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Alameda County, California



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The name of John H. Nicholl has come to be regarded as synonymous with business development and progress in Oakland, for as secretary of the John Nicholl Company he has given to the city one of its largest and most important realty concerns. His initiative spirit has founded other enterprises, which his executive ability has made prosperous and important. He has, moreover, been active in promoting the best interests of the community along many lines and throughout his entire life has directed his efforts where mature judgment and keen discrimination have led the way.

John H. Nicholl was born in San Leandro, Alameda county, in 1855, and is a son of John and Agnes Booth (Hodge) Nicholl, natives of the north of Ireland, both of Scotch ancestry. The father is one of the pioneers of Alameda county. He came to America in 1849 and to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama in 1853. Upon his arrival in San Francisco he paid one dollar to go across the bay to San Antonio, now Oakland, and he went thence to San Leandro, where for a time he operated a grain ranch on shares. He later purchased land of his own, raising yearly abundant crops of wheat and potatoes, and he operated this property until 1857, when he moved to San Pablo Rancho, now the city of Richmond, where he again engaged in grain farming, also buying and selling grain and operating a warehouse at Stege. In 1876 he built the Arlington block at Ninth and Washington streets in Oakland, the first brick block on Washington street, and this building is still in possession of the family. Even in the early days he was a firm believer in the future of Alameda county and frequently predicted that a city would rise on the old San Pablo Rancho and a tunnel would be cut through the hills to the bay, making a shipping port at that point. This prediction has since been fulfilled in every detail. In 1895, following the death of his wife, John Nicholl, Sr., moved to East Oakland, where he now lives in retirement at a very advanced age, as he will be ninety-two years old in November, 1914.

John H. Nicholl acquired his early education in the San Pablo public schools and later attended the California Military Academy at Oakland and the Pacific Business College of San Francisco. Following the completion of his studies he ran the Nicholl Hotel in Oakland for four years, after which he engaged in mining on the Wood river, Idaho. lie removed thence to Salt Lake City and in 1899 returned to Oakland, organizing in the same year the John Nicholl Company, a close corporation, of which he has since been secretary and manager. He maintains offices in Richmond and Oakland, through which passes daily an immense amount of business. The John Nicholl Company controls valuable real-estate holdings in Ventura, Contra Costa and Alameda counties and holds valuable tracts of land around Richmond. Land belonging to the company was sold in 1896 for the right of way for the Santa Fe Railroad. The company made the first sale in Richmond to Claus Spreckels for the use of the San Francisco & San Jose Valley Railroad. The consideration was eighty thousand dollars, and the land was the best part of "Point Richmond." Mr. Nichol] recently sold for five hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars one hundred and eleven acres in the heart of Richmond, land which had been acquired by his father in the early days for thirty dollars per acre. This was the largest sale of undivided and unimproved property ever made in the United States. Mr. Nicholl is now the owner of some of the most valuable ranches in Ventura county, Spanish grants acquired in 1867, and has one thousand acres in that locality planted in lima beans and English walnuts. He still has large property holdings in Richmond and in various other sections of California. Although he is a man of power and prominence in real-estate circles, his interests have not by any means been confined to this field, as is evident from the fact that he was the founder in 1901 of the Bank of Richmond, which, starting with a capital of thirty thousand dollars, has under his administration as president increased this to one hundred thousand dollars. Mr. Nicholl is also known as the organizer of the first water company in Richmond. His knowledge of present day business conditions is comprehensive and exact and to the solution of many difficult problems which have confronted hint in the course of years he has brought keen discrimination and penetrating sagacity.

Mr. Nicholl is an ex-member of the Richmond industrial commission and in the summers of 1913 and 19t4 made trips to Washington as a delegate to secure an appropriation from the United States government for harbor improvements in Richmond. He can always be counted upon in the furtherance of any plan for the advancement of the city, where he has gained prominence as a man of marked ability and substantial achievement. His unbending integrity of character, his marked business ability and his public spirit make hint a citizen whose worth is widely acknowledged.


