Languages of the Bible



Semantic Roles

Alphabets *

Verb Paradigm *

Pronouns, Pronominal Suffixes

Adjectives *

How Verbs Work

  1. Something is happening (Greek present; Hebrew participle).
  2. Something has happened (Greek imperfect, aorist, perfect; Hebrew suffix conjugation and waw + prefix conjugation).
  3. Something has not yet happened.

Will (Gk. future)
Should (imperative).
Might (Gk. subjunctive).
Wish (Gk. optative).

The "not yet" is expressed in Hebrew by means of the prefix conjugation, waw + suffix conjugation, and imperatives. 

In Greek the "not yet" is expressed by the future and imperatives, as well as the subjunctive and optative "moods." 

The Hebrew Verb System is not complex, when compared with the Greek. The Hebrew has oddities -- most notably the "converted" forms -- but they can be easily learned. The Hebrew verb "stems" may seem complex to those who try to memorize the various usages of each stem, but realistically the ability to identify stems help readers of the Hebrew Bible to look up words in a lexicon. 

Hebrew Verb Stems
Purpose of “stem”: to distinguish between characteristic prefix, infix, and vowel patterns. I.e., D-stem signifies verbs that have a doubled middle radical. N-stem signifies verbs that have a n prefix. H-stem signifies verbs that have h prefixes and, in some forms, y infixes. HtD signifies verbs that have th as a prefix and a doubled middled radical.

Why do students need to know?

Lexicons have verbs defined according to their stem.
Identify rather than predict or anticipate.


Personal Pronouns *

Pas - Pasa - Pan *

Pneuma (spirit) Declension *

Prepositions (jpg) 



Verb Paradigm

Present Active Participle of Eimi and Luo

Semantic Domains