out of s.t., as entrails out of an animal

kooko’uyei- VAI to pick various kinds of berries, gather berries

kookuyon PART for no reason, for just any reason or purpose, just anything

koonoku- VAI to open one’s eye(s)

kootee- VII to be burning (a fire)

koox- PV yet again, once more

koo’oeniihi’ ADV slowly and carefully

koo’oeniini PV slowly and carefully

koo’oh NA coyote

koseineekuutii- VAI to make a snapping or clicking sound

koseinoonin- VII to make a clicking sound, for there to be a clicking sound

kotous-[i’] VAI to be covered, as by a blanket; to be covered by clouds (moon)

kotousine- VAI same as kotous-[i’]

kotousihcehi- VAI to jump under cover, duck into cover

kotoyus- VII to drip down from s.t.

ko3einiihi’ ADV old

ko3oo3- VTA to miss s.o., as in shooting

kounooho’ohei- VAI to stir a mixture, to prepare for making gravy

koxcei’i- VAI to be fat, plump

koxcis- VII to be mired, stuck in mud or sand

koxoh- VTI to dig s.t. up, as a root for food or medicine

koxo’- PV slowly

koxo’nootee[n]- VII to burn slowly

kox3iihi’ ADV on the other side, over the hill

koxu3kuu3- VTA to place s.o. over s.t., so that they extend over to the other side

koxuutenih- VTA to catch s.o. off guard, do s.t. suddenly to s.o.

koxuuteniini PV suddenly

koxuuton PART suddenly

ko’eiciibe’e- VAI to meet in a circle, such as in smoking, telling stories, etc.

ko’einoon- VII to be round

ko’einoxoeyoo NI corral, fenced circular area

ko’eino’ohtoo NI tire, rim (of wooden wheel)

ko’ohowuun- VTA to take, cut, or remove s.t. for s.o.

ko’os-[i’] VAI to fall to the ground, hit the ground

ko’sine- VAI to fall to the ground, land on the ground

ko’xohei’i- VAI to cause lightning and thunder (the Thunderbird); rumbling of thunder

ko’xootowoo- VAI to clear one’s throat

ko’uyei- VAI to gather or pluck berries

nebesiibehe’ NA my grandfather

nebesiiwoho’ NA my grandfathers

nebi NA my older sister

nebihceheinosohoe’e- VAI to make a quick movement as if to clap one’s hands

nebihcehi- VAI to make a quick movement as if to do s.t.

nec NI water

nec-[e’] VAI to die

necesiihi’ ADV a little [< heces-]

neebeh- PV I might...

neec- PV for a while

neecee NA chief

neeceentoo- VAI to remain somewhere for a short time

neeciini PV for a while

neecisee- VAI to go on along

neeckoohu- VAI to go home; to go to heaven

neeckuutii- VAI to get s.t. started, get it going

neehebehe’ NA brother-in-law

neehii3ei’ PART the middle, in the middle

[NOTE: neenei- derived from hii-]

neeneh- PV let it be, leave it alone

neenehiini PV let it be, leave it alone

neeneh’eihiinoo- VII for things to have been killed, to have been killed

neeneicxooyei’oo- VII how far along the time of year is, what season it is

neeneinootee- VII to be arranged, laid or sat out all around

neeneinowus[i’] VAI to have gone out of sight

neeneis- PV how

neeneisih’- VTA to name s.o.

neeneisih’i- VAI how s.o. is named, called (habitually)

neeneisinihiitoono’ VII “the things that people are saying”

neeneitohboo3eti3i’ niiyou hee3ei’o’bee’ NI world war (“where they fought all over the world”)

neenei3oo3itoon- VTA the stories that s.o. tells to s.o. (habitually)

neenei’towuun- VTA to say things to s.o. (habitually)

neeneno’oo- VII to be dying away, dying off, approaching death, endangered (language)

neene’ee- VAI here is...

neenih’owuuni PV too far, push things too far, try too much

neenii3nowoo- VAI to have things for oneself, own them

neenonih- VTA to murder s.o., kill s.o.

neenoniseenoo- VII to have vanished, disappeared, died off

neenono’oo- VAI to vanish, disappear, die off

neenou- VAI to get prepared for s.t., to do s.t.

neenout- VTI to get s.t. prepared, ready

neeno’xoton- VTA to keep bringing s.t. for s.o.

nees- PV behind, remaining behind

neesco’oowusee- VAI to walk and leave a puddle (of blood) behind one

neeseh’e NA my older brother

neeseinootee- VII to be left laying behind

neesiini PV behind, remaining behind

neesi’owoo- VAI to be the third one

neetehee3ei- VAI to take off one’s clothes

neetineih- VTA to scare s.o. to death, to scare them and cause them to faint

neetinoo’oo- VAI to be getting tired

neetitoo3ib- VTA to drag s.o. completely out of a place

neetokooyei- VAI to die of thirst

neeton- VTA to kill s.o. for s.o. else; to kill s.o. as a way of hurting s.o. else

neeto3-[i’] VAI to freeze to death

nee3nee- PV really, very, a lot

neeyou PART there it is

nee’ee PART wait! (woman speaking)

nee’eeneestoo- VAI to do just like that

nee’eeneete’in- VTI “thoses are the sources from which they knew things”

nee’eeneetoxunihii- VAI to have said enough about things

nee’eenee3oxuuheti- VAI “those are the reasons why you have brought yourself here”

nee’ees- PV thus, like that

nee’eesih’- VTA that’s what s.o. calls s.o. else

nee’eesis- VII to end in that way

nee’eesixoh- VTA to take s.o. like that (to that place, or to do that thing)

nee’eesoo- VAI to be thus, to be like this, like that

nee’eestoo- VAI to do that, like that

nee’eet- PV that’s where

nee’eetoo- VAI that’s where s.o. is located

nee’eetoxee- VII to be enough

nee’ee3iniih- VTA that’s how s.o. scared s.o. else into fainting or to death

nee’ee3sohowuun- VTA to make a certain sign or gesture to s.o., as with sign language

neh- PV away from here (where the speaker is)

