NEW ACCEPTED PUBLICATION: CAREX HELODES IS BECOMING A MODEL ORGANISM
•Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Carex helodes, a western Mediterranean endemic locally distributed in southern Portugal and southwestern Spain, and rare in northern Morocco.
•Methods and Results: 109 nuclear microsatellite markers were developed using a shotgun pyrosequencing method, resulting in 91 polymorphic and 18 monomorphic loci when tested using 19 individuals sampled from 5 populations from Portugal, Spain and Morocco. Loci averaged 3.23 alleles per locus (SD = 1.15). In a single population (Cortelha population, Portugal), the 34 most polymorphic loci showed a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.357 (SD = 0.292) and expected heterozygosity mean of 0.384 (SD = 0.255).
•Conclusions: Next generation sequencing allows us to develop a high number of genetic markers whose levels of polymorphism are adequate to study gene flow among populations. However, when genotyping the individuals within a population, we found low levels of variation.
JUAN MIGUEL ARROYO, MARCIAL ESCUDERO & PEDRO JORDANO. 2016. ISOLATION OF 91 POLYMORPHIC LOCI IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN ENDEMIC CAREX HELODES (CYPERACEAE). APPLICATIONS IN PLANT SCIENCES, 4, 1500085. LINK.
NEW ACCEPTED PUBLICATION: THE PHYLOGENY OF SMUT FUNGI PARASITES MIRRORS THE PHYLOGENY OF THEIR SEDGE HOSTS!
Fahrenholz’s rule states that common ancestors of extant parasites were
parasites of the common ancestors of extant hosts. Consequently,
parasite phylogeny should mirror host phylogeny. The smut fungi genus
Anthracoidea (Anthracoideaceae) is mainly hosted by species of genus
Carex (Cyperaceae). Whether or not smut fungi phylogeny mirrors sedge
phylogeny is still under debate. Material and methods. The nuclear DNA
region LSU (large subunit; 57 accessions) from 31 different Anthracoidea
species and ITS, ETS and trnL-F spacer – trnL intron complex from 41
different Carex species were used to infer the phylogenetic history of
parasites and their hosts using a maximum likelihood approach.
Event-based and distance-based cophylogenetic methods were used to test
the hypothesis of whether or not the phylogeny of smut fungi from the
genus Anthracoidea matches the phylogeny of the sedge Carex species they
host. Results. Cophylogenetic reconstructions taking into account
phylogenetic uncertainties based on event-based analyses demonstrated
that Anthracoidea phylogeny shows significant topological congruence
with the phylogeny of their Carex hosts. A distance-based test was also
significant; the phylogenies of Anthracoide and Carex are partially
congruent. Conclusions. The phylogenetic congruence of Anthracoidea and
Carex is partially based on smut fungi species being preferentially
hosted by closely related sedges (host conservatism). In addition, many
different events rather than only codivergence are inferred. All of this
evidence suggests that host-shift speciation rather than cospeciation
seems to explain the cophylogenetic patterns of Anthracoidea and Carex.
MARCIAL ESCUDERO. 2015 IN
PRESS. PHYLOGENETIC CONGRUENCE OF PARASITIC SMUT FUNGI
(ANTHRACOIDEA, ANTHRACOIDEACEAE) AND THEIR HOST PLANTS (CAREX,
CYPERACEAE): COSPECIATION OR HOST-SHIFT SPECIATION? AMERICAN JOURNAL
OF BOTANY, 102, 1108-1114. LINK.
NEW ACCEPTED PUBLICATION: A VERY COMPLETE STUDY OF CAREX SECTION GLAREOSEA. THIS PAPER IS PART OF ENRIQUE MAGUILLA'S DISSERTATION. CONGRATULATIONS MR. MAGUILLA!
of the study: The circumboreal Carex section Glareosae comprises 20-25
currently accepted species. High variability in geographic distribution,
ecology, cytogenetics and morphology has led to historical problems
both in species delimitation and in circumscribing the limits of the
section which is one of the major tasks facing caricologist today.
Methods: Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed based on ETS, ITS,
G3PDH and matK DNA sequences from 204 samples. Concatenation of gene
regions in a supermatrix approach to phylogenetic reconstruction was
compared to coalescent-based species-tree estimation. Ancestral state
reconstructions were performed for eight morphological characters to
evaluate for correspondence between phylogeny and traits used in
traditional classification within the section. Key results: The results
confirm the existence of a core Glareosae comprising 23-25 species. Most
species constitute exclusive lineages, and relationships among species
are highly resolved with both the supermatrix and coalescent-based
species-tree approaches. We use ancestral state reconstruction to
investigate sources of homoplasy underlying traditional taxonomy and
species circumscription. We find that even species apparently not
constituting exclusive lineages are morphologically homogeneous, raising
the question of whether paraphyly of species is a phylogenetic artifact
in our study or evidence of widespread homoplasy in characters used to
define species. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the monophyly of
Carex section Glareosae and establishes a phylogenetic framework for the
section. Homoplasy makes many of morphological characters difficult to
apply for taxon delimitation. This finding of strong concordance between
supermatrix and species-tree approaches to phylogenetic reconstructions
suggests that even in the face of incongruence among molecular markers,
section-level or species-level phylogenies in Carex are tractable.