It is readily conceded that the rapid growth of California's cities, is largely due to the intelligent efforts of real-estate men, who by keeping the realty market active have induced millions of foreign capital to flow to this state and have ever promoted enterprise and expansion. One of the men who stands high among these successful promoters is Harold Havens, of Berkeley, president of Harold Havens, Incorporated, engaged in real-estate dealing and a native Oakland.

Mr. Havens received his education in the Oakland schools and Leland Stanford Junior University, and was practically reared in a real-estate atmosphere, having ever since his youth devoted his energies to that line of business. He has acquired a knowledge of realty values which is wonderful in its accuracy, and he readily recognizes an opportunity. He gives his customers and patrons the benefit of his vast knowledge in this line and they are assured of expert service.

In Oakland he was connected with the Realty Syndicate and with his brother, Wicham Havens, in the Wicham Havens Company, remaining in that city until 1907, when he came to Berkeley and acquired by purchase the hillside land overlooking San Francisco bay and the Golden Gate. This tract comprised two hundred and eighty-seven acres and he subdivided the same, giving it the name of Cragmont. It is divided into attractive residence lots and is highly improved with fine roads, drives, parking, flowers and trees, and traction lines traverse the property. It commands probably the most attractive view in Alameda county and the most modern street work has been put into the subdivision. Cragmont is therefore fast becoming one of the most exclusive residence sections of the city. Mr. Havens is also interested in a number of other land companies. Moreover, he is a director in the Claremont Hotel Company.

An incessant worker, Mr. Havens finds his recreation in the open, of which he is a great lover, and is as ardent a player as he is a worker. He is deeply devoted to the hunt and has trailed and brought down with his gun big game in Alaska, Montana and Nevada. Among his trophies is grizzly bear and moose, and he has brought from his hunting trips a collection which is one of the finest in the state. Mr. Havens is well known in clubdom, is a member of the Bohemian and Family Clubs of San Francisco, the Athenian Club of Oakland and the Fairmont Country Club. Careful of his own interests, he has achieved success while he has always been considerate of others. He is public-spirited in the most noble sense of the word and is ever ready to place his ability and his means at the disposal of worthy public enterprises. A western man, he pulses with the western spirit, and he imbues with his enthusiasm all who come in contact with him. Genial and pleasant in manner, he has made many friends who prize his close acquaintanceship and is highly esteemed and respected by the general public for what he has accomplished and those qualities of his character which have made possible his success.



The history of Charles A. Jeffery is that of a representative business man of the west, alert and energetic. The steps in his orderly progression are easily discernible. He has none of those qualities which are termed genius, but he has a talent for hard work, combined with a discriminating judgment, that enables him to readily recognize what is essential and discard the nonessential. Thus it is that he has won place among the leading and prosperous business men of San Leandro and Alameda county. He was born in Chicago, Illinois, in September, 1879. His father, John B. Jeffery, was one of the pioneer publishers of that city, devoting many years of his life to newspaper work and the publishing business in Chicago. He is now a resident of New York city and is at the head of the Jeffery-Ferguson International Publicity Bureau. The extent and importance of his business interests have gained him prominence in his chosen field.

Charles A. Jeffery was a student in the public schools of Chicago, also pursued a business course there and took night courses of study in the Young Men's Christian Association. In 1898, under the civil service rules, he became civilian clerk under his father, who was appointed by President McKinley as assistant quartermaster of United States volunteers for service in the Philippines. Mr. Jeffery went to the Philippines and there remained for a year, at the end of which time he was mustered out. In the meantime the family had removed to Oakland, where he joined them. After his return home the Suburban Light & Power Company was organized, and Mr. Jeffery was elected its secretary, in which position he continued for ten or eleven years, or until the company sold out to the Pacific Gas & Electric Company. He was largely instrumental in bringing about the success which attended the original company, bending his efforts to administrative direction and executive control and along practical lines, building up a business which became one of the profitable industries of the district. He was also at one time secretary of the Mount Diablo Light & Power Company and since his retirement from those offices he has given his attention to the real-estate and brokerage business and to the supervision of his individual interests. In the fall of 1911 he removed to San Leandro and erected a large and beautiful residence on Estudillo avenue, where he now makes his home.

