Click here for a Google Drive folder of the book: An Introduction To Reasoning
If you have a Google account, (sign in and) add the material to 'My Drive' for easier future reference.
If you don't have a Google account (and don't want one), you'll have to open and then save/download each file individually.
The current edition is labeled '2013'. There is also a folder of answers and supplementary exercises, for use by instructors - mail cathalwoods at gmail dot com for access.
An Introduction To Reasoning is a critical reasoning and (introductory) logic text book which
• is free
• covers a wide range of topics in critical reasoning and logic, including scientific reasoning. For full coverage, see below
• can be modified as desired, e.g. if you want to teach/study truth tables but not truth trees
• includes 2 sets of exercises after every section or every few sections, with answers to the even-numbered problems of exercise set 1
• for instructors: additional answers and supplementary exercises — e-mail cathalwoods at gmail for access
Looking for Predicate Logic? Try P. D. Magnus' ForAllX, or Rob Loftis's remix ForAllX-Lorain County Remix
Should you for some reason want only individual pieces, the link for each piece is given below. From within any file, select 'Make A Copy' or 'Download' from the 'File' menu.
Preface & Introductory Chapter
Introductory Chapter - Some Everyday Reasoning
Propositional & Categorical Reasoning
Validity & Non-Validity (Note: there are other sections on (i) valid-strong-weak and (ii) soundness, below)
Logical Structure Of Propositions (Negations, Conjunctions, Disjunctions, Conditionals)
Big 8 Method (Single-step derivation using 8 basic rules)
Method Of Derivation (Multi-step derivation)
Inductive & Scientific Reasoning
Valid, Strong, Weak (Note: there's a separate section on valid-not valid, above, and a separate section on soundness in RW, below.)
Getting Clear About "Cause" (Necessary, Sufficient, Inference to a Cause, Inference to an Effect)
Association & Causal Explanation (Association, Cross-Tabulations, Present-Present Fallacy, INUS Conditions, Explanation)
Induction (Generalization, Instantiation and Induction to a Particular)
Problems In Induction (Problem of Induction, New Riddle of Induction, Lottery Paradox. Philosophical appendix - No Exercises.)
Scientific Reasoning (Analogy, Experimental Methods, Inference to the Best Explanation)
Reasoning Substitutes (Various ways not to argue, or to short-circuit argumentation, by claiming the reasons are obvious, pointing imprecisely at reasons, shifting the burden of proof, appealing to ignorance, abusing flag words, begging the question; overstating the strength of the reasoning)
Classifying & Analyzing Reasoning (Analysis: flag words, propositions, things to omit, etc.)
Incomplete Arguments (Missing premises, sincerity & charity)
Diagrams & Complex Reasoning (Extended arguments, objections and rebuttals, very long passages)
Practical Arguments (Single section on decision-making)
Basic Evaluation (Soundness; imprecise language, euphemism, metaphor, vagueness, weasel words, ambiguity; argument from authority and various ad hominems; arguing with emotions)
Notes & Bibliography