Captain james cook exploration : Sugarless oatmeal cookies.
Samuel Wallis 1728 - 1795
Samuel Wallis by Henry Stubble, ca 1785, National Library of Australia. Following the return, in May 1766, of John Byron from his circumnavigation and not wishing to lose any time, on the 19th August the Admiralty recalled Captain Samuel Wallis to active service and gave him sailing orders to take HMS Dolphin back to the Pacific for a second expedition. Accompanying him was HMS Swallow under the command of Philip Carteret, (who had only been back in England three months), and the store-ship Prince Frederick. Wallis kept his orders secret from Carteret until they were three weeks out at sea. Carteret thought that the fleet was going to re-provision the settlement at Port Egmont in the Falkland Islands but the real objective of the fleet was to sail for Magellan Straits where the Prince Frederick would head back to the Falklands and the Dolphin and the Swallow were to sail west for further exploration in the Pacific. After struggling through the Magellan Straits for 115 days, they reached the Pacific Ocean where on 11th April 1767 the Swallow, in no fit state to undertake the journey in the first place, was separated from the Dolphin. On 23rd June Dolphin arrived at Tahiti and Wallis sent Tobias Furneaux, the second lieutenant, ashore to claim it for England naming it King George Island. Furneaux would return to Tahiti in 1773 as Captain of Adventure accompanying Resolution on Cook's second voyage. Wallis and his crew had communication and cultural difficulties and sailed from Tahiti on 27th July after having refitted the Dolphin and loaded up with water and fresh food. They sailed to the islands to the west of Samoa that now bear his name, to Tinian and on to Batavia where Wallis lost forty men to smallpox and most of his crew were unfit for duty on the crossing of the Indian Ocean to the Cape of Good Hope. The Dolphin had to spend a month in South Africa so that the crew could recover their health. On the 17th March 1768 Dolphin arrived at Jamestown but left at noon the following day. “At six o’ clock in the evening of Wednesday the 16th we saw the Island of St. Helena, at the distance of about four leagues and at one the next morning brought to. At break of day we made sail for the island and at nine anchored in the bay. The fort saluted us with thirteen guns and we returned the same number. We found riding here the Northumberland Indiaman, Captain Milford, who saluted us with eleven guns and we returned nine. We got out all the boats as soon as possible and sent the empty casks to be filled with water; at the same time several of the people were employed to gather purslain (purslane) which grows here in great plenty. About two o’ clock I went on shore myself and was saluted by the fort with thirteen guns, which I returned. The Governor and the principal gentlemen of the island did me the honour to meet me at the water-side, and having conducted me to the fort, told me, that it was expected that I should make it my home during my stay. By noon the next day our water was completed and the ship was made ready for sea; soon after she was unmoored to take advantage of the first breeze, and at five in the afternoon I returned on board. Upon my leaving the shore I was saluted with thirteen guns, and soon after upon getting under way I was saluted with thirteen more, both of which I returned; the Northumberland Indiaman then saluted me with thirteen guns, so did the Ollery, which arrived her the evening before I made sail, and I returned the compliment with the same number.” Dolphin finally reached England on the 18th May 1768 after a twenty-one month circumnavigation becoming the first ship to sail twice around the world. It was presumed by Wallis that the Swallow had been lost; it was reported as such when they reached Britain and James Cook believed this to be the case when he left Plymouth for Tahiti in the Endeavour with Joseph Banks in August of that year. Why Tahiti? Dr Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal and fellow of the Royal Society, had calculated that the best possible vantage point south of the equator to observe the 1769 Transit of Venus was between the Marquesas Islands and Tonga. The preferred site within this large area had not yet been determined when Wallis returned to England having “discovered” Tahiti, located almost at the centre of the area identified by Maskelyne. Tahiti’s longitude had been established by the Dolphin’s purser, John Harrison, (not the John Harrison of Longitude fame) using Maskelyne’s astronomical tables to perform the mathematically complicated but effective method of calculating lunar distances. Thus it was that the Royal Society informed the Admiralty that Tahiti was its desired site for the Pacific observation of the transit, and Cook set sail accompanied by John Gore who knew more about the Pacific than anyone else on the ship and three other Dolphin seamen, Molyneaux, Pickersgill and Wilkinson.Glasshouse
The Glass House Mountains...
