Carte wifi Usb Pci - accés internet par Hotspot...

Usb Pci wireless card - internet access hotspot ...

Antennas usb wifi wireless computing Beziers, advice.

Wifi antenna panels, grid, yagi ...

For better reception ... .. to improve the scope hotspot, free wifi, terminal and

any connection wifi access point wireless Internet 802.11.

Gilberto de la Pampa advice, measurement signal ... BP monitoring Secure your wireless network

Manufacturing and testing antennas for wifi. The Yagi recommended for best reception.



Cle Usb wifi + antennas advised...

 Alfa Awus036AH  For long range with 16 Dbi Yagi Antenna (EV 400m. - 1Km outside)

Netgear WG111 Wireless USB adaptate, sufficient for the inside ..
(20-30m) so no big walls to cross
X2 gain in a grid-strainer



WiFi USB Key Antenna

Come see the comparative tests performed on these two key usb wifi
with various antennas and semi-parabolas ...


Tests usb wifi   Alfa Awus036AH - USB wireless adapter.





Docs News ... ... ALFA NETWORK R36

This router 802.11 b / g / n high-power 500 mW operates in two modes to choose from.
It can be used in "extender" for the Alfa Network USB WiFi card or router mode AWUS036H 3G.
In "Extender" just plug the two devices together, the AWUS036H used to establish a connection
with a WiFi hotspot and R36 serve as a conduit to allow all your computers to connect to the hotspot.

 See diagram below.






Mode 3G router just plug a USB 3G R36 USB to provide internet access to all your computers.
See diagram below.





Technical Documentation PDF

Installation Difficulty: 3 / 5 beginners abstain.



Manual in English only.
By purchasing this product you waive claim to obtain a manual in French afterwards.


Alfa USB Wireless Network AWUS036H
Alfa Network R36
Standards
Wired: IEEE 802.3 (10Base-T) IEEE 802.3u (100Base-TX)
Wireless: IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11n
Physical
1 x 10/100Mbps WAN Port
1 x 10/100Mbps LAN Port
1 x 5dBi detachable external antenna
1 x Reset button
WPS 1 x Security Key
1 x USB Port
Management
Web-based management interface
Remote management
SNTP Time Synchronization
Output Power
802.11b: 27dBm ± 2dBm
802.11g: 25dBm ± 2dBm
802.11n: 25dBm ± 2dBm
Sensitivity 802.11n
20MHz - MCS7: -71 MCS0: -90
40MHz - MCS7: -69 MCS0: -88
Sensitivity 802.11g
54Mbps: -75 6Mbps: -92
Sensitivity 802.11b
11Mbps: -90 1Mbps: -95
Data Rate
802.11n (40MHz): up to 150Mbps
802.11n (20MHz): up to 72Mbps
802.11g: 54,48,36,24,18,12,9,6 Mbps
802.11b: 11,5.5,2,1 Mbps
Wireless Mode
WISP
Bridge
Router
Operating Frequency
FCC: 2412 ~ 2462MHz (Ch1 ~ Ch11)
ETSI: 2412 ~ 2472MHz (Ch1 ~ CH13)
Japan: 2412 ~ 2484MHz (Ch1 ~ Ch14)
Security
Access Control Policy
MAC filter
DMZ Host
SSID Broadcast disable
Wireless MAC Address Filtering
WEP Encryption
WPA / W PA2-PSK (Pre-shared Key)
WPA / W PA2 Enterprise mode (802.1x)
WiFi Protected Setup (WPS)
Router
Shares high speed cable / xDSL
Internet connection
Static Routing
VPN Pass through
NAT
802.11e WMM
IGMP Proxy
Dual SSIDs
Temperature
Operating: 0 º C to 40 º C
Storage: -20 º C to 60 º C
Humidity
Operating: 10% to 85% Non-Condensing
Storage: 5% to 90% Non-Condensing
Dimensions
93 x 70 x 26mm
Weight
74g
Power Input
12V/1A
3G Functions
Budget Control with 3G Email warning (Support Pre and Post-pay-pay)
Dual Wan Backup
Remote Access Control by 3G WAN
Compatible 3G USB Modem
ALFA Fly3G
ZTE MF622
ZTE MF626
ZTE MF627
ZTE MF628
ZTE MG880
ZTE AC8710v2
ZTE AC2726
ZTE AC8710v1
Huawei E180
Huawei E219
Huawei E160E
Huawei E220
Huawei E219
Huawei E169
Huawei E169u
Huawei D02
Huawei D21
Huawei D22
Huawei D23
Huawei D31
Huawei and 128
Bandluxe C170
DoCoMo A2502
SoftBank C01LC
Sony ERISS MD300
ASUA T500
Sierra 598U
(EVDO)
C-MOTECH U300 (EVDO)


USB key: the revolutionary system of information storage

Regarding the storage of digital data, each computer is equipped with a standard hard drive.

 This hard drive can store the operating system, software, peripherals,
applications, text files, photos and videos, music, video games ...

