Ver. 1. Prolonged. Babylon was taken one hundred and seventy-two years after. (Calmet) --- Yet this time is counted short, compared with the monarchy, which had lasted a thousand years. (Worthington) --- Ground. Cyrus restored the Jews; yet all did not return at that time. --- Stranger. Converts, Esther viii. 17. All Idumea received circumcision under Hyrcan.
Ver. 2.Place. Cyrus probably granted an escort, as Artaxerxes did, 2 Esdras ii. 7. --- Servants. They had purchased many slaves, (1 Esdras ii. 65.) as some were very rich in captivity, and were treated like other subjects. --- Oppressors. Stragglers of the army of Cambyses, &c., though this was chiefly verified under the Machabees, Jeremias xxv. 14., and xxx. 16. (Calmet)
Ver. 4.Parable. Septuagint, Greek: threnon. "Lamentation." (Haydock) --- Or mournful canticle.
Ver. 6.Persecuted. The Jews read incorrectly, "is persecuted."
Ver. 7.Earth. Subject to, or bordering upon the Assyrian empire. Under Darius the Mede, (the Cyaxares of Xenophon) and Cyrus, the people were little molested. (Calmet) --- The neighbouring princes (fir-trees, &c., ver. 8.) were also at rest. (Haydock)
Ver. 9.Hell is personified, deriding the Chaldean monarch, Baltassar, who perished the very night after he had profaned the sacred vessels, Daniel v. 3. He probably received only the burial of an ass, ver. 11, 19. (Calmet)
Ver. 12.O Lucifer. O day-star. All this, according to the letter, is spoken of the king of Babylon. It may also be applied, in a spiritual sense, to Lucifer, the prince of devils, who was created a bright angel, but fell by pride and rebellion against God. (Challoner) (Luke x. 18.) (Calmet) --- He fell by pride, as Nabuchodonosor did. (Worthington) --- Homer (Iliad xix.) represents the demon of discord hurled down by Jupiter to the miserable region of mortals.
Ver. 13.North. And be adored as God in the temple of Jerusalem, Psalm xlvii. 3. The Assyrian and Persian monarchs claimed divine honours, 4 Kings xviii. 33., and Judith iii. 13.
Ver. 15.Depth. Hebrew, "sides," (ver. 13.) or holes dug out of a cavern. (Calmet)
Ver. 16.Turn. From their respective holes in the monument.
Ver. 19.Grave. Strangers seized the crown of Baltassar, and neglected his sepulchre: or if we explain it of Nabuchodonosor, his tomb was probably plundered, (Calmet) as the Persians did not spare that of Belus. In the reign of Alexander, the tombs of the kings were covered with water, and filled with serpents. (Arrian. vii.)
Ver. 20.Thy. Septuagint, "my." Thou hast been a murderer instead of a shepherd. --- Ever. The children and monarchy of Nabuchodonosor presently perished. Evilmerodac and Baltassar reigned but a short time, and left no issue to inherit the throne.
Ver. 22.Name. It shall lose all its splendour, and be mentioned only with abhorrence, 1 Peter v. 13.
Ver. 23.Besom. Reducing it to a heap of rubbish, (chap. xiii. 21.; Calmet) as the event shewed. (Watson)
Ver. 25.Assyrian. 4 Kings xix. (Worthington) --- Sennacherib, (St. Jerome) Cambyses, or Holofernes. The sight of their chastisement would ben an earnest of the fall of Babylon. (Calmet) --- The allies of Assyria, (Menochius) or the enemies of God's people, will also be punished, chap. xv. (Haydock)
Ver. 28.Achaz. When Ezechias was just seated on the throne. The preceding and subsequent predictions were then delivered, chap. xiii. 20.
Ver. 29.Rod. Achaz. --- Bird. Ezechias will openly attack thee, 4 Kings xviii. 8. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "shall be a fiery flying serpent," (Haydock) like that erected by Moses, Numbers xxi. 9. Sennacherib and Assaraddon shall lay waste Philistia, ver. 31., and chap. xx. 1. (Calmet) --- Though Achaz be dead, Ezechias and Ozias will destroy more of that nation, 4 Kings xviii. 8., and 2 Paralipomenon xxvi. (Worthington)
Ver. 32.Nations. Surprised that Ezechias should escape, while the power of the Philistines was overturned so easily; or when the king sent ambassadors to his allies, to announce the defeat of Sennacherib by the angel. All confessed that this was an effect of the divine protection towards Sion. (Calmet)