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Sephardi Jews From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ??????, Standard S?faradi Tiberian S?p?ar?di; plural ??????, Standard S?faradim Tiberian S?p?ar?dim; Spanish Sefardies; Portuguese Sefarditas, Greek ????????, Turkish Sefarad, Judaeo-Spanish Sefardies, Tagalog Separdiko ) are Jews who define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and traditions which originated in the Iberian Peninsula before the expulsion of Jews from that area in the late fifteenth century, and usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi and Mizrahi Jews. Definition A Sephardi Jew is a Jew who follows the customs and traditions followed by Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) before their expulsion in the late fifteenth century. This includes both the descendants of Jews expelled from Spain under the Alhambra decree of 1492, or from Portugal by order of King Manuel I in 1497, and the descendants of crypto-Jews who left the Peninsula in later centuries to North Africa, Asia Minor, the Philippines and elsewhere around the world, and the descendants of crypto-Jews who remained in Iberia. In modern times, the term has also been applied to Jews who may not have been born Sephardi (or even Jewish) but attend Sephardic synagogues and practice Sephardic traditions. Today there are around 12,000 Sephardic Jews in Spain and 2,500 in Portugal (although it must be taken account that, when expelled from Portugal, Jews were allowed to stay if they converted to christianity, resulting in a big percentage being assimilated in the Portuguese population. See: History of the Jews in Portugal). There is also a community of 600 in Gibraltar. The name comes from Sepharad (Hebrew: ????, Modern S?farad Tiberian S?p?ara? / S?p?ara? ; Turkish: Sefarad), a Biblical location. This was probably the "Saparda" mentioned in Persian inscriptions: the location of that is disputed, but may have been Sardis in Asia Minor. "Sepharad" was identified by later Jews as the Iberian Peninsula, and still means "Spain" in modern Hebrew. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, "Sephardim" is often used in a wider sense to include most Jews of Asian and African origin, who use a Sephardic style of liturgy. This article is mostly concerned with Sephardim in the narrower ethnic sense, rather than in this broader Modern Israeli Hebrew definition. See also: Jewish ethnic divisions. The term Sephardi can also describe the nusach (Hebrew language, "liturgical tradition") used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition's choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad, which is quite similar to Nusach Edot haMizrach (liturgy of the Eastern Congregations). For more details of the Sephardic liturgy see Sephardic Judaism. Note that the term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim. Divisions Historically, Sephardim are those Jews associated with the Iberian Peninsula. The most prominent sub-group consists of the descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain in 1492, who settled in various parts of the Ottoman Empire, in particular Salonica and Istanbul, and whose traditional language is Judaeo-Spanish, sometimes known as Judezmo or Ladino. Another branch settled in Northern Morocco, and spoke a variant of Judaeo-Spanish known as Haketia. Several of these "Moroccan" Jews emigrated back to the Iberian Peninsula to form the core of the Gibraltar community (see History of the Jews in Gibraltar). In the 19th century, modern Spanish gradually replaced Haketia as mother tongue among most Moroccan Sephardim. A third sub-group, known as Spanish and Portuguese Jews, consists of Jews whose families remained in Spain and Portugal as ostensible Christians, and later reverted to Judaism in Italy, the Netherlands, Northern Germany, England or the New World. A fourth sub-group, known as Crypto-Jews, are those who choose to remain hidden since the Spanish and Mexican Inquisitions, but practice secret Jewish rites in privacy. (Library of Congress, Microfiche 7906177). Safarditas are found particularly in the northern state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, the American Southwest i.e., New Mexico, Arizona, and South Texas (formerly part of Nuevo Leon, Spain/Mexico and Tejas), the Caribbean, and South America and this also includes Crypto-Jews that were brought into exile during the 15th Century inquisition that took refuge from Southeast Asia i.e., the Philippines. From the perspective of the present day, the first three sub-groups look in retrospect like separate branches, each with its own traditions, though some degree of merger is taking place as Spanish and Portuguese congregations increasDelaunay Edge, 3 Points Arc, and Contoured Delaunay Mesh.
The Delaunay tracing method, before numerically approaching the first differential infinite degree, is much more reductive than the Arc method, which automatically suggests radiating potentials (points) in resonance with our more complexly and differentially charged bodies. If the curve (arc in broader definition) is more appropriated in describing body complexity and therefore dwelling mechanism akin to body complexity, one can then interrogate the reductive nature of lines / planes in architectural practice. However, the reductive nature of architectural fundamental elements has another purpose - the communicative nature of architectural process and joinery nature of architectural assembly, where multiplicity are considered in stead of integrity and complexity of a singular perspective and apprehension. Having said that, we can’t forever stay linear as fabrication and communication technology marching towards topological capacity, unless its economy (in an abstract numerical fluctuation )is considered as part of the topological intelligence.
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