Isaac Allred

Parents: William Allred No known photo 
  Elizabeth Thrasher

Born: 27 Jan 1788
  Pendleton, Anderson, SC
Died: 13 Nov 1876
  Spring City, Sanpete, UT

Spouse: Mary Calvert
Marriage: 14 Feb 1811
  Nashville, Davidson, TN

Children: Elizabeth M. Allred
  John Calvert Allred
  Nancy Weeks Allred
  Sarah Louisa Allred
  William Moore Allred
  Redden Alexander Allred
  Redick Newton Allred
  Mary Caroline Allred
  James Riley Allred
  Paulinus Harvey Allred
  Joseph Anderson Allred
  Isaac Morley Allred
  Sidney Rigdon Allred

Historical Documents
Abreviated Autobiography
A Short History of Isaac Allred
LDS Biographical Encyclopedia
Patriarchial Blessing
History of Isaac Allred
Memorial to Isaac Allred
The First Allred Converts - James, Isaac, William

Abbreviated Autobioagraphy


The following history is an abridgement of a copy of Isaac's history as written by him in 1849.  This copy was in the possession of Athlene Allred Osborne, a great grand daughter of Isaac, and has been posted on the Allred Organization website.

"I, Isaac Allred, the son of James Allred, was born the 20th of June, 1814, in Bedford County, Tennessee.  Here I was raised on a farm until I was 17 years old, at which time my family moved to Monroe County, Missouri.  Here we were admitted into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in 1832.  Later the same year I was married to Julia Ann Taylor.  The following spring I marched with the Prophet Joseph Smith to Clay County, Missouri to help liberate the Saints (the Zion's Camp March). 

In the fall of 1835, I, in the company of my father and others, moved to Clay County, where we stayed one year and raised one crop.  But this year our people became careless to the non-members living among them; some resolutions were passed and it was decided that it was best for our people to live by themselves.  In October of 1836, we moved with the Church to Caldwell County. 

I bought land from the government and made a far.  In the year of 1837 I was ordained an Elder.  In the fall of that year, at the request of the prophet Joseph Smith, I, in the company of Benjamin L. Cluff, went out to preach the gospel to the people.  We traveled eleven hundred miles.  I spoke at Brooks Cedars and baptized eleven. 

Later on that year, after putting my crop in, I left on my second mission.  We traveled by steamer to St. Louis, then up the Ohio River where we commenced preaching.  On this mission, I traveled two thousand one hundred miles, preached 35 times, and baptized four souls, before returning home.

The Church was mobbed and driven out of Missouri in the fall of 1838.  We settled in military land in Illinois and took out a lease for five years.  I made some improvements and remained one year, then moved to Nauvoo, built a house and did the best I could for a living.

After some months I left with Solomon Hancock for a mission to Missouri after they had driven us out.  We baptized some, organized a branch and returned home.

I went to work for Mr. Law, cutting timber. I remained with him for two years. 

The mob in Illinois raised against the church and killed the Prophet and his brother, Hyrum.  The Nauvoo Legion was organized and I was commissioned colonel on the Fifth Regiment in the Legion. 

The Law family left the Church and relieved me of my place.  I moved back to my home and went to work on the Temple and stayed until it was finished.  During this the toils and privations of life, the afflictions in sickness and the death of brothers and sisters and friends, my pen cannot print.

In February, 1846, we left Nauvoo and crossed the Mississippi River to the state of Iowa.  I being perfectly destitute of anything to help myself.  We stayed at Garden Grave for two years, at which time, I traveled from place to place suffering the entire loss of what little property I had.

President (Brigham) Young, finding out my condition, sent for me to leave Garden Grove.  By the help of my father, we left in the spring of 1848 and moved to Council Bluffs, Iowa.  Here I made a crop and built a house.  I was elected Constable at the August election.  I was called by President Young to travel and preach to the branches of the Church.

With this sketch there are thousands of other circumstances that I should have like to of written that my history be more complete, but being poor and being driven to the extremity, I must omit them.

My father's family (1849) is scattered to the four winds of heaven.  My oldest brother (William Hackley Allred) left the Church, the next one (Martin Carrel Allred) died, and my three youngest sisters are in three different states, and my two brothers (actually one brother, James T. S. Allred and a nephew, Reuben Warren Allred, son of Martin Carrel, who was raised as a brother after his father's death, as well as two cousins, Redick N. and James Riley) drug off into the service of the United States  (Mormon Battalion) after being driven from their homes and robbed of their property.

