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Growing Independence and Fluency Lesson Design

Ali Ingram

Materials:

- Sentence strip that reads: "I like to play at the beach."

- Cover-up Critter (Popsicle stick with 2 googly eyes)

- Frog and Toad Together by Arnold Lobel (enough for each student)

- Timer/stopwatch (for each pair)

- Pencils and paper

- Fluency checklist (one for each student)

#### Fluency Checklist

I noticed that my partner....

Remembered more words

Time Record Sheet:

Name: ______________________

Date:________________________

Procedure:

3. Next, say: "When you come across a word you do not know, you can use your handy dandy cover-up critter to figure out the word. I will show you an example." Write the word block on the board. "I am going to pretend that I do not know how to say this word, and I will use my cover-up critter to help me. First, I will start with the vowel and cover up all of the other letters in the word. The vowel in this word is o, and I Know that o = /o/. Then I will uncover the letters before the vowel. So in this word, I have b and l which say /b/ /l/. Then I will include the vowel with my first two letters and I will get /b/ /l/ /o/. Now I will uncover the remaining letters, c and k, and I know when these two letters are together, they make a /k/ sound. When I put all of my sounds together I get the word block. See how easy and kind of fun that was? If the cover-up critter does not work, I can also ask my neighbors to help me figure out the word."

4. Engage the students in a book talk about Frog and Toad Together. "One morning, Toad wakes up and decides to make a list of things that he is going to do that day. He includes things like: wake up, eat breakfast, go to Frog's house, and take a walk with Frog. While he and Frog are walking, a huge gust of wind takes Toad's list right from his hands, and it begins to blow away in the wind. Oh no! What will Toad do without his list? What do you think will happen next? We will just have to read to find out."

6. Now the teacher will divide the students into reading partners (preferably one struggling reader paired with a successful reader). The teacher should assign each pair a different spot in the classroom so as to eliminate any distractions. Each group will receive a copy of Frog and Toad Together, a timer, a fluency checklist, a pencil, and a reading time sheet.

8. Before beginning, have a student volunteer come up to the front of the class to model with you so that each and every student understands what to do for this activity.

9. While the students are working and reading, you should walk around the classroom to monitor the progress of each pair. Offer assistance when needed.

10. Assessment: The students will assess one another by completing the fluency checklist and the time record sheet. The teacher will assess each student's fluency using the following formula to determine students' words per minute:

Words x 60

Seconds

The teacher will also assign each student to write a complete paragraph based on what he or she read in this first chapter. This will help the teacher determine the student's comprehension of the selection.

Students will also answer comprehension questions:

• What is the first thing Toad writes on his list? "When I turn to page 4, I see that the first thing Toad writes on his list is 'Wake up.'"

• What caused Toad to forget what was on his list? "I read that Toad's list blew away and Frog did not catch it, so that is why Toad couldn't remember what was on his list."

• How did Toad finally remember what was the last thing on his list was? "Frog reminded Toad that it was getting dark and they should be going to sleep – the last thing on Toad's list."

• Who is the friend Toad goes to see? "When I turn to page 9, I see that Toad goes to see Frog."

References:

http://www.auburn.edu/rdggenie/fluency.html.

http://www.auburn.edu/rdggenie/boydgaf.htm

Lobel, Arnold. Frog and Toad Together.  New York, NY: Harper Collins,

1971. Print.