      Note: often occurs as -eh:

      ne’nii’eh-ceibi’tou’ut = ne’ + nii’ + neh- = ‘that’s when away from him-he tossed them aside’ (Nih’oo3oo and Ducks)

      heetneh’e3eb-ceno’oot = heet + neh + he3eb- = ‘he will from where he is to over there-

            jump’ (Jumping the Canyon)

      hee3ebeh-no’koohut = hee3eb + neh- = ‘there away from where he started-he arrived by running’ (Jumping Canyon)

      ne’eh-ce’ii3o’kuuhetit = ne’ + neh- = ‘then from there-he got himself back to where

            he started from’ (Jumping Canyon) [xuuheti ??]

      ne’eh-ciiteinoo = ne’ + neh- = ‘then I went in there from outside’ (George Quiver Visits

            the Doctor)

nehe’ PART this

nehtonih- VTA to trick s.o.

nehyonih- VTA to check up on s.o., check s.o. out

neh’- VTA to kill s.o.

neh’ehei- VAI to kill s.t. [same as neh’ei’i-]

neh’ei’i- VAI to kill s.t. [same as neh’ehei-]

neh’i- VAI to be three

nei- PV could (if)..., would (if), potentially

neih- PV could have (if), would have, potentially (past)

neih- VTA to frighten s.o.

neihoow- PV not

neih’kuu3- VTA to kill s.t. on a hunt

neii NI sand

neii’iine’ LOC “in the sand”

neini’einei- VAI to be dizzy, get dizzy

neini’iice3oono NI the ones I like the taste of [< ni’iicet- VTI to like to eat s.t., like the taste of it]

neinoo NA my mother

neisiini PV how (same as niisiini)

neisonoo NA my father

neitooto’oneitooninoo NA the one who lives real close to us, right nearby us (< tooto’on-)

neito’ei NA my relative, my tribesperson

nei3ecoo- VAI to be of a frightened mind, have frightened thoughts, be frightened

neiwoo NA grandmother!

neixoo NA father!

nei’eihi- VAI to hold on to s.t. (metaphorically), remain attached to it

nei’en- VTA to hold s.o. tightly

nei’iin- VII to be stuck tight

nei’iitibi- VAI to hold on tightly to s.t.

nei’i’i’otou3enee- VAI to be stuck tight someplace

nei’oohob- VTA to look at s.o.

nei’oohoot- VTI to look at s.t.

nei’ooku’oo- VAI to look at s.t.

nei’towuun- VTA to be telling s.o. s.t. habitually, or over and over, keep telling them

nenebiihi’ ADV in the north

neneebeeniini PV taboo

neneenin NA you, you are the one who..., it is you who...

neneenini’ NI it

neneeninoo NA I, I am the one who..., it is I who...

neneenino’ NA we, us

nenee’ NI it

nenee’i’iihi’ ADV at least

neniniixoo3- VTA to shake s.o.’s hand

neniniixouhu- VAI to shake hands with s.o.

nenitee NA person

neteenetiit NI my language [< heenetiit]

netineniteewo’ NA my people, my tribespeople [< hinenitee]

ne3it NI my butt

neyei- PV to try to...

neyeisiini PV separating from each other

neyeiso’oo- VAI to get separated from one another

neyeitii- VAI to try to do s.t.; to learn s.t.

neyei3eih- VTA to teach s.o. s.t.

neyei3eitee- VII to be taught, promoted

neyei3ih- VTA to challenge s.o., try s.o. out, test them

neyei3itoo- VAI to try s.t., to try to do s.t.

neyo’o NA my brother-in-law

ne’- PV then, next

ne’- PV that...

      ne’nih’iis- “that was how...”

      ne’nih’iit- “that was where...”

      heetne’niis- “that will be how..., that is how X will...”

      heetne’niit- “that will be where... that is where X will...”

      ne’niis- “that is how...”

      ne’eeneis- “those are the ways how...”

nih’et- PV was supposed to, was going to but didn’t

nihii- VAI to say s.t.

nihii PART well...

nihi’koohu- VAI to run, to run fast

nihi’kuutii- VAI to pull the trigger of a gun, shoot a gun

nihi’nee- PV a lot, greatly

nihi’neenoo’oo- VII to be flowing swiftly (water)

nihkuu3- VTA to rub s.o.’s genitals, manually stimulate them

nihoonkoo- VII to be September (“the leaves are yellow”)

nih’onii- VAI to try hard, persist

nih’oniitowoo- VAI to try hard at s.t.

nih’oo3oo NA white man

nih’oo3ounec NI whiskey

nih’oo3oune’iyei- VAI to know things in a white man way

nih’oo3ouniini PV white culture, ways, people

nih’oo3ousei NA white woman

nih’oo3ouyeiti- VAI to speak English

nih’oo3ouyeitiit NI English language

nii- PV indicates regular or habitual action

nii- VAI to say s.t. habitually

niibe- VAI to take s.t. along with one, have s.t. with one

niibei’i- VAI to sing

niiboon- VTA to sing for s.o.

niicii NI river

niiciihiinen NA Kiowa indian (“river person”)

niihen- PV for oneself, by oneself, on one’s own

niiheniihi’ ADV by myself, on my own

niiheyoo PART on one’s own

niine’ee- VAI here is....

niiinon NI tepee

niinen NI tallow, fat

niinih’ohuunoo’ NI airplane (“it flies”)

niinono’eiti- VAI to speak Arapaho habitually

niinooxoo NI tripe

niinou’oo’ hinee heeteci’ NI ocean liner (“it floats on the ocean”)

niinwo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along in a wandering fashion, habitually, as nomads

niis- PV how (habitually)

niisee- VII to be two

niiseekuu- VAI to get married (“to stand as two”)

niisehtoneihi- AI to be clever, to be tricky

niiseihi- VAI to be one

niisen- VTI to wrap s.t.