Mr. Jeffery has never allowed business interests to so occupy his time that public duties have been forgotten. In fact, throughout his entire life he has cooperated in movements for the general good and in July, 1913, he succeeded A. B. Cary as trustee of the San Leandro school district, being appointed by the county superintendent of schools to fill the vacancy. He was also elected to the office of clerk of the board. His cooperation can always be counted upon to further public measures that have to do with the material, intellectual, political and moral progress of the community. He votes with the republican party, yet is not an active worker in its ranks. He is a member of the First Congregational church of Oakland, and he belongs also to the Masonic lodge, the Eastern Star and the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks.

On the 15th of April, 1903, in Oakland, Mr. Jeffery was united in marriage to Miss Louise Robins, a daughter of George Robins, a pioneer of California and one of the early judges of San Francisco. The children of this marriage are five in number: Dorothy, Florence, Charles A., and John B. and George R., twins. Like her husband, Mrs. Jeffery is a member of the First Congregational church and takes an active and helpful Interest in its work. She is also known in club circles and is treasurer of the Alta Mira Club of San Leandro. Their social position is one of leadership, and their own home is noted for its warm-hearted hospitality. Mr. Jeffery is among those who have recognized the wonderful opportunities of the growing West and, taking advantage of these, has made rapid progress in a business Way, his even paced energy, undaunted enterprise and enterprising spirit bringing him into important business relations.


For many years Charles Prowse has been successfully engaged in the real-estate and insurance business in Hayward, California, in which city he was one of the pioneers. He also discharges the duties of justice of the peace and county supervisor and moreover is town recorder. He was born in Galena, Illinois, May 28, 1852, and is a son of Thomas and Elyina (Bradshaw) Prowse, the former a native of Kentucky and the latter of Jacksonville, Illinois. The father paid his first visit to California in 1850, but in 1851 returned to Illinois, coming again to California in 1868, When he brought his family to the Castro valley, where he engaged in farming. He died in 1869. his wife passing away quite recently. In their family were thirteen children, of whom our subject is the seventh in order of birth.

Charles Prowse attended public school in Jo Daviess county, Illinois, but at the early age of thirteen made his way across the plains to :Montana, bringing a drove of cattle from his native state to the western frontier a trip of about twenty-six hundred miles. He lived in Montana about three years but later came to the Castro valley, where his father had bought land. Following the death of the latter he continued in the operation of the family farm for a time, but in 1880 gave up agricultural pursuits and moved to Hayward, where he accepted a position as foreman of the warehouse business and lumber yard conducted by Anspacher Brothers and so continued until 1883. He then turned his attention to the real-estate and insurance business and has ever since been active along that line. The years have brought him success, and he has handled much country and town property, being now considered one of the substantial residents of his city. He has always proven himself worthy of the confidence reposed in him and his advice is frequently sought upon financial matters in regard to real estate, as he is considered one of the best judges of land in and around Hayward.

Mr. Prowse married Miss Lucinda F. Luce, a native of California, the ceremony taking place at Hayward. They became the parents of five children: Joseph Bradshaw; Emma L., deceased; Mary Olive, the wife of Joseph A. Gibson, of Elmhurst; Gertrude L.; and Arthur James.

