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The Anatomy of an International Monetary Regime: The Classical Gold Standard, 1880-1914
Widely considered the crowning achievement in the history of international monetary relations, the classical gold standard (1880-1914) has long been treated like a holy relic. Its veneration, however, has done more to obscure than to reveal the actual nature of the era's monetary system. In The Anatomy of an International Monetary Regime, Giulio M. Gallarotti addresses the nature of the classical gold standard in its international context, offering the first comprehensive and systematic treatment of the subject.86% (15)
Three fundamental questions are essential to the discussion: How did the regime originate? How did it work? Why did it persist? Gallarotti uses an interdisciplinary approach that draws upon politics, economics, and ideology to explain the answers. He challenges traditional assumptions about the period, arguing that cooperation among nations or central banks was not a principal factor in either the origin or stability of the system, and that neither the British state nor the Bank of England were the leaders or managers of the gold standard. Rather, a decentralized process involving the status of gold, industrialization and economic development, the politics of gold, and liberal economic ideology provided converging incentives for starting and maintaining the system.
Gallarotti's study presents the most comprehensive and interdisciplinary examination available of the nature of monetary relations in the four decades before World War I. His important, revisionist view will alter the way we think about a crucial period in the growth of the international monetary system. It will be essential reading for scholars and students of economic history and policy.
man belongs to the earth.
Working on some gifts for the upcoming labor day weekend Shinnecock PowWow in South Hampton. This is one of the buttons I've designed. graphic design: a. golden, eyewash design - c. 2008. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHIEFJOSEPH (March 3, 1840 – September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho. For his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker. BACKGROUND -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------> Born Hinmuuttu-yalatlat (alternatively Hinmaton-Yalaktit or Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, Nez Perce: "Thunder Rolling Down the Mountain") in the Wallowa Valley of northeastern Oregon, he was known as Young Joseph during his youth because his father had the same name. While initially hospitable to the region's newcomers, Joseph the Elder grew wary when settlers wanted more Indian lands. Tensions grew as the settlers appropriated traditional Indian lands for farming and grazing livestock. Isaac Stevens, governor of the Washington Territory, organized a council to designate separate areas for Natives and settlers in 1855. Joseph the Elder and the other Nez Perce chiefs signed a treaty with the United States establishing a Nez Perce reservation encompassing 7.7 million acres (31,000 km?) in present-day Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. The 1855 reservation maintained much of the traditional Nez Perce lands, including Joseph's Wallowa Valley.  An influx of new settlers caused by a gold rush led the government to call a second council in 1863. Government commissioners asked the Nez Perce to accept a new, much smaller reservation of 780,000 acres (3,200 km?) centered around the village of Lapwai in Idaho, and excluding the Wallowa Valley. In exchange, they were promised financial rewards and schools and a hospital for the reservation. Head Chief Lawyer and one of his allied chiefs signed the treaty on behalf of the Nez Perce Nation, but Joseph the Elder and several other chiefs were opposed to selling their lands, and did not sign.  Their refusal to sign caused a rift between the "non-treaty" and "treaty" bands of Nez Perce. The "treaty" Nez Perce moved within the new Idaho reservation's boundaries, while the "non-treaty" Nez Perce remained on their lands. Joseph the Elder demarcated Wallowa land with a series of poles, proclaiming, "Inside this boundary all our people were born. It circles the graves of our fathers, and we will never give up these graves to any man." AS CHIEF -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------> Joseph the Younger succeeded his father as chief in 1871. Before his death, the latter counseled his son: “ My son, my body is returning to my mother earth, and my spirit is going very soon to see the Great Spirit Chief. When I am gone, think of your country. You are the chief of these people. They look to you to guide them. Always remember that your father never sold his country. You must stop your ears whenever you are asked to sign a treaty selling your home. A few years more, and white men will be all around you. They have their eyes on this land. My son, never forget my dying words. This country holds your father's body. Never sell the bones of your father and your mother. ” Chief Joseph commented "I clasped my father's hand and promised to do as he asked. A man who would not defend his father's grave is worse than a wild animal." The non-treaty Nez Perce suffered many injustices at the hands of settlers and prospectors, but out of fear of reprisal from the militarily superior Americans, Joseph never allowed any violence against them, instead making many concessions to them in hopes of securing peace. In 1873, Chief Joseph negotiated with the federal government to ensure his people could stay on their land in the Wallowa Valley. But in 1877, the government reversed its policy, and Army General Oliver Howard threatened to attack if the Wallowa band did not relocate to the Idaho Reservation with the other Nez Perce. Chief Joseph reluctantly agreed. Before the outbreak of hostilities, General Howard held a council to try to convince Joseph and his people to relocate. Joseph finished his address to the General, which focused on human equality, by expressing his "[disbelief that] the Great Spirit Chief gave one kind of men the right to tell another kind of men what they must do." Howard reacted angrily, interpreting the statement as a challenge to his authority. When Chief Too-hul-hul-sote protested, he was jailed for five days. The day following the council, Joseph, White Bird, and LooChicago - The Loop: Art Institute of Chicago - Allerton Building and Kemeys' Lions
The Art Institute of Chicago Building, located at 111 South Michigan Avenue on the western edge of Grant Park, houses the Art Institute of Chicago. The building was originally constructed for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition as the World's Congress Auxiliary Building. After the fair, the Art Institute moved into the space, marking its third address. The core of the current complex, located opposite Adams Street, officially opened to the public on December 8, 1893. The Art Institute of Chicago was founded by civic leaders and art collector as the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts on May 24, 1879 and changed to its current name on December 23, 1882. The museum's collection, known for its Impressionist, Post-Impressionist, and American paintings, now encompasses more than 5,000 years of human expression from cultures around the world. Famous works include Grant Wood's "American Gothic," Mary Cassatt's "The Bath", Georges Seurat's "A Sunday on La Grande Jatte", Rembrandt van Rijn's "Old Man with a Gold Chain", Pablo Picasso's "Mother and Child" and Vincent van Gogh's "self Portrait." The core central building, originally called Fullerton Hal and renamed the Allerton Building in 1968, was designed in classical Beaux-Arts style by Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge. The western entrance on Michigan Avenue, guarded by two bronze lion statues created by Edward L. Kemeys, boasts a grand Italian Renaissance facade with a pedimented 5-bayed central section that protrudes forward from the 7-bayed wings on either side. The arcaded entry loggia is topped by three grand palladian arches that are separated by Corinthian half-columns. Just inside the eastern doors is a reconstruction of the trading room of the old Chicago Stock Exchange. In 2007, the Art Institute of Chicago was ranked #88 on the AIA 150 America's Favorite Architecture list. The Historic Michigan Boulevard District, which stretches along Michigan Avenue between 11th and Randolph Streets, was designated a landmark by the Chicago Department of Planning and Development on February 27, 2002.
This is an EXACT reproduction of a book published before 1923. This IS NOT an OCR'd book with strange characters, introduced typographical errors, and jumbled words. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.See also:
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