niiset- VII to be one

niisi- VAI to be two

niisie NA grandchild

niisihee- VAI how s.o. is habitually treated

niisihi- VII to be made (habitually, regularly)

niisih’ee- VAI to be called a name (habitually)

niisih’iit NI name

niisiini PV how

niisinen- VII to be wrapped in s.t., enveloped in s.t.

niisis- VII to be wrapped

niisisee- VAI how one (habitually) gets by, makes it through (life, hard times, etc)

niisi3ei’i- VAI to work

niisi3oo NI work, working, a job

niisiyoo3oo NI bag, wrapper

niisnenii- VAI to be alone

niisootii- VAI to camp alone

niisootoxee- VII to be seven

niisootoxuuus NI seven days

niiso’ PV together, as a pair

niistii- VAI to do s.t., to make s.t.

niiston- VTA to work for s.o.

niistoo- VAI to do

niit- PV where

niiteekuuw- VTA to stand as one, stand united

niiteheib- VTA to help s.o.

niitei’eekuu- VAI to stand in line, in a row

niiten- VTA to kiss s.o.

niiteneti- VAI to kiss each other

niitiine3eiheti3i’ NI boxing ring (“where they knock each other around”)

niitisee- VAI where walking

niitobee- VAI to hear news, information

niitobeekuu- VAI to be the best, be the champion (“to stand first”)

niitoh- PV where

niiton- VTA to hear s.o.

niitoo- VAI where s.o. is located

niitootosoo’ NI sixty

niitoukutooxowootiini’ NI hitching post (“where people tie up horses”)

niitouuhu- VAI to holler, cry out, call out

niitowoot- VTI to hear s.t.

niito’- PV first

niito’iini PV first

nii3- VTA to say to s.o. habitually, repeatedly [see hii3-]

nii3- PV with s.o. else

nii3in- VTI to have s.t.

nii3iyei- VAI to have things

nii3iyoo NI the thing one has, possesses, uses, one’s “material culture”

nii3oon- VTA to accompany s.o.

nii3ootee’eeni- VAI to be braided, wound

nii3oo3itee- VAI how s.o. habitually tells a story

nii3wo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along with s.o. else

niiwohoe NI flag

niiwoho’on- VTI to carry s.t., have it with you [same as niiwoh’un]

niiwoho’on- VTA to carry s.t. along with one, as a pipe

niiwoh’un- VTI to carry s.t., have it with you [same as niiwoho’on]

niiwookoxon- VTA to give s.o. food to carry along on a trip, supply them with provisions

niixoo PART too, also

niiyou PART here it is

nii’- PV when

nii’eihii NA bird; eagle

nii’eikuu3- VTA to throw s.t. in s.o.’s face [niih’eikuu3- ?]

nii’e’ee PART for sure, surely, plainly, it’s plain to see

nisice NA antelope

nisicehiinoseino’ NI antelope meat

nisih’oxonee- VAI to have brown skin

ni’- PV to be able to do s.t.

ni’ec NI lake

ni’eeneb- VTA to like s.o.

ni’eenii- VAI to manage to do s.t., succeed in doing s.t.

ni’iicet- VTI to like to eat s.t., to like the taste of s.t.

ni’iini PV good, be good

ni’iit- VTI to call s.t. X

ni’iitoo3noohootiini’ NI telescope (‘one sees things as if close by with it’)

ni’ii3- VTA to call s.o. X

ni’itii- VAI to do good

ni’i’(o)h’- VTA to raise animals, livestock

ni’obee- VAI to agree with people

      nii’obee3i’ = I agree with them (?)

ni’oo- VII to be good

ni’otobee- VAI to hear well

ni’o3inoo’oo- VII to be freezing up

ni’owoo3- VTA to agree with s.o.

      NOTE: respective roles are the reverse of English

      nii’owoo3e3en = you agree with me (NOT ‘I agree with you’)

      nii’owoo3in = I agree with you (NOT ‘you agree with me’)

noehi- VAI to go outside

noh PART and

nohco’oo- VAI to participate, take part in s.t.

nohk- PV with

nohkcebii’oo- VAI to be created with s.t., having s.t. special

nohkou3etii- VAI to add s.t. to a stew, for ex. [to hang things with other things?]

nohkuh’ebi- VAI to drink s.t. with s.t. else, some other food

nohkuseic PART in the morning

nohkuusiii’oo- VAI to grow up with s.t., accompanied by it

nohokoo3oo- VII to be bitterly cold outside

noho’koohu- VAI to run uphill

noho’kosot- VII to appear shiny

noho’ou’uhu- VAI to climb upwards

noho’usee- VAI to walk uphill

noho’uuhu’ ADV uphill

nohuusoho’ PART that’s how it is, that’s it

noh’- VTA to kill s.o.

noh’eisisib- VTA to scatter s.o., s.t. [noh’eisib- ?]

noh’en- VTI to lift s.t.

noh’oe3ee- VII to be shining (moon), lit, visible

noh’ookenen- VII to be light (in the morning), to be dawn

noh’oowuhcehi- VAI to make a flapping motion, as with arms 

noh’uhcesine- VAI to slip and fall; to be bounced

noh’uusiiyoo- VII to be illuminated, as by moonlight

nokohu- VAI to sleep

nokooyei- VAI to fast as part of a vision quest

nokooyeisibeti- VAI to set oneself down or “install” oneself at a fasting site

noko3ton- VTA to imitate s.o.

nonoukooku- VAI to run while bent over, crouched over

nonousee- VAI to walk bent over, hunched or crouched over

nono’ei NA Arapaho person

non3enouuhu- VAI to make a bizarre, crazy, or unnatural noise, call out in that way

noobe’einiihi’ ADV in a southerly direction, downstream

noobe’eisee- VAI to go in a southerly direction

noohob- VTA to see s.o.

noohobeihi- VAI to be seen by s.o.

noohoot- VTI to see s.t.

noohoo3ei- VAI to see things

noohowkuu3- VTA to catch a glimpse of s.o., see them suddenly

nookbei’ci3e’ NI silver (“white metal”)

nookeihi- VAI to be white

nooken- VII to be dawn, to be day again

nookenen- VII to be dawn, to be day again

nookoni’isiins[i’] VAI to sleep warmly all night long

nookoohuuh- VTA to ride a horse back home [< hookoo-]

nookoo3iihi’ ADV off to the side

nookoo3in- VAI to stay off to the side [?]