I thank the Lord that I yet live and have a standing in the Church.  Wednesday, December 20th, 1849.  All is well.  Thank God."

Note:  Isaac Allred crossed the plains in 1851 as a captain of a company of Saints (followers).  With his family, he settled in Kaysville, Utah.  He served a mission (his fourth?) to Great Britain from 1853 to 1855.  After his mission, he moved to Ogden and then to Ephraim, where his parents lived.  He married Mary Henderson in Nauvoo and in 1856 he got into an argument with Thomas Ivie over sheep and was hit with a burning log from the campfire and killed.  By his three wives, he fathered seventeen children.

A Short History of Isaac Allred
by Rulon C. Allred


William Allred, the father of Isaac, was born in Hillsborough District, Randolph County, North Carolina. John, Thomas, William and Elizabeth Allred came to North Carolina before our Country was a republic, and settled in Randolph County near Morgan’s Mill, now known as New Salem, North Carolina. The above Thomas was the father of William, the father of Isaac. It is likely that Isaac’s father, William, was married in Randolph county to Elizabeth Thresher; their two oldest children, James and Mary Allred, were born in Hillsborough District.

Sometime before the year 1788, William Allred moved with his family to Pendleton Country, Georgia. It was here that Isaac, the subject of our sketch, was born on the 27th day of January 1788. Before Isaac was two years old the family again moved. This time into Franklin County, Georgia. And it was here that William, Martha, John and Sarah were born.

When Isaac Allred was twenty-two years of age he married Mary Calvert, the daughter of John Calvert and Mary McCurdy. From the records we find that Isaac Allred and Mary C. Calvert were married on the 14th of February 1811. They settled near Farmington, Bedford County, Tennessee. It was here that Mary gave birth to their first four children; ie: Elizabeth,
Martin, John Calvert, Nancy Weekly and Sarah Lovisa Allred. It seems that the family had attained some influence and financial affluence by the year 1818 and had attained a home in the City of Nashville, Tennessee, where the following children were born to Isaac and Mary Calvert Allred, ie: William Moore, was born on the 24th of December, 1819, the twins, Reddick Newton and Reddin Alexander were born on the 21st of December 1822. Mary Caroline was born on the 9th of December 1824 and James Riley was born on the 28th of January 1827. The next born son, Paulinus Harvey Allred, was likely brought into the world back on the old farm, for he was born near Farmington, in Bedford County on the 21st of January 1829. The family moved from Tennessee shortly after the birth of this son and settled on the Salt River in Monroe County, Missouri. It was here that Isaac Allred and his family and some of the older married sons of James Allred settled and formed what was known and referred to in history as “Allred Settlement”. It was likely here, too, that these families were first visited by the Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We find this place and these people lovingly referred to in President Heber C. Kimball’s life history and by other early Elders of the LDS Church. Though James was the oldest member of the Allred family to join the Church in these last days, and was baptized into the Church the 10th of September 1832, it appears that Isaac, his younger brother, accepted the gospel at an earlier date for his Endowment records indicate that he was baptized into the Church and Kingdom of God in the year 1831.

The Prophet, Joseph Smith visited the Allred families on the Salt River and with other Elders was instrumental in organizing the “Salt River Branch of the Church.” Most of the members of these families accepted the gospel and were baptized in 1832 and 1833.

Isaac Allred and Mary Calvert had their next born son, Joseph Allred born at Allred Settlement on the 26th of April 1831. Two years later, on the 22nd of July 1833, Mary gave birth to Isaac Morley, also at the Allred Settlement.

During the expulsion of the Saints from Monroe and adjacent counties, Isaac Allred sought refuge for his family in Caldwell County where they lived until 1838. It was at this place that Mary Calvert Allred gave birth to her last born son, Sidney Rigdon Allred, on the 22nd of October 1837. We find in 1838 that the family had moved to join the body of the Saints who had been driven from their homes in Missouri and with them they settled at Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois.

