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Practice Questions

Phylogeny of Plants

posted Oct 27, 2016, 8:06 AM by Marschal Fazio   [ updated Oct 27, 2016, 11:33 AM ]

 Taxon   
 Protected embryos True Roots Persistently Green Sporophyte   Vascular Cells Stomata
 Megaphylls
(true Leaves)
 Seeds
 Stonewort (outgroup) - - - - - -
 Liverwort + --
Pine tree  ++
Braken Fern  +
 Club moss ++
 Sphagnum moss
 Hornwort
 Sunflower
 The matrix above supplies data for seven land plants and an outgroup (an aquatic plant known as a stonewort). Each trait is scored as either present (+) or absent (-) in each of the plants. use this data matrix to reconstruct the phylogeny of land plants. 

  1. Which of these two taxon are most closely related? 
  2. Plants that produce seeds are known as seed plants. What is the sister group to the seed plants among these taxa? 
  3. Which two traits evolved along the same branch of your reconstructed phylogeny? 
  4. Are there any homoplasies in your reconstructed phylogeny?

ATP and Energy Flow (2009)

posted Oct 29, 2013, 7:24 AM by Marschal Fazio

ATP and GTP are primary sources of energy for biochemical reactions.

  1. (a)  Describe the structure of the ATP or the GTP molecule.

  2. (b)  Explain how chemiosmosis produces ATP.

  3. (c)  Describe TWO specific cell processes that require ATP and explain how ATP is used in each process.

  4. (d)  An energy pyramid for a marine ecosystem is shown below. Label each trophic level of the pyramid and provide an example of a marine organism found at each level of this pyramid. Explain why the energy available at the top layer of the pyramid is a small percentage of the energy present at the bottom of the pyramid. 


Bison Herd

posted Sep 4, 2013, 7:39 AM by Marschal Fazio   [ updated Aug 26, 2014, 12:20 PM ]

Rancher Harriet is thinking of shifting her operation from cattle to American Bison, but she needs to know how well bison will do on her ranch. She buys 50 female bison that are already inseminated and places 10 of them, picked at random, into their own pasture. The ten females serve as a sample from which rancher Harriet collects demographic data over one year. Use her data to answer the questions below.

1. What is the total number of births and deaths among the sample population?

2. What are the per capita  birth and death rates (b and d) for the entire bison herd, based on this sample?

3. What is the estimated per capita growth rate r?

4. Based on these estimates, what is the size of Rancher Harriet's entire bison herd at the end of the year?


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