nooko3onii’eihii NA golden eagle (“white rumped bird”)

nookoxonee- VAI to have white skin

nooko’wuutee- VII to be white ground, a white mark or streak in the ground

nookuhnen NA Plains Cree indian

noonoh’- VTA to kill things (game)

noonokohuutooni’ “it is bedtime, everyone is asleep”

noonoko’ PART might as well, what the heck, give it a shot

noononoo’oo- VAI to soar in circles

noonoote’eih- VTA to beat s.o. on the head

noonoo3itoohu- VAI to habitually tell stories for oneself (and others), to be telling stories

      to entertain oneself and others

noonoo’oexooten- VTA to walk all around s.o.

noonotiih- VTA to look all around for s.o.

noonotnoohob- VTA to look all around trying to see s.o.

noonotnoo’eini- VAI to be looking here and there, all around

noonotoow- VTA to consume s.t. [< hotoob-]

noonoxon- PV extremely

noonoxon3o’oen- VTI to crush s.t. brutally, cruelly, without mercy

noonoyei- VAI to go fishing

noono’out- VII for storm clouds to arrive

noono’unoo’oo- VII to be flooding, when the high waters of spring arrive

nootii- VAI to camp habitually

nootii- VAI to save things up [should be neyeinootii- ?]

nootneihi NA Sioux indian

noo3- VTA to fetch, get; steal [sometimes pronounced no3-]

noo3ee- VAI to be left behind, unloaded and dumped

noowou’oo- VII to float downstream

noowuuhu’ ADV south, in the south

noowuunono’ei NA Southern Arapaho (“south Arapaho”)

noowuutesii NA Southern Cheyenne (“south Cheyenne”)

nooxebi’ NA those who live at the spring [< hooxeb]

nooxeihi’ PART maybe, perhaps

nooxoh- VTI to dig for s.t.

nooxohei- VAI to dig for s.t.

noo’einowuun- VTA to drive s.t. someplace, to drive for them

noo’oebeebenoob- VTA to sniff all around s.o.

noo’oeeniihi’ ADV around

noo’oekuh’ohuuton- VTA to fly around s.o.

noo’oexooten- TA walk around s.o.

noo’oeyei’i- VAI to take the edible entrails out of an animal

noo’oeyoo NI the edible entrails of game

noo’ooh- VTA to slaughter s.o., kill s.t. in hunting

noo’ootii- VAI to fritter s.t. away, waste it, “to make nothing out of something”

noo’ouhu- VAI to lack for things

nosou- PV still, continuing

nosouseenoo- VII to survive, keep going

notiih- VTA to look for s.o., s.t.

notinoo3- VTA to sneak up on s.o.

notio’n- VTA to search for s.o.

notnoohoot- VTI to try to see s.t.

notno’eini- VAI to turn all around, turn head all around, while looking for something

notonih- VTA to doctor s.o.

notoniheihii NA doctor

notonihisei NA nurse

notoonoot- VTI to stand up for s.t., defend it

notoonoo3- VTA to stick up for s.o., support them, defend them

notoyeic NI hide of an animal

no3 PART “I’m telling you that...” “it’s well known that...” “you should agree that...”

nous-[i’] VAI to be stuck

nouso’on- VTA to chase s.o. outside, out of the house

nouteesisee- VAI to go outside and get in a car, on a horse

noutokusee- VAI to crawl outside of a place

noutow- PV constantly, continually; keep on, continue doing s.t.

nouxon- VTA to meet s.o.

nou’u NA swift fox

nou’u be’eih NA red fox

nou’uuxooton- VTA to arrive very close to s.o. [< no’ + hiixooton-]

nowoh- PV to like, enjoy doing s.t. habitually [c.f. howoh-]

nowo’ NA fish

noxonisee- VAI to go rapidly, “get a move on”

noxoonooteihi- VAI to be or behave dangerously

noxootoohob- VTA to stare at s.o. with mouth agape, in a quizzical or confused way

noxow- PV very close, very near; general intensive

noxowunoo’oo- VAI to faint

noxoxoohowu- VAI to look at s.t. or s.o. eagerly, with great desire or envy

noxoyotii- VAI to sew s.t. up

noxuhu PART hurry!

noxuuteiniihi’ ADV upriver direction, to the west

noxuutei’ PART upriver, in the west

noxuute’eini- VAI to turn one’s head and look upriver

no’eeckoohu- VAI to arrive home

no’koohu- VAI to arrive by running or driving

no’oe’eini- VAI to have one’s face right up close to s.t., right at a place

no’oocein- VTI to string an arrow on a bowstring, ready it for shooting

no’ookei- VAI to bring back meat to a place, to camp, from a hunt

no’oo’ohuut NI moving camp way out away from normal settlement areas

no’oteec- VII to snow a lot

no’oteheihii NA a powerful one, a powerful person

no’oteihi- VAI to be tough, strong

no’oteihiit NI strength, power

no’o3- PV many, a lot

no’o3einoku- VAI a lot of s.t. is sitting or lying on the ground

no’o3ibii3ihiini- VAI to have a lot of things to eat

no’o3ih- VTA to be cruel to s.o.

no’o3iici3oon- VII to be very long

no’o3iitoo- VAI to be bleeding a lot

no’o3oubee- VAI to have a lot of blankets

no’oxoh- VTA to bring s.o. to a place

no’oxoo- VII to arrive (a time)

no’o’ PART a long ways from camp, out in a remote area

no’o’kuutii- VAI to remove s.t. from water ??

no’o(o)’oo- VAI to arrive (as a result of jumping, flying, being thrown, etc)

no’o’usee- VAI to go far out away from camp

no’unoo’oo- VII to reach a place, arrive there (as a result of jumping, flying, being thrown, etc)

no’usee- VAI to arrive by walking

no’useenoo- VII to arrive, to come to pass

no’uuhu’ ADV to a place, reach destination

no’uukohei- VAI to arrive by riding

no’uusi’oo- VAI to close one’s eyes

no’xuuheti- VAI to manage to get oneself to a place with great effort

no’yoohu- VAI to make a bed for oneself, make one’s bed

nouxon- TA to meet s.o.