A series of spectacular volcanic plugs rising dramatically from the coastal plain.
The remarkable Glass House Mountains are a series of steep-sided volcanic plugs which dominate the landscape of the Sunshine Coast hinterland. They are formed of rhyolite and trachtyte, lavas which hardened inside the vents of tertiary volcanoes that have been greatly reduced by about 25 million years of erosion.
The first European to see the mountains was Captain James Cook. In his Journal on 17 May 1770 he wrote: '..however, if any future navigator should be disposed to determine the question whether there is or is not a river in this place, which the wind would not permit us to do, the situation may be always found by three hills, which lie to the northward of it, in the latitude of twenty six degrees fifty three minutes. These hills lie but a little way inland, and not far from each other: they are remarkable for the singular form of their elevation, which very much resembles a glass house, and for this reason I called them the Glass Houses: the northern most of the three is the highest and largest; there are several other peaked hills inland to the northward of these, but these are not nearly so remarkable...'
The next European to visit the area was Matthew Flinders who spent 16 days sailing around Moreton Bay in July-August, 1799. During his explorations he came ashore and climbed Mount Beerburrum from which he surveyed the whole of Moreton Bay. The excellent booklet Matthew Flinders in Moreton Bay 1799, published by the Redcliffe Historical Society, records Flinders visit to the Glasshouse Mountains:
'On the following morning Flinders took the boat up a small creek that pointed towards the peaks. About half past nine he left the boat accompanied by two seamen and a native. The country they passed through was swampy, covered with mangroves, they waded through rocky swamps. In observing the flat-topped peak (Tibrogargan) it was considerably nearer than the highest Glass-house (Beerwah) that he had first meant to visit, but seeing one of the round mount (Beerburrum) with sloping sides was nearer, he altered course for it and after walking about nine miles from the boat he reached the top.
'The view of the bay and neighbouring country was very extensive, to the south there were several distinct columns of smoke visible. The mount was a pile of loose stones of many sizes, which had made the ascent quite difficult.'
Today the Glass House Mountains have become one of the premier tourist attractions on the Sugar Coast. Located inland from Caboolture and 61 km from Brisbane they are not only important to the European history of southern Queensland but play a major part in the Aboriginal culture of the area.
According to Aboriginal legend Tibrogargan (which is 364 m high) the father and Beerwah (at 555 m the highest of all the peaks) the mother, had a number of children of whom Coonowrin (377 m - the narrow and most dramatic of all the volcanic plugs) was the eldest, Tunbubudla were the twins (293 m and 312 m), Coochin (235 m), Ngungun (253 m), Tibberoowuccum (220 m), Miketeebumulgrai (199 m) and Elimbah (129 m).
The legend tells of Tibrogargan noticing that the sea was rising and calling out to Coonowrin to help his pregnant mother gather the young children together so that the family could flee from the rising sea. Coonowrin ran away in fear and Tibrogargan, incensed by his son's cowardice, followed and hit him so hard with a club that his neck was dislocated. When the seas retreated the family returned to the plains. Conowrin, teased about his crooked neck and ashamed of his behaviour, went to Tibrogargan and asked for forgiveness but the father just wept with shame. Conowrin then approached his brothers and sisters to ask forgiveness but they too could only weep with shame, thus explaining the area's many small streams.
Tibrogargan then called Conowrin and asked why he had failed to help Beerwah. He explained that he felt she was big enough to look after herself, though he did not know she was pregnant. Tibrogargan then turned his back on his son and still gazes out to sea today, refusing to look at his son who forever hangs his crooked neck and cries. Beerwah, the mother, is still pregnant, as it takes time to give birth to a mountain.
Today the area around the mountains produces tropical fruits such as papaws, strawberries, avocados and passionfruit, as well as vegetables, macadamia nuts and tobacco.
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