Mr. Prowse has always taken a most active part in public progress. One of his achievements was in securing Hayward public park, the Plaza, which for years was a dumping ground for refuse and a menace to the health of the city. Part of it was occupied by business concerns who were illegally holding and using the ground. In 1900 Mr. Prowse began a movement to secure and devote the spot to public use. The matter had to be taken into court and a favorable decision was handed down by Justice Field, reestablishing the city's title to the entire plat, which embraces a huge city block. Judge Prowse personally donated one hundred trees at a considerable expense as a beginning to beautify the Plaza, which is now one of the show places of the town and would be a credit to a city many times the size of Hayward

He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and in 1903 was appointed to the board of supervisors in order to serve out the unexpired term of Joseph Pinentel—a period of two years and was subsequently elected and reelected for two terms of four years. He acts as justice of the peace and has earned the general endorsement of the public, for his decisions have always been fair and impartial. Since January 1, 1901, he has also been town recorder of Hayward. He has shown himself able and faithful in the discharge of his public duties, the people giving evidence of the confidence which they have in him by continued reelections. Politically he is a republican, active in the interests of his party and loyal to its principles. He belongs to Sycamore Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., Eucalyptus Lodge of Masons and the Alameda Lodge of Elks. In all his relations of life Mr. Prowse has proven himself a valuable and useful citizen who is ever ready to give his moral and material support to those measures which promise to be of benefit to his fellowmen.

Among the many qualities of mind and character which render men useful and worthy citizens that of public spirit stands preeminent, for it takes success beyond the ranks of individual benefits and places it among valuable and important public assets. Generously endowed with this quality is Herbert F. Brown, who more than any other individual has built up the city of Richmond, promoting its civic, moral, industrial and financial development and accomplishing along with his own prosperity a valuable work of public service. His name has come to be regarded as a synonym for progress and advancement in the community which numbers him foremost among its men of worth and substance.

Mr. Brown is a native of Wisconsin and came to California in 1889. engaging in the hardware business in Los Angeles and San Francisco. He continued at this occupation until 1907, when he came to Richmond, Where he has since been numbered among the representative and valued citizens. His interests here have extended to many fields touching closely the general good of the community, a fact which is plainly evident from a list of his important accomplishments and his business connections. In 1907 he bought the New Richmond addition of fifty-nine lots, erected houses and later sold the entire tract. He has the remarkable record of having since that time put about thirty tracts of Richmond property upon the market. He is a member of the Richmond Industrial Commission and served two years as president of this organization, in the work of which he still takes an active part. In August, 1912, he founded the Western States Porcelain Company of Richmond, which under his able management as president and treasurer has become one of the most prosperous industrial concerns in the city. Mr. Brown is vice president of the Mechanics Bank of Richmond, former president of the Sterling Fixture Company and of the Herbert E. Brown Company, Incorporated. He has important banking interests in San Francisco, was the organizer of the Calistoga National Bank of Calistoga and owns apartment houses and homes in Richmond valued at over one hundred thousand dollars. He has the utmost faith in the future of this city, a faith testified to by many investments and made stronger by the successful completion of various projects of advancement. A keen and resourceful business man, he has worked steadily along lines of progress and growth with the result that many of the most important business concerns in Richmond owe their foundation to his initiative spirit and their continued prosperity to his ability and insight.

Dr. Henry Gordon McGill, a successful physician and surgeon of Livermore, has here practiced his profession continuously for the past eleven years and has won an enviable reputation as a representative of his chosen calling. He is a native of Toronto, Ontario, his birth having there occurred in 1862. His father, George McGill, M. D., was also a native of that province and a banker in Ontario.

Henry G. McGill acquired his early education in a private school and subsequently attended Trinity University and McGill University of Montreal, studying medicine in both institutions. In 1883 he went to San Diego county, California. and for several years resided on a large fruit ranch there, while later he purchased a small ranch in Pomona, Los Angeles county. In 1887 he went to New York city and there took a course in medicine, being graduated in 189o. Immediately afterward he located for practice in San Francisco and there followed his profession successfully until 1903, when he came to Livermore, where he has maintained an office continuously since. He has especially developed his ability as a surgeon but does a general practice and is accorded a liberal and lucrative patronage. He frequently contributes articles on case observations to professional journals, and these have been widely read and are recognized as of value to the fraternity. Dr. McGill has served as health officer for the town of Livermore during the past eight years and has long been numbered among the leading and able representatives of his profession in Alameda county.