In terms of hard drive, there is the hard drive powering the PC on which it is possible to add
 memory cards to expand its capacity, and the external hard drive that connects to the PC,
allowing it to expand the storage capacity, perform regular backups,
but also to transport data from the day's work for the entrepreneur,
 Administration or employee wishing to pursue an important and urgent work to
house on his home PC. Computer data can also be
 stored on the hard drive of a laptop that is the essential tool for many entrepreneurs or representatives
 moving into customers. In terms of data storage
removable magnetic media, each of us knows, diskettes which were the first
 to perform that function, which, however, were limited in capacity and is very often
to print text files that can go to 1.44 mb megabytes.

The CD Rom in turn, allows the user to move more data, up to 900 megabytes,
 on a compact support and virtually unchanged over
cle usb
time;
Cd Rom is most often used for software distribution, backup text files, files, photos,
multimedia files, the " streaming "video, but
may also serve to protect the applications that consume
lots of disk space and which are not often used.


There are also "flash card", "HD DVD", " Blu Ray "for media, and the mini disc which, despite
their small size can contain video files and even movies,
video games that can be read on portable game consoles. For some time now, is marketing a new
miniature digital storage mode to the extreme,
it is the USB key. Among the finest inventions in the field of digital data storage figure
undoubtedly the USB key. The USB is certainly one of the smallest "hardware"
connecting to the PC. To connect the USB, just plug the plug the key into the USB port of the PC;
 and a sudden clicked, the computer and the software simultaneously detect its presence
 and offers to transfer the selected data files and folders on the hard drive.


Technological revolution, the USB is commonly used today to transport files
digital pc to pc, especially when these data are not too large,
up to 8 gigabytes and do not require the greater storage capacity of a CD Rom.
The big advantage of USB key resident in its simplicity of use, easy handling,
 its universal connectivity coupled with its large storage capacity for connecting pc, and especially its miniaturization
which can carry around since the pocket-sized,
see key on the door because some of them are equipped with a loop attached to the keyring.




WiFi Definition   (english : Wireless Fidelity)
Trade name for IEEE 802.11 technology for wireless ethernet LAN (WLAN). WiFi is composed of several standards operating on different radio frequencies:

 
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WiFi
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  • 802.11b: standard for wireless networks operating on the frequency of 2.4 GHz with a bandwidth of 11 Mbps

  • 802.11a: standard for wireless networks operating in the 5 GHz frequency with a band width of 54 Mbps.


  • 802.11g standard for wireless networks operating in the 2.4 GHz with a bandwidth of 54 Mbps.

  •  It is a combination of standards 802.11a (54 Mbps) and 802.11b (2.4 GHz).





Theory ... ... recall
Definition Usb


A USB stick is a small removable media that connects to the port Universal Serial Bus to a computeror, more recently, some 

Hi-Fi, DVD players lounge, car radios, boom boxes,televisions, etc.. USB key contains a flash memory and thus has no mechanical element,

which makes it very resistant to shocks. There are variants containing a small hard drive instead of flash memory, but in this case we will not use the term memory stick but microdrive or external hard drive.

Description and operation 

USB drives are powered via the USB port on which they are connected. They are insensitive to dust and scratches, unlike floppy disks, to CD or DVD,

which is an advantage in terms of reliability. In 2008, the keys are marketed as USB 2.0 format. USB drives are relatively standardized

, however some are not compatible with certain operating systems, requiring theinstallation of a driver[ref. needed].

The USB display capabilities ranging from a few MB to 256 GB (2010) and some are smaller than 1 euro coin.

The USB-based mini hard drives (see Microdrive) have a flow generally better than the USB flash drive[ref. necessary],

but access times are longer. They are also somewhat more fragile and can become hot when used intensively. In addition, their size is slightly larger but they still hold easily in your pocket.

Features 

The USB has several features, detailed below.

Lifetime

The lifetime (or MTTF) of the key itself is not specified and may fail after a few months as a few years, leading to partial or total loss of data.

Manufacturers announce data retention for at least ten yearsor more1. Computerworld is more reserved and draws attention to the differences

significant different between models2 in his article Not all USB drives are Created Equal. This term comes from the fact that the electric charge which is stored information

is not completely isolated and may disappear after a while, before which to perform a rewrite to ensure data retention3

And the quality of the insulation will therefore define the retention time.

Do not confuse this retention time with the lifetime of the key, which can break down or lose data before it.

Data loss can then be caused by:

  • limited data retention, due to the flash memory ;
  • a breakdown of the key, like any other material;
  • a software problem in operating system;
  • error handling software from the user;
  • an error of material handling and is not indestructible, although more resistant than other storage media.

Performance 

Performance depends heavily on the model design, including choice of components, architecture and memory controller. Techniques such as amplification of writing affect the performance4.

They may also vary depending on the operating system or hardware on which it is used.

The data rate varies in reading, writing and also depends on the number of files copied and content organization of the key.

We can have speeds of several Mbps to several tens of Mb / s, which can fall in the case of transfer of a large number of small files.

Ergonomics 

Different criteria improve the ergonomics of the key: the presence and positioning of light activity, protected Connector

(Rotary cap or retractable, retractable connector) accessories (strap, chain or cord necklace-keychain, USB extension cable)

portable software (depending on encryption, data synchronization, import mails or suite), shell design, etc..5.