ENRIQUE MAGUILLA, MARCIAL ESCUDERO, MARCIA J. WATERWAY, ANDREW L. HIPP, & MODESTO LUCEÑO. 2015. PHYLOGENY, SYSTEMATICS AND TRAIT EVOLUTION OF CAREX SECTION GLAREOSAE. AMERICAN JOURNAL
OF BOTANY, 102, 1128-1144. LINK.
NEW ACCEPTED PUBLICATION: ANOTHER EXCELLENT PAPER DISENTANGLING THE BIPOLAR DISJUNCTION OF CAREX MARITIMA. THIS PAPER IS PART OF TAMARA VILLAVERDE'S DISSERTATION. CONGRATULATIONS TAMARA!
To explain the bipolar distribution of Carex maritima, clarifying the
direction of the dispersal and timing of dispersal. We also tested
between mountain-hopping and direct long-distance dispersal hypotheses
as well as theits relationship of C. maritima with biotic and abiotic
factors that could explain the bipolar distribution. Location
Arctic/boreal latitudes of both hemispheres. Methods Molecular and
bioclimatic data were obtained for C. maritima and related species from
section. Foetidae. We sequenced two (rps16 and 5′trnK intron) plastid
DNA regions (cpDNA) and the external and internal transcribed spacers
(ETS and ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal gene region (nrDNA) and inferred
phylogenetic relationships, divergence time estimates and
biogeographical patterns using maximum likelihood, statistical
parsimony, Bayesian inference and ecological niche modelling. Results
Carex maritima populations from the Southern Hemisphere were genetically
and ecologically differentiated from their northern counterparts and
formed a monophyletic group nested within of a paraphyletic C. maritima.
Divergence time analysis estimated a mMiddle–-lLate Pleistocene
divergence of the southern lineage (0.23 Ma; 95% highest posterior
densityHPD: 0.03 – 0.51 Ma). Southern Hemisphere populations are more
stenotopic than the Northern Hemisphere ones, which tolerate harsher
conditions. Main conclusions Our results pointed to a mMiddle–-lLate
Pleistocene migration of C. maritima by long-distance dispersal, either
direct or through mountain-hopping, from the Northern Hemisphere to the
TAMARA VILLAVERDE, MARCIAL ESUCUDERO, MODESTOLUCEÑO & SANTIAGO MARTIN-BRAVO. 2015. LONG-DISTANCE DISPERSAL DURING THE MIDDLE LATE PLEISTOCENE
EXPLAINS THE BIPOLAR DISJUNCTION OF CAREX MARITIMA (CYPERACEAE). JOURNAL
OF BIOGEOGRAPHY , 42, 1820-1831.
NEW ACCEPTED PUBLICATION: CAREX IS FROM NOW ON A MONOPHYLETIC GENUS!
(Cyperaceae), with an estimated 2000 species, nearly cosmopolitan
distribution, and broad range of habitats, is one of the largest
angiosperm genera and the largest in the temperate zone. In this paper
we provide argument and evidence for a broader circumscription of Carex
to add all species currently classified in Cymophyllus (monotypic),
Kobresia (ca. 60 spp.), Schoenoxiphium (ca. 15 spp.), and Uncinia (ca.
70 spp.) to those currently classified as Carex. Carex together with
these other genera comprise tribe Cariceae (subfamily Cyperoideae,
Cyperaceae) and form a well-supported monophyletic group in all
molecular phylogenetic studies to date. Carex as defined here in the
broad sense currently comprises at least four clades. Three are strongly
supported (Siderostictae, Core Vignea, andCore Carex) whereas the
Caricoid clade, which includes all the segregate genera, receives only
weak to moderate support. The Caricoid clade is most commonly split into
two clades, one including a monophyletic Schoenoxiphium and two small
clades of Carex s.s. species, and the other comprising Kobresia, Uncinia
and mostly unispicate Carex s.s. species. Morphological variation is
high in all but the Vignea clade, making it extremely difficult to
define consistent synapomorphies for most clades. On the other hand,
Carex s.l. as newly circumscribed here is clearly differentiated from
the sister groups in tribe Scirpeae by the transition from bisexual
flowers with bristle perianth in the sister group to unisexual flowers
without perianth in Carex. The naked female flowers of Carex s.l. are at
least partially enclosed in a flask-shaped prophyll termed a
perigynium. Carex s.s. is not only by far the largest genus in the
group, but also the earliest published name. As a result, only 72 new
combinations and 58 new speciesreplacement names are required to treat
all of tribe Cariceae as a single genus Carex. We present the required
transfers here, with synonymy, and we argue that this broader
monophyletic circumscription of Carex reflects the close evolutionary
relationships within the group and serves the goal of nomenclatural stability better than other possible treatments.
CAREX GLOBAL GROUP. 2015 IN
PRESS. MAKING CAREX MONOPHYLETIC: A NEW BROADER CIRCUMSCRIPTION.
BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 179, 1-42. LINK.