nuhu’ PART this

sebiyoh- VTA to aim at s.o.

sebyih- VTA to aim at s.o.

seenook NA rope

seh- PV to over there, from here to there

      seh-woteihceihinoo = ‘I got on the road going from here to town’ (George Quiver

            Visits the Doctor)

      sehiis-no’xuuhetinoo = seh + hiis- = ‘from here to there already-he managed to get

            himself moved’ (George Quiver Visits the Doctor)

sehsei’oohob- VTA to look at someone from here over there

ses3oon- VII to be the edge of s.t., to be an edge

se’esoonee- VAI to cut meat thin and flat (in order to dry it)

se’is-[i’] VAI to lie flat, to lay down

se’sine- VAI to lie flat, to lay down

se’tebe’eih- VTA to slap s.o.


siikoocei3ooxe NI rubber glove

siisiikou’ NA duck

siiwohei’i- VAI to slide on s.t., to ice skate, to go sledding

sii’iheitii- VAI to put s.t. into water

sii’ihkuutii- VAI to toss s.t. into water

si’in- VTA to take or steal things from s.o. by raiding or plundering

sosoni’ NI Shoshoni, WY

sosoni’ NA Shoshone indian

so’o’wuutee- VII to be flattened, scraped flat (ground)

tebe’eikuu3- VTA to cut or break off s.o.’s head, break their neck

tebi’ineec- VII to have snowed and piled up deeply

teceeneet- VTI to calculate s.t., to measure s.t. mentally, to estimate s.t.

tecenoo NA door

tece’ NI night

tecinihiit- VTI to compare things (verbally)

teco’on- PV always, constantly

teebe PART just now

teecxo’ PART long ago

tees- PV on, on top of

teescebisee- VAI to walk on top of s.t.

teesciiyei’iit NI a step, steps (concrete, material steps), stairway

teesen- VTA to put s.t. on s.t.

teesiisibi- VAI to lay down on top of s.t.

teesisee- VAI to walk or get on top of s.t.

teesi’ PART on top

tees3i’oku- VAI to sit on top of s.t.

teeteb- VII to be deep all over (water)

teexokuut NA saddle horse

teexoono3ei- VAI to load s.t. onto a wagon, car, etc. (Strong Bear and Wagon)

teexoono3ei- VAI to carry s.t. on oneself (Blood Clot Boy)

teiitooyoo- VII to be calm, peaceful

[hi]teixo’o NI clothing

tei’eekuu- VAI to stand strong, to endure

tei’eihi- VAI to be strong

tei’eihiit NI strength, being strong

tei’koohuut- VTI to tough things out, to remain strong in one’s journey or path

tei’ox (Personal Name) Strong Bear

tei’yoon NA child

tes- PV really, a lot, completely

tesiini PV really, a lot

tesi’isiinis-[i’] VAI to lay or sleep very warmly in the cold

te3eiciihi’ ADV each one, each person

te’ecxoh’- VII to melt and run down due to heat from a fire

tih- PV when (in the past)

tih’et- PV was supposed to (but didn’t) happen

tii’en- VTA to touch s.o. on purpose to get their attention

ti’iihiinen NA Apache indian (southwestern, not plains – probably Jicarilla Apache)

toh- PV when (past)

tokohu- VAI to flee

tokohub- VTA to flee from s.o.

tokooxuuniihi’ ADV across, to the other side

tokooxuusee- VAI to walk across to the other side

tonot- VII to be hole in a place, to be a hole, “there is a hole”

tonotin- VII to be a hole in a surface

tonoun- VTI to use s.t.

tonoun- VTA to use s.t., s.o.

too- PV almost

toon- PV Iindicates indefiniteness

toonheeseihi- VAI whatever kind or sort it is

toonheetniicisiini PV for whatever length of time it will be (that s.t. goes on)

toonhei’- PV sometime, whenever

toonhei’iini PV whenever, sometime when...

toonheniinotonihooo NA whomever is the one being doctored

toot PV where?

tootisee- VAI to walk up close to s.t. or s.o.

tootoku- VAI to be sitting close, near

tootooyeit- VTI to scream

tooto3ih- VTA to place, bring, put s.o. very close

tooto3ihi- VAI to have been placed, brought, or put very close

tootou3- PV what? how?; “oh, how very...!”

      tootou3-ii3e-nino = “oh how very heavy they are!” (Women in the Park)

tooto’on- VTA to be very close to s.o. (usually in a spatial, not emotional sense)

too3- PV near, close

too3iihi’ ADV close by, near, close to

too3iini PV close by, near

too3no’en- VTA to bring s.o. close to a place

too3no’enoen- VII to have been brought close to a place (as by a telescope)

too’uhcehi- VAI to stop driving, stop a car or horse

too’usee- VAI to stop walking

totoonee PART all around, everywhere

totoub- VTA to warn s.o. not to do s.t.; to rebuke them

totou’utoo- VAI to have hard times

to3ih- VTA to follow s.o., stay close to them

to3ihee- VAI to be followed

toukoyeiniihi’ ADV in the shade

toukuhu- VAI to be tied up

touku3- VTA to tie s.o. up, to tie s.o. to s.t.

toun- VTI to hold s.t.

tous- PV what?

tous PART then, as a consequence

      heetni’iini tous = “it will be good, then” (White Man and Fox)

tousihi’ VAI what is his name?

tousinihii- VAI what say?

      heitousinihii = “what are you saying?” (Women in the Park)

toustoo- VAI what do?

tou3- PV what? how?; “oh, how...!”

tou3ei’- PV how many? to what extent or degree?

tou3e’ein- VTA to bestow s.t. on s.o., give them s.t. valuable in a permanent way

tou3ou’oubeihi- VAI how does s.o. feel?