When on the 12th of July, 1843, the revelation on “The Plurality of Wives and the Eternity of the Marriage Covenant” was first written and was read by President Hyrum Smith to the members of the First High Council called by the Prophet Joseph Smith, we find that Isaac Allred appears as a member of that council. He is mentioned as one of the nine faithful council members who accepted the revelation as the word of the Lord to the Saints in these last days. The other three members of the High Council rejected the revelation and in fulfillment of the prophecy made at that time by Hyrum, brother of the Prophet, they later apostatized.

Isaac Allred and his family were among the 15 Allred families who fled before the mobs when the Saints were driven from Nauvoo. They crossed the Missouri River on the ice and escaped into the bleak surroundings of that uninviting land with the faithful followers of President Brigham Young.

It is well known how the United States Government officials, after having permitted and assisted in the expulsion of the Saints from their homes and lands, later ordered that the fleeing body be overtaken and that 500 of their young men be drafted into the Army to join in the war against Mexico. The Saints were overtaken in Indian Territory and it was here that the Army Officer had been directed to get 500 men or upon failure of the “Mormons” to supply them to count them as traitors, fleeing under false pretenses, and therefore worth of extermination. This is according to the statement of President Brigham Young before the Council of the Kingdom at that time. It was under these conditions that President Young advised the young men to join the Army. He promised them that they would not have to shed the blood of their fellow men, but that this added affliction heaped upon them in this hour of their trials would turn out as a blessing upon their heads. Several of the young Allred boys joined the “Mormon Battalion: and performed with that Battalion in the longest march of foot soldiers in length of miles ever traversed by any army in the history of time.

When President Young and his advance company proceeded on to the west, he advised the remaining body of Saints to stay where they were in Indian Territory and raise crops and provide for themselves and lay up store for the others in the long march which must eventually follow. Besides, he said, at that time many of their young men now in the army could join them and assist them in their track. James Allred and his family remained and at the appropriate time in 1848 continued with a 100 wagon train, many of them Allred’s, on their march to Salt Lake City, Utah. However, Isaac Allred was selected with other brethren to go on ahead with President Brigham Young as an advance company. He was with them when on the 24th of July, 1847, when they entered the Salt Lake Valley.

Mary Calvert, mother of 13 fine children and one of those known and mentioned as one of the noble “Women of Mormondom” having a name worthy to be perpetuated through all time and eternity, died in Sanpete County on the 16th of September 1851. (According to one record, she died in Holladay, Salt Lake County. Sanpete County had not been settled at that time, so she must have died in Holladay.) We find the incident of her passing in Sanpete County referred to by her son, William Moore Allred in his diary, while he was still on his way to Salt Lake City with his delayed brethren and their families and while they were camped at “Loon Fork” on the Platt River.

On the 5th of November 1852, Isaac Allred married Matilda Stewart, the widow of John Miller, she being sealed to him for time and to her deceased husband for eternity. By this marriage, Isaac fathered one daughter Matilda Stewart Allred, who was born 12 May, 1853 at Big Cottonwood, Salt Lake County, Utah.

Isaac joined members of the Allred family about 1853 aiding in the settlement of the Allred family about 1853 aiding in the settlement of the Sanpete Valley and in the formation of “Allred Town” later known as “Little Denmark” then as Spring Town, and now as Spring City, Utah. Some of his sons were sent to establish settlements in Star Valley, Wyoming, in the Great Bear Lake, Idaho and other new places in the west.

Isaac died the 13th of November 1870 at Spring City, Sanpete County, Utah after fulfilling a noble life and leaving a name for good among all Saints.



ISAAC ALLRED (1788-1870)

Isaac Allred was the second son and fifth child in the family of eight children born to William Allred and Elizabeth Thrasher. Between 1786 and the time of Isaac’s birth the family moved from Randolph County, North Carolina to Pendleton, Anderson County, South Carolina, where Isaac was born on 27 Jan. 1788. We have no record of his early life. He may, however, have been employed in
Georgia as a young man, or the Calverts may have gone to South Carolina. Whatever the circumstances, on 14 Feb. 1811, Isaac married Mary Calvert, who was born in Elbert County, Georgia
. (The distance between these locations is 30 to 50 miles).

