A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA. DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. The sequence of nucleotides determines individual hereditary characteristics.
A process by which the sequence of nucleotides along a strand of DNA is determined. Originally a difficult process to carry out, DNA sequencing can now be done routinely by machines. The completion of the Human Genome Project in 2000 produced the largest DNA sequence ever assembled.
To carry out the sequencing of the human genome, scientists cut the DNA up into short fragments, sequenced these fragments simultaneously, and then assembled the entire genome by using sophisticated computer techniques to match the fragments to each other.