Remember that a clause is a part of a sentence. Don’t confuse it with ‘sentence’, because it is not independent.

A. Define the following words using the RELATIVE PRONOUNS given.

1. A watch / which  ________________________________________________

2. A wallet / where  ________________________________________________

3. A burglar / who  ________________________________________________

4. A shoplifter / that   _________________________________________________

5. An orphan / whose  _______________________________________________

B. Insert the second sentences into the first ones by means of a relative clause. Put the relative pronoun in brackets when you can omit it and pay attention to the NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES.

1. A pensioner is a person. This person no longer works and gets money from the state.

2. My sister is now in hospital. She was injured in the accident.

3. The World Trade Centre suffered a terrorist attack and were destroyed on 11th September, 2001.  Thousands of people worked there.

4. The woman is a Science teacher at my school. She lives next door.

5. Do you like the top? My sister is wearing it.

6. I had never been to Salobreña Hotel. My uncle John recommended it to me.

7. The girls were very friendly. I talked to them after the lecture.

8. My English teacher used to like Stevie Wonder when he was young. He is a famous American musician.

9. Are these the keys? You were looking for them.

10. Mary Jo had incredible marks last year. You can always rely on her.

C. Insert the following clauses as RELATIVE CLAUSES in the incomplete sentences given. First you will have to look for the antecedent and then you will have to decide which relative pronoun to use. Some of them may be NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES so you will have to add the commas.

I lent him the money – they are never on time - they live in the house opposite ours – it makes sewing machines – he was American – her little brother ran away from home a week ago – his inventions enabled modern-day power and mass communication systems – you can look up new words there

1. Siemens is not a company.

2. Thomas Edison invented the electric bulb.

3. Joaquín has participated in two of our study trips.

4. This is the dictionary.

5. The article in the newspaper is about a girl.

6. What is the name of the scientist? His name was Nikola Tezla. He was born in Croatia and died in the United States.

7. We usually play with the boys.

8. My cousins are also coming to my birthday party.

D. What (= the thing(s) that) vs WHICH/THAT. Use one of these relative pronouns.

1. ___________________ they told about you is not very nice.

2. They told me a story about _______________ you did in Dublin.

3. Don’t believe all the stories _________________ they tell about me.

4. That is the book ________________ gives you further information about Nikola Tesla.

5. The job _______________ I applied for is not very suitable for _______________ I want in my future life.

E. Insert the second sentences into the first ones by means of a relative clause.

1. Last night I saw a film starred by Angelina Jolie. Her husband is Brad Pitt.

2. The city has got a gorgeous Gothic cathedral. My English teacher was born in this city.

3. I don’t know the name of the girl. I danced with her.

4. Edward always sits on his own. I spoke to his mother yesterday.

5. The students don’t usually do the exams well. They don’t keep their folder tidy.

6. Goya’s Café is closed today. I usually have breakfast there.

7. I’ll always remember the day. Spain won the World Cup on this day.

8. The reason is to apply for the job. I sent the company an email with my CV for this reason.

9. I would like to work at a school. The students are obedient and hardworking in this school.

10. Few of the students failed their B1 exam last year. The students registered for the exam in April.

F. Translate the following sentences into English.

1.  ¿Es éste el libro que estabas buscando?

2. Dime lo que quieres e intentaré comprártelo en Edimburgo.

3. No confío en los políticos. No creo nada de lo que dicen.

4. No conseguí el trabajo para el que eché la solicitud.

5. La cama en la que dormí anoche no era muy cómoda.

6. La razón por la que le llamó es para recordarle que mañana tiene una cita con el dentista.

G. ADVANCED. Insert the second sentences into the first ones by means of a relative clause.

1. The article is about the robbery at the bank. I wrote it yesterday.

2. Mr Kelly had got four children. Only one of them was a girl.

3. Our Philosophy teacher didn’t come to Dublin last year. It was a pity.

4. I stopped at the petrol station. Irene’s father works there.

5. I’ve just forgotten the title of the book. This book is based on a true story. This story happened a few years ago.

6. Spanish supporters think we should have another coach for the team. None of them were happy after the Eurocup in France.

7. I have done all the exercises on the relative clauses. Most of them were quite useful.

8. Have you ever been to Hawaii? It belongs to the United States.

9. The detective was watching the men. He had been speaking with them the day before.

10. Our flight from Dublin to Malaga was cancelled due to the French air controllers’ strike. This meant we had to stay another two days in Ireland.

H. Substitute the relative clauses by –ING and –ED clauses.

Examples: Do you know the teacher (who is) talking with the headmaster?

                   The student (who was) involved in the incident was expelled from our school.

1. I was woken by a bell that was ringing.

2. The window which was broken in the storm has just been repaired.

3. When you leave the village of Cong in Ireland there is a road which leads to the lake.

4. The breakdown lorry has just brought the car which was repaired last week.

5. I have rejected the job I was offered after the interview.


What do we use a cleft sentence for?

·         To focus on a particular part of a sentence. Example: I love your garden   >>>  If you want to focus all your listener’s attention on ‘his garden’, you can do it by saying: “The thing (that) I like most in your house is your garden” or “What I like most in your house is your garden” or “It is your garden that I like most in your house”. You can also use ALL in this kind of sentences: All I do is for you. (= the thing that I do is for you  <<  I do it for you).

·         To emphasize the whole sentence. Example: Albert organized a study trip to Dublin on St Patrick’s Day last year.   >>>  What Albert did was (to) organize a study trip to Dublin on St Patrick’s Day last year. 

·         You can highlight any part of the sentence. Let’s suppose we’ve got the sentence: William brought me a present from Dublin last Easter.

To emphasize the subject: It was William who brought me a present from Dublin last Easter.  

To emphasize the object: It was me (who) William brought a present from Dublin last Easter.  OR  It was a present (which) William brought me from Dublin last Easter.

To emphasize the adverbial: It was last Easter when William brought me a present from Dublin.  

To emphasize the prepositional phrase: It was from Dublin (that) William brought me a present last Easter.  

To emphasize the action (the whole sentence): What William did was (to) bring me a present from Dublin last Easter.


Now rewrite the following sentences using the beginnings and emphasizing the underlined parts of the sentence.

1. I find it surprising that she didn’t want to come to Dublin.   >>>  What ......

2. We got married twenty years ago.   >>>  It ......

3. My English teacher was born in Germany.   >>>   It ....

4. She was pregnant before the wedding.   >>>  All ......

5. I have rejected the job I was offered at the interview.    >>>  It is ....

6. He came to our school by taxi.    >>>>   It ....