Disinfectants

EXTREME WARNING: NEVER MIX AMMONIA AND BLEACH. THIS CREATES CHLORINE GAS WHICH IS DEADLY TO HUMANS AND ANIMALS.

Introduction to Disinfectants 

  • Parvovirus is an especially hardy virus which can survive on surfaces for a very long time if not properly cleaned and disinfected.
  • Measuring devices should be used to make proper disinfectant dilutions for best results. Stronger concentrations will not necessarily kill more organisms and may harm animals and humans
  • Many disinfectants are inactivated by organic materials. Follow the steps to disinfecting below:
    1. Mechanically remove all visible organic material (feces, food, etc)
    2. Scrub kennel/surface with warm water and a detergent (soap, certain disinfectants). These first two steps removes 90% of pathogens
    3. Chemically remove (kill) virus with disinfectant: spray onto clean and relatively dry surface for appropriate contact time

Effective vs Ineffective Disinfectants

DISINFECTANTS/METHODS
 EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE
 Bleach (Sodium Hypochlorite)Quaternary Ammoniums (Roccal) *
 Trifectant (Virkon-S)Lysol 
 Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide (Accel, Rescue)Alcohol (Hand Sanitizer)
 Calcium Hypochlorite (Wysiwash)Chlorhexidine (Nolvasan) 
Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (Bruclean) Freezing
Heat (>120F for >30min) Time

*Note: Despite label claims, Quaternary Ammoniums such as Roccal were not effective against parvo when independent studies were done.

Definitions

Detergent - A cleansing agent; able to emulsify oils, hold dirt in suspension, and act as wetting agents
Disinfectant - An agent that frees from infection; especially a chemical that destroys vegetative forms of harmful miroorganisms especially on inanimate objects
Pathogen -  a specific causitive agent of disease (virus, bacteria)
Contact Timelength of time a disinfectant's label states that it must remain wet on a surface in order to achieve efficacy

Bleach

  • Active ingredient: Sodium Hypochlorite
  • Significantly inactivated by organic material
  • No effects as a detergent
  • Contact time: 10 minutes
  • Stable for 30 days if stored properly: loses effectiveness with light exposure - use opaque spray bottle to increase shelf-life

For parvovirus, bleach must be diluted 1 part bleach and 30 parts water. This is a ratio of 1:30.
For ringworm, bleach must be diluted 1:10. Ringworm has fungal spores which are much more resistant and requires a stronger concentration.

 Water volume     Bleach Volume
(parvo)
Bleach Volume
(ringworm) 
 3 L (mop bucket) 100mL 300mL
 1 L (large spray bottle) 33mL 100mL

Trifectant

  • Active Ingredient: Potassium Peroxymonosulfate
  • Some detergent activity, relatively good activity on organic material
  • Contact Time: 10 minutes
  • Stable for 7 days.
  • 1% Concentration needed for both parvovirus and common ringworm species.

 Water volume Trifectant Volume (1%)
 3L (mop bucket) 1 oz
 1L (large spray bottle) 0.3 oz

References:

Miller, L, Zawistowski, S. Shelter Medicine: For Veterinarians and Staff. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. Print.