touyoo NI cup, stirrup, clamp

tou’uukohei- VAI to come to a stop while riding

towoh- VTI to remove s.t. (by cutting or breaking it off)

towohei’i- VAI to remove s.t.

toxuu’oot- VTI to cross over s.t., jump over and across s.t. [should be tokooxuu’oot- ?]

toxu’kosei- VAI to have sharp claws

toyeinous-[i’] VAI to rest

toyoohob- VTA to wait for s.o.

toyo3oo- VII to be cold

toyouniihi’ ADV in the fall

toyouno’oxoo- VII to be the time when autumn arrives, for autumn to arrive

to’ob- VTA to hit s.o.

to’osetii- VII to fall and hit against the ground (a body part)

3eb- PV there, over there

3ebiici3iihi’ ADV over there some distance

3ebiihciihi’ ADV up there

3ebiihi’ ADV there, over there

3ebiis- PV to there, over there in that direction

3ebiisiikohei- VAI to ride over in that direction [he’ih-3ebiisiikohe’]

3ebiisno’usee- VAI to arrive at that place over there, off in that direction

3ebnoho’uuhu’ ADV up there

3eboowuniihiikohei- VAI to ride down along a stream over there

3ee3oo NI finger

3eeyooteen- VII to be pulled taut, ready to shoot (bowstring)

3eici’ NI root

3ein- VTI to put s.t. inside s.t. [same as 3ei’in-]

3einoo’oon- VII to go, pass into s.t., penetrate into it

3eis-[i’] VAI to be laying inside s.t., be inside s.t.

3ei’iinoot- VTI to carry s.t. on one’s back

3ei’iiwoonohu- VAI to carry s.t. on one’s back

3ei’iiwoonoot- VTI to carry s.t. on one’s back

3ei’ikuutii- VAI to put s.t. inside s.t.

3ei’in- VTI to put s.t. inside s.t. [same as 3ein-]

3ei’ini- VII to be put inside s.t.

3ih- PV maybe

3iik NA skeleton, ghost

3iikon NA skeleton, ghost

3iikonii- VAI to be a ghost, be a goner

3iikonookuhu’ee NI skull

3iikoto’oyoneihceihi- VAI to have wrenched one’s back

3iikoto’oyoni- VAI to have pulled one’s back, back muscles

3ii3i’e’eite’ NI Washakie Needles, Wyoming (“lots of pointy protuberances”)

3iwoo PART well now, let’s see

3i’is-[i’] VAI to slip down, to slip and fall

3i’oku- VAI to sit

3i’okuutooo NI chair

3i’ookuu3oo NI a parking meter (“a thing which stands”)

3i’ookuu- VII to be stood, placed standing [3i’ookuuhu- ?]

3i’ookuu- VAI to stand

3i’ookuuh- VTA to stand s.o. somewhere, make them stand somewhere

3onceihi- VAI to be naked

3ookusee- VAI to crawl (a person)

3ookwo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along following s.o. else

3oontece’iin- VII to be midnight

3oo3ooniihi’ ADV right in the middle

3oo3ooxut- VTI to miss s.t., regret its absence or passing

3oo3o3ouutei’iiniini PV lots of ridges or ridge-like areas

3oo3o’ohoen- VTA to crush s.o.’s hands

3oo3o’ohoenei’i- VAI to crush people’s hands

3ooxuu NI intestines, guts

3ooxuun- VTI to notice s.t.

3ooxuunon- VTA to notice s.t., to notice s.t. about s.o.

3ooxuuxonoo’oo- VAI to be drying up, congealing

3o3ouniini PV ridges, ridge-like

3ouxoh’owoo- VAI to cook s.t. for oneself by boiling it

3owo3ihcehi- VAI to stand erect quickly

3owo3nenitee NA Indian

3owounoo’oo- VAI to fall apart, be destroyed

3o’oen- VTI to crush s.t.

3o’ostii- VAI to bust s.t. up by dropping it

3o’unoo’oo- VII to collapse, crumble to pieces

wohei PART well, then, so, okay

wohe’ PART maybe


      Note: when used with first and second person, verbs have affirmative endings:

            wohoe’et-niistii-no’ = uncertain future-do-we = ‘we don’t know

            what we’re going to do’ (Old Ways 2)

      when used with third person, verbs have non-affirmative endings:

            siineihoowoe’in wohoe’et-wonoo3iine’etii = uncertain future-keep on living =

            ‘I really don’t know if he will live much longer’

            (Strong Bear and the Boxing Champion)

wohoono’ NI mint, peppermint

won- PV to go to do s.t.

wonoot- PV to continue doing s.t., persist at it

wonoote’in- VTI to remember continually, to keep s.t. in mind, continue knowing it

wonootxootiini’ VII “people keep going, keep walking along”

wonoo3iine’etii- VAI to keep on living, remain alive

wonot NI belly, abdomen

woohoniini PV united, together

woohoneentoo- VAI to stay together, united

wookec NA cow

woon- PV new, recent, young; most recently, last (do s.t.)

woonusee- VAI to arrive soon (after)

wootii PART like, as if

wootooyeino’usee- VAI to arrive early, earlier than expected

woo3ee- VII to be many

woow PART now, already

woowoteisibeti- VAI to bump into s.t. over and over and make a sound

woowoti’eyei’i- VAI to remove things

wooxe NI knife

wot- PV “I guess”, supposedly, apparently

woteekoohu- VAI to drive to town

woteeniihi’ ADV in town

woteesee- VAI to go into the camp circle; to go to town; to assimilate to the larger culture

woteihcehi- VA to set off for town, get on the road to town

woteinoxonous-[i’] VAI for bones to clatter together as they come to rest

woti’ees-[i’] VAI to be blown away by the wind

wotowuhuu PART you son of a bitch! you dirty rotten scoundrel!

wotowusoo PART you brat!, you young son of a bitch!

wotoyeic NI an animal hide

wottonee- VAI to make a fire

wottonouhu- VAI to make a fire for oneself

wouuceh PART “well what do you know! well how about that!”