Isaac’s older brother, James, had married previously and gone north westward to the
Ohio River. Then, following Isaac’s marriage, the two brothers settled together in Tennessee, near Nashville. The newlyweds, Isaac and Mary, must have prepared for the move soon after, if not before, their marriage. We might also guess that they spent their first summer traveling, for their first child, Elizabeth M., was born in Bedford County, Tennessee, on 6 Jan. 1812
. (She lived only six years.).

They remained in
Tennessee until 1830, when both families moved about 500 miles north westward to Monroe County, Missouri. Isaac’s son, William, described the location as, “....on the State Road (with?) in three miles of one of the three forks of Salt River....” and son, Reddick, noted in his account, “....Father purchased a home on the great highway from east to west....” Today (1982) the three forks of the Salt River
are under the Clarence Cannon Reservoir and there does not appear to be any great highway in the area. (This is also very near the birthplace of Samuel Clemens/Mark Twain, born in 1835, the year the Allreds left).

According to William, they found the climate to be much colder than in
and Isaac was hard pressed to provide -- especially sufficient clothing -- for his large family, which by May, 1831, numbered eleven children. He enjoyed one advantage, however. It was the abundance of game animals. William tells of his father going out and bagging two deer before breakfast, and William, himself, killed one at age 12. We may well guess, then, that Isaac’s family was largely buckskin-clad.

Reddick has left the best explanation I have seen concerning the coming of the LDS missionaries to the Salt River Settlement (also known as Allred Settlement): “....My parents were members of a school of Presbyterians and brought up their children to reverence a God and were very exemplary in their lives, so that when a new religion was introduced they naturally looked at it with suspicion, having been taught that Prophets and Apostles were no longer needed, so some cried false Prophet. In 1831 two men preached in our settlement saying a new Prophet had organized a new church and introduced a new gospel or rather the old one come again. His name was Joseph Smith. Their names were Hyrum Smith, brother of the Prophet and John Murdock. Other Elders were passing every few months from Kirtland to
Jackson County
-- the gathering place for the Saints, and father opened his house for meetings....” The Salt River Branch of the Church was organized that same day.

William indicates that his father Isaac sold his farm on
Salt River in 1832 or 1833 in anticipation of moving to Jackson County, the gathering place for the Church. But when the Saints were expelled from Jackson County, he rented his farm back from the buyer and remained in the area for a time, though the family had to relinquish the house to the buyer and find other accommodations. They stayed there for one more year, during which the Prophet, Joseph Smith, came to their settlement with his “Zion’s Camp” expedition in an attempt to reclaim the homes and property of those evicted from Jackson County

In 1835, in response to the call of the Prophet to assemble at Clay County, Missouri, Isaac and his family moved. From Reddick’s account, “...In 1835 father moved up to Clay and located on Fishing River where he raised one crop, and the influx was so great that the old settlers became alarmed and the mob spirit began to raise, which was checked only by a compromise by which the old settlers were to buy out the Saints, and we to move into a new county adjoining called Caldwell County.

“1837 Father preempted land on Long Creek where he hoped to be able to build and inhabit -- to plant and eat the fruit in peace thereof. This was eight miles from the newly laid out city of
Far West. On the 14th of March 1838 the Prophet and other leading men came in from Kirtland and settled in Far West
and the Saints

began to gather and spread out so that two counties had to be organized, Caldwell and Davis were two Stakes of Zion was organized.”

William’s account tells us something about the circumstances and results: “...We lived there about two years and was getting a pretty good start. Broke ground for a temple in 1837. My father had quite a large family, in all nine boys and four girls, the oldest girl died before I was born, and we suffered considerable from persecution and exposure...”

Isaac and Mary’s oldest son, John, married in 1833. This left William (age 19 in 1838) as the oldest unmarried son. But William fled the area after it was learned that the Missourians were seeking him because he had been involved in the battle of
Crooked River and in the defense of Far West. This left Isaac and his daughters and youngest sons -- with only one or two ox teams which had not been either stolen or destroyed -- to transport family and good in the wintertime exodus from Missouri

At length the family reached
Illinois and were reunited. Isaac rented a farm a few miles down the Mississippi River from the town of Quincey. The family resided there until the Prophet, Joseph, made his escape from Missouri and founded Nauvoo, on a bend in the Mississippi on the Illinois side. Isaac moved his family there in 1840. We have little information about him from then until the exodus from Nauvoo. Isaac’s family were not among those leaving there early. William noted that it was in the spring of 1846. Reddick’s record is that as he returned to Nauvoo after assisting some of the early movers to camps in Iowa, he found his family (Isaac, Mary and children, and his wife, Lucy) on the Iowa side of the Mississippi awaiting his return so they could resume the journey. He noted that weather conditions had improved so much that they actually had a pleasant trip across Iowa to Council Bluffs
(a great contrast to the experiences of those who left Nauvoo early).

