1. This chapter can be divided in two: The first half goes through the Modernization of Russia. The second half begins with The Responsive National State and goes to the end of the chapter.
2. This is a political chapter with the second half being more complicated and not as well written as the first, so read the second half carefully.
3. Note the dates, up to 1871, then all the way to the beginning of the First World War, 1914.
AP European history >