wox NA bear

woxhoox NA horse

woxhooxebihi’ NA little horse

woxuusoo NA hail (“bear cubs”)

woxu’uu NI medicines

wo’eii3ow PART just then, right then, right away

wo’ei3 PART or

wo’oben- VTI to focus a telescope, binoculars, etc (‘to move [the lens] farther along’)

wo’oe3eiho’ PART “you’re pushing things too far” “you’re taking advantage of the situation”

      “there’s no need to be doing that”

wo’oe’onoun PART on and on, still going, still at it

wo’oh NI shoe

wo’oon- PV to try but fail to do s.t.

wo’oteeyoo- VII to be black, to be a paved road

wo’o3tii- VAI to gather s.t. up, for keeping, storage, use, etc

wo’ow NI ice

wo’ow- PV further, more, additionally

wo’owoku- VAI to scoot over

wo’owoo’oh- TI to move s.t. farther along

wo’owtoo3iini PV closer

wo’owuuhu- VAI to move camp farther along

wo’owxoo- VAI to move farther along on foot [< wo’owusee-]

wo’o’oto’ PART just then, right at that moment

wo’teeneihtee- VAI to have black feet [woo’teeneihtee3i’ = Blackfeet indians]

wo’woo’oh- VTI to move s.t. over or along with a stick, poker, or similar tool

wo’wuni’iini PV better

xonou PART right away, immediately

xook- PV through a thing or a place

xou’ouwuuckoohu- VAI to go straight home, to go straight to heaven upon dying

xou’uben- VTA to straighten s.o. out (metaphorically)

xo’oeyoo NI ointment, gel

yeh PART hey! well! gee!

yeih’on- VTA to chase s.t. (game) ???

yeinio’woo- VII to be the fourth time

yeino’ NA tomato

yeiyoo’ NI forty

yihoo- VAI to to to a place

yihoon- VTA to go to s.o., to where s.o. is

yihxotii- VAI to take s.t. away over there, off in that direction

yih’oow- VTA to chase s.t.

yiiscesisihcehi- VAI to begin running towards over there

yiisiihi- VAI to move camp over in that direction

yiisiikohei- VAI to ride over to there

yii3e’einiihi’ ADV towards that direction there, in that direction there

yii3ni’ihi- VAI to depend on s.t. or s.o.

yohou’usee- VAI to walk out of sight, to disappear

yoo3oniini PV in the fifties (age, etc)

‘eee PART hmm...

‘eiyo’ PART oh oh!

-‘ihoo VAI to go

‘ii PART oh! gee! wow!

‘ine PART okay! (woman speaking)

‘oh PART but, and

‘ooeii PART oooh!

‘oohoohei’ PART oh my gosh! (expresses negative reaction to events)

‘oonei PART my goodness! (expression of surprise and interest, but also sense of

      being taken aback) 

English-Arapaho (interesting modern words only) 

              adopt a way of life, to    hiten- (< ‘to take something’)

              airplane     niinih’ohuunoo’ (“it flies”)

              assimilate, to     woteesee- (< ‘to go into the camp circle’)

              bank (the institution and building)  bei’ci3eiyo’oowu’ (“money house”)

              blacktop road     woo’oteeyoo’ (“it is black”)

                                    wo’teenbooo (“black road”)

              boss      neecee (< ‘chief’)

              box, to     boo3eti- (< ‘to fight each other’)

                                    hiine3eiheti- (“to knock each other around”)

              boxing (the sport)    boo’oet (< ‘fighting’)

              boxing ring     hiikokoyoxoeni’ (“it is fenced in a square”)

                                    koo’einoxoeyoo (“fenced ring”)

              bridge      hooxuu3iiw (“across the water boat”)

              bump in the road, to hit a   hete3einobee- (“collide with the ground”)

              car      hotii (< ‘wagon, wheel’)

              car, to get into    hiixouuhu- (“to climb to the top”)

                                    teesisee- (“to step on top”)

              car, to get out of    hoowusee- (“to step down”)

              chain      bei’ci3eiseenook (“iron rope”)

              challenge s.o. (as in a sport)   neyei3ih- (“to test s.t., to try s.o. out”)

              champion (in a sport, such as boxing) niitobeekuut (“he stands first”)

              coal      ho3o’uunesitee (“star fire”?)

              coal wagon     ho3o’uunesiteehotii (“coal wagon”) [s/b -notii?]

              coin slot (for depositing money)  bei’ci3ei’i niit3ei’ini’i (“where money is put   inside”)

              culture     heesiine’etiit (“how he lives”), hiine’etiit (“life”)

              custom, a; tradition, a    heesniinii3iyeit (“what he has/owns/possesses”)

              defend one’s country, to   notoonoot- (< ‘stand up for, support’)

              deposit money, in a bank   ceibciinen- (“to put it aside”)

              deposit money, in a coin slot   3ei’ikuutii- (“to put it inside”)

              doctor (modern)    notoniheihii

              doctor’s office    niitoot notoniheihii (“where the doctor is”)

              doctrine, teachings    hei’towo’o (“things said”)

              drive a car, to     noo’ein-

              education     hee3ou3eih-

              electricity     ceheekuut (< ‘lightning’)

              employee     niisi3eihii (“worker”)

              employment     niisi3ooo (“work, job”)

              endangered (language)   heyeihneeneno’oo- (“to be approaching death”)

                                    heyeihneenoniseenoo- (“to almost disappear”)

              enlist, in the armed forces   he3ebwoteesee- (“go into the group there”)

              examination table (at a doctor’s office) niiteesiisibit (“where [the patient] lays down on     top”)

              extinct (language, culture)   neeneno’oo- (“dead”)

              farming     ciinout

              fence      nii3oxoeyoo (“thing for enclosing”)

              filled (a job or position)   hiixoxonee- (< ‘to be full’)

              fish, to     noonoyei- (< ‘to trap’)

              fishing line, to set out a   hou3e3ei- (“to place or hang s.t. out”)

              flag      niiwohoe (“held in the hand”?)