It appears that most of the quite numerous Allred clan -- Isaac and James now being the patriarchs of large posterities of children and grandchildren -- settled about five miles east of
Council Bluffs
at what became known as Allred settlement. According to Reddick, it was at “Little Pidgeon” (probably a stream). A branch of the Church was organized there.

About the time they reached this camp two of Isaac’s sons, Reddick and James Riley, enlisted in the Mormon Battallion. Reddick’s wife and baby remained with Isaac’s family. These soldiers’ pay was received by the Church and helped the families financially, but the great strength of the two sons was missed. Isaac, with other remaining family members, began making preparations to overwinter there.

After Reddick’s return in December of 1847 (James Riley remained in
California), preparations to move west were hastened. The journey was commenced in the spring of 1849. Reddick was a captain of 50. Isaac and family traveled with him. They arrived at the Salt Lake valley on 16 Oct and remained in Salt Lake City that winter. In 1850 they located near the mouth of Big Cottonwood canyon. The next year Isaac had the sorrow of Mary’s death -- on 16 Sep 1851
, at age 58. The cause of her death was apparently not recorded.

Isaac married Matilda Park, a widow with three children, on
1 Mar 1852
. Thus, at age 64, after having raised a family of 12 (two of whom were still teenagers), he began raising a second family. A daughter was also subsequently born to this marriage. They apparently then moved to Kaysville, as that is where Reddick noted finding his father when he returned from his mission in 1855. Reddick’s words: “...they were quite destitute having lost their crop the two successive seasons as also many others throughout the territory, especially the last season.”

In the spring of 1858 most of the
Salt Lake valley settlers moved south to the Utah valley and beyond at the approach of Johnston’s army to Salt Lake. Reddick tells us that he remained with the rear guard and sent his family on ahead. It may be that he sent them with Isaac. Then he states, “I came to my family in Nephi and instead of going back I sold my home worth $500 for one yoke of oxen worth $100. Whether Isaac had already sold out at Kaysville or whether he also made a sacrifice trade rather than return we have not been informed. All we know for certain is that he must have proceeded on to Sanpete valley immediately, because later that year he was selected as a committee member for a study of the feasibility of making a settlement at Pleasant Creek, near the north end of the valley. (Isaac’s brother, James, and others had been called by Brigham Young in 1851 to settle the Sanpete valley, but had had serious Indian problems the entire time. They had a stronghold at Manti.) The committee made the survey and reported favorably. Then Isaac was chosen as one of the committee to present the proposal to Brigham Young. Whether he met with President Young is in some doubt, as there is some indication that he was replaced by someone else. It may be that the Allreds had decided against settling there. Whatever the circumstances, Isaac and Reddick did not settle at Pleasant Creek (Mt. Pleasant), but at Spring City
, a few miles to the south. Reddick claimed to have built one of the first cabins there in the fall of 1859 (though this was where his Uncle James had settled earlier only to be driven out by Indians. The settlers’ houses were burned.) He states that his father, Isaac, and a number of other Allred families, as well as others soon settled there.

Thus, Isaac, at age 72, was still extending the western frontier, building upon the ashes of home sites burned out by the Indians. Nor were the Indian problems over. One night they killed every pig and chicken in the settlement. But Indians were not the only predators. The wolves killed so many cattle that the settlers sharpened their horns that they might better protect themselves. There is indication that this measure lessened the losses, but did not stop them entirely.

In spite of Indians and wolves, Isaac remained at
Spring City until his death on 13 Nov 1870
He was 82.

Compiled by E. Morrell Allred, 1 ggson

Allred, Reddick N., autobiography, in Treasure of Pioneer Hist., K. Carter, ed. 5: 297-372 DUP.
Allred, Wm. M., autobiography, unpub. ms.
Biography of Wiley Payne Allred, unpub. ms., author unknown.
Munson, Eliza M.A., Early Pioneer History, 3 page unpub. ms.