Readyboost 

Main article: ReadyBoost.

With Windows Vista ReadyBoost certification appeared describing a USB key that can alleviate the burden on the hard drive at the launch of a PC.

The USB 2.0 has a speed slower than a hard disk 2009, but his time latencyaccess to every file of a few ms 

is better than a few tens of ms hard drive. The balance of the key can be positive.

Variants

Certain keys have different functions, or an additional function of the memory function of mass:

  • an integrated fingerprint reader for biometric authentication of the holder of the USB6 ;
  • a reader capable of restoring the files they contain music, including format MP3, thus becoming music players
  •  miniatures (the key with one AAA battery and a headset weighs 60 grams);
  • a tuner for FM radio, possibly with the option to save the stream in the embedded memory, or digital terrestrial television.
  • In the latter case, it is necessary to connect an antenna to the key;
  • a microphone, he captures the sounds being recorded in the memory. The key then acts dictaphone ;
  • SIM card reader;
  • a modem for accessing data to a mobile phone network (3G key "). In this case the key features a mobile telephone terminal and a SIM card;
  • Interface IrDA for communication with mobile devices.

There are also some USB Swiss Army knives.

A key may be a public partition and access to which is subject to a password. The confidential data is secure (connection parameters,

Portfolio passwords, email, etc.)..

OS Compatibility [edit]

If the firmware allows, some computers have the opportunity to start a Live Distribution, that is to say an operating system executable from removable media,

from a USB key. Microsoft does not offer on its operating systems.

When the firmware does not allow it to circumvent the problem by booting from a CD-ROM containing drivers for USB in turn to emulation

starting on the key (see eg Flonix). This manipulation is possible with a BIOS or EFI, and not with an Open Firmware.

Inside (64 MB)


 
Clé USB sans sa coque protectrice
 
  1. A male USB connector (type A).
  2. A controller Bear Technology Inc.. OTi-2168 USB 2.0. This circuit implements the controller for USB 2.0 and provides an interface between data transmitted linearly and the block structure of the flash memory. It avoids the low-level management of memory and contains a small microcontroller RISC and a little RAM and ROM. The data is transmitted to Hynix (no4) via a bus data / address on 8 lines.
  3. JP1 and JP2 two connectors with 10 pins, mainly for testing and debugging.
  4. Hynix Semiconductor HY27USxx121M, flash memory , which contains 4,096 independent blocks (each with 16 kilobytes) or 64 megabytes in total.
  5. An oscillator quartz SKC Shin Chang Electronics clocked at 12 MHz.
  6. An LED to indicate activity of the key.
  7. A switch with two positions to protect the key in writing.
  8. A blank area ready to receive another flash memory to provide a model with 128 megabytes without having to create another schema.

Comparison with other mass storage devices [edit]


The disks are hardly used since 2006, because of their low capacity (1.44 MB), their slow and especially their inconstancy.

The disks were long the most popular external storage of files, but their readers n'équipent most standard computers since 2005.

PCs have a USB interface, however, since they are defined as such by the annual specifications developed jointly by Microsoft and Intel.

USB drives are faster than floppies, contain more data and do not require any special driver.

Floppy disks are still an option for their ease of use with older operating systems

 (Like Windows 98 SE, which requires the installation of a driver using a USB key) and ease of starting.

The USB management is extremely complex, and thus relatively large in lines of code. Accordingly, it is not yet present in every BIOS.

USB and software


U3 system


Some USB keys come with the software format U3 created at the initiative of a group of key manufacturers including SanDisk and M-Systems:

connecting the key shows under Windows, a storage device read-write, which appears as a disk drive and a read-only device,

which appears as an optical device. U3 smart drives contain an embedded cryptographic processor. This solution implies the acceptance in consideration of a security risk,

depending on the degree of confidence that gives the manufacturer.

Key standards

The increase in capacity of USB keys can install the software and move around with its data and software preferred. With the BIOS current (2008),

you can even boot a complete system from a USB.

Some Web sites begin to offer "prebuilt packages" of commercial software or free license version installable on a USB key.

It is common to install a Linux distribution on a USB key. Just extract the ISO from a Live CD on this key and make it bootable (see Live USB).

In contrast, the number of writes on a USB key is technically limited (10 000 to 100 000 by the production technology of the cells),

should take several precautions if you want to use read-write7 (do not place any swap file swap).

Virus and USB 

A new type of security threat has emerged in 2007 in London, where malicious people have deliberately left USB sticks lying around

containing Trojansin order to infect the computers of those who picked


Historic building 

History capacity USB sticks

DateManufacturerModel
256 GBJuly 200910KingstonDataTraveler 300
128 GBJune 2009KingstonDataTraveler 200
64 GB
BUSlink
32 GB2008Netac Technology11OnlyDisk ™
16 GB2007 (" first ultra-high ")Netac TechnologyOnlyDisk ™
8 GB
BUSlink12Transcend
4 GB


2 GB


1 GB2001Netac TechnologyOnlyDisk ™

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