              flag, to serve the; to enlist   woteesee- niiyou nuhu’ niiwohoe

              flying vehicles(in general)   ceebih’ohuunoo’ (“it flies past”)

              focus, to (a telescope, for example)  wo’oben- (“to move [the lens] farther along”)

              gardening     ciineyoot (“planting things”)

              gate      tecenoo (< ‘door’)

                      get in, a car     teesisee- (< ‘to get on a horse’)  

              get out of, a car    hoowusee- (“to stop down”)

              go, to, by wagon    -ou’see- [a medial form]

              go off, explode, as a bullet   ko’etees- (“to have made a popping sound”)

              goat      biixohko’ (“hairy chin”)

                                    biixohko’noo’ (“it is hairy-chinned”)

              graduate, to     beetou3ei- (“to finish learning”)

              heritage     henii3iyoonin (“the things we have”)

              hire someone, to    ho3i’eeb- (“to ask someone to do something for       you”)

              hitch s.t., to a wagon, to   hoonooten-

              hitching post (for horses)   niitoukutooxowootiini’ (“where people tie up             horses”)

              house, to own     heeneito’oowuuni-

              ice skate, to     siiwohei- (< ‘to slide’)

              job      niisi3ooo (“working, work”)

              lit, by electricity, illuminated   noh’oeseitee’

              livestock, to raise    ni’ih-

              load, to, a gun     3ein- (< ‘to put s.t. inside’)

              load, to, a wagon    teexoono3ei- (“to put things on top”)

              loaded (a gun)     ciitohuuni’ (“has something inside”)

              magnify, to (as with a telescope)  cih’ii3itoniini (“added [size/closeness]”)

              cihwo’owtoo3no’en- (“to make it move more close to here”)

              magnified, enlarged    he3ebtoo3iini (“closer there”)

              maintain, preserve (language, c ulture) nih’oniitowoo- (< ‘to try hard, persist’)

                                    nei’iitiibi- (“hold on tight to s.t.”)

                                    tei’koohuut- (“to run strongly in the face of s.t.”)

              money      bei’ci3ei’i (“pieces of metal”)

              movies/television    ce’iskuu3oo (“makes (pictures) come back”)

              nation, country (one’s own)   heetoh’uune’etiino’ (“where we live”)

              nations (various)    ce’esneniteeno’ (“different peoples”)

              nurse      notonihisei (“doctor woman”)

              ocean liner     niinou’oo’ hinee heeteci’ (“it floats on the ocean”)

              ointment     xo’oeyoo (< ‘salve, poultice’)

              opening, a job, look for   notiitii- niisi3ooo (“look for work”)

                                    niiitowoo- niisi3ooo (“to ask for work”)

              order, to, as in a restaurant   hei’towuun- heetbii3hiit (“tell [the waiter] what he   is going to eat”)

              outlook, on life, viewpoint, perspective heenee3e’ino’ (“the ways he knows it”)

              patient (at a doctor’s office)   toonheniinotonihooo (“whomever is being               doctored”)

              park a car, to     tou’uhcehi- (“to stop running/driving”)

              parking meter     3i’ookuu3oo (“standing thing”)

              paved road     heetwo’oteeyoo’ booo (“where the road is black”)

              petroleum jelly, vaseline   xo’eyoo (< ‘salve, ointment’)

              pistol      to’oo’ (“it kicks”?)

              pothole     tonoti’ (< ‘hole’)

              private property, to own   heeneibiito’owuuwu- (“to have land”)

              pull the trigger of a gun, to   nihi’kuutii- (“to act quickly on s.t.”)

              race, ethnic group    neito’ei (< ‘my relative’)

              recover a language, to get it back  ce’hiisiiten- (“to catch it again”)

              replacement worker    heetnoxoeeniihi’ niisi3eit (“he will work in     exchange for me”)

              reservation, for Indians   nuhu’ heetoono’ (“this place where we are”)

              restaurant     bii3hiino’oowu’ (“eating house”)

              revived/revitalized (a language)  ce’koheinoo- (“to rise up again”)

              rim, of a wagon wheel   ko’eino’ohtoo (“round shoe”)

              road to town, to get on the   woteihceihi- (“to run to town”)

              rubber glove     siikoocei3ooxe (“rubber glove”)

              saloon, bar     benoheino’oowu’ (“give someone a drink house”)

              save up money, to    wo’3itii- (< ‘to gather up, collect’)

              ship      3iiw, ho3iiw (< ‘canoe’)

              shoot a gun, to    nihi’kuutii- (“to make it act rapidly”)

              silver      nookbei’ci3e’ (“white metal”)

              steps, staircase    teesciiyei’iitono (“things one steps on top of”)

              stirrup, clamp (as in doctor’s exam table) touyoo (< ‘cup’)

              suitcase     ce’eiinox (< ‘bag’)

              survive, a language, to   nosouseenoo- (“to be still going”)

              team of horses    woxhooxebii (“horses”)

              telescope     ni’iitoo3noohoo(3oo)tiini’ (“one sees things close   by with it”)

              tip (in a restaurant)    bei’ci3ei’i cebe’einiihi’ (“extra money beyond [the   cost]”)

              tip, to leave a     ciinen- bei’ci3ei’i (“to put money down”)

              town      hoowoh’oowuu’ (“many houses”)

              town, in     woteeniihi’ (< ‘in the camp circle’)

              tribes, political groups   ceneece’iseihi3i’ 3owo3neniteeno’ (“different Indians”)

              vegetable     ciineyoo (“thing which is planted”)

              waiter      no’uxotiit (“he/she brings [food]”)

              wheel      hotii (< ‘sacred ceremonial circle/wheel’)

              wheel rim     ko’eino’ohtoo (“round shoe”)

              window     noh’oeseihoo (“thing for allowing illumination”)

              world      hee3ei’o’bee’ (“as far as the land extends”)

              world war     neeneitohboo3eti3i’ niiyou hee3ei’o’bee’

                                     (“they fought all over the world”)

                                    noo’oeeniihi’ biito’owuu’ ce’esnenitee[no’]

              tohuubooboo3eti3i’ (“when various nations fought around the world”)