LDS Biographical Encyclopedia




ALLRED, ISAAC, a member of Zion's Camp, was born June 28, 1813, at Nashville, Tenn., the son of James Allred and Elizabeth Warren. His parents being members of the Church he was baptized Sept. 10, 1832, by Geo. M. Hinkle. In 1834 he marched to Missouri as a member of Zion's Camp and afterwards located in Nauvoo, Ill. After working on the Nauvoo Temple he received his endowments in the same after its completion.

At the age of nineteen years he married Julia Ann Taylor, daughter of Wm. Taylor and Elizabeth Patrick. Yielding obedience to the higher law, he married Mary Henderson as a plural wife in the Nauvoo Temple in 1846. He spent all his time working for the Church for several years and traveled much as a preacher of the Gospel in different States. Participating in the general exodus of the saints from Nauvoo in February, 1846, he spent a short time in the camp on Sugar Creek, Iowa, after which he crossed the prairies of Iowa to the Missouri river. Thence he crossed the plains in 1851 as captain of a company of saints and settled at Kaysville, Davis county, Utah. He filled a mission to Great Britain in 1851-1855, and through his labor in the States and in England many converts were brought into the Church.

Soon after his return from his mission to Europe in October, 1855, he moved to Ogden, where he resided with his two families until the time of "the move" in 1858, when he settled at Ephraim, Sanpete county, where his parents resided. There he remained till the next year, when he was killed by Thos. Ivie, who assailed him over a trivial matter and beat him with a burning stick from the camp fire May 11, 1859. He died the next day.

The difficulty arose over some sheep which Bro. Allred had in charge and which belonged to Thos. Ivie. His murderer was tried and condemned to death, but he managed to escape and went east. Pres. Young prophesied that Thos. Ivie would apostatize from the Church and that buzzards would pick his bones. This prediction was literally fulfilled, as the remains of Mr. Ivie were subsequently found in a corn field nearly devoured by buzzards.

About 1856 Bro. Allred married Emma Dewey. He had ten children by his first wife, five by his second wife, and two by the third wife. All of these grew up to manhood and womanhood, except one, and all have distinguished themselves as faithful Latter-day Saints.



Patriarchal Blessing of Isaac Allred


Note: This document seems to have been corrupted, and some of the phrases and words were moved around incorrectly on the page.  We have tried to reconstruct it here, with the last line being put in its appropriate place, although there may have been some of the last part of the blessing that was lost.

Isaac Allred, son of James Allred and Elizabeth Warren Allred, was born June 28, 1813. Blessing pronounced by Patriarch John Smith

Beloved Brother. I lay my hands upon thy head in the name of Jesus Christ and seal a further blessing upon you for and in behalf of thy father. Thou art entitled to all the blessings which were sealed upon the heads of the fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and a lawful heir of the same Priesthood which was sealed upon the head of Ephraim, the son of Joseph, who was sold into Egypt.

Thou art called to preach the gospel to many people and the Lord, thy God, will bless thee. Thou shalt baptize many and bring them to Zion. The Spirit whispers more particular that thou art to be a counselor in Israel. The Lord has given His Angels charge to watch over thee, to defend thee from the evils which are in the world and to help thee in all times of trouble.

Thou shalt be able to escape out of the hands of thine enemies unhurt. Thou shalt be clothed with wisdom and understanding to discern between good and evil, to counsel in righteousness, and thy work shall be acceptable before the Lord and His People. Thou shalt be a Savior upon Mt. Zion to save thy dead and living friends and to bring them up in the resurrection of the just and reign over them in a kingdom of glory to all eternity; thou shalt also have a numerous posterity. The number of thy years shall be according to thy faith, even to see the curtains of Zion extend to all its glory and beauty; Israel gathered from the four corners of the earth, and the prophesies which have been spoken all fulfilled concerning the Latter*Day Glory. Finally, thou shalt inherit all the riches of the earth and heaven. No good thing shall be withheld from thee. This blessing shall be perpetual to your children to all generations, and thy name shall be had in honorable rememberance in the Church forever inasmuch as thou wilt give all diligence to magnify the office not one word of this blessing shall fail, for I seal upon thy head in the Name of Jesus Christ and seal it up to eternal life, Even So, Amen.