In 1901, at Sunol Glen, Alameda county, Dr. McGill was united in marriage to Miss Jessie Carter, a native of this county. They have one daughter, Adelaide. Mrs. McGill takes an active part in church and missionary work and is a valued member of the Ladies' Aid Society. The Doctor also attends the Presbyterian church and sings in its choir. He joined the Masonic fraternity when twenty-one years of age and now belongs to Lodge No. 218, A. F. & A. M., to which he transferred his membership upon coming to Livermore. He holds to high ideals not only in professional service but in citizenship and in social relations, and his sterling manhood has gained for him the warm and enduring regard of all with whom he has come in contact.

California has long been noted for the high standing and exceptional ability of its representatives in congress. In the list none is more prominent, nor more deserving of the highest encomium than George C. Perkins, one of the present United States senators from the Golden State and a citizen of whom San Francisco is proud. None of our representatives in the national legislature has been of greater service, not only to the nation as a member of its governing body. but to his state and to the Ray cities. In the preparations for the great Panama-Pacific International Exposition, when San Francisco will be host to the world in celebration of the opening of the Panama Canal, Senator Perkins has had a conspicuous and active part, while his work in behalf of legislation desired and needed by the state has been indefatigable and unusually, successful.

Senator Perkins began life as a farmer boy, having been born at Kennebunkport, Maine, August 23, 1839. His parents were in moderate circumstances, but as a boy he received such education as was offered in the winter seasons to those whose suns were compelled to help on the farm at other times. When he was only thirteen years old, however, he tired of life on the farm and went to sea. He shipped before the mast and for four years as a sailor visited various ports and climes all over the world. He returned home for six months when he was in his seventeenth year and went to school, but returned to the sea. Finally, in the fall of 1855, in the course of his journeyings on the ocean, he arrived at San Francisco, on the clipper ship Galatea, via Cape Horn, and went ashore to try his luck as a gold miner.

He went first to Sacramento and then on to Butte and Plumas counties and for two years tried his fortunes at mining, but with indifferent success. Next he tried teaming and lumbering, then working in a store. Ambition within him was strong, and he refused to be daunted by reverses. At last fortune favored him, and he invested his savings in a ferry boat at Long Bar on the Feather river. Then he built the Ophir flour mills, invested in mining enterprises and constructed sawmills, and the fruits of his labor and his unbounded optimism were more plenteous. In 1872 he came to San Francisco and joined the firm of Goodall & Nelson, which was just then becoming a power in ocean transportation circles. In 1876 he purchased the interests of Christopher Nelson and the firm name became Goodall, Perkins & Company, which at the present time is still active and still a leading factor in the shipping industry on the Pacific Coast. The firm was largely interested in the Pacific Whaling Company, which was the first to introduce steam whalers in the Arctic trade; and also is connected with many large shipping enterprises, its business operations extending all along the coast from Alaska to Mexico and employing over two thousand men.

While the Senator has been prominent in the business affairs of the community and in coast-shipping circles, it is as a public man in active political life that he is best known. He is one of the state's foremost republicans, and has always been a power in the councils of his party. From 1869 to 1876 he served in the state senate, being elected both times from a democratic district. In 1879 he was elected governor of the state by a majority of twenty-two thousand votes which majority at that time was surprising, the total population of the state being considered. Following his retirement from the governor's chair, he gave less attention to politics and devoted himself more closely to his private business. In 1893. however, he was appointed by Governor Markham to succeed Senator Stanford, deceased. Two years later he was chosen by the state legislature to serve out the unexpired term, and in 1897 was reelected to the full term of six years. In January 1903, he was again reelected, receiving every republican vote in the legislature and finally the unanimous vote, on motion of a democratic member. Again in 1909 the people testified their appreciation of his signal services by choosing him for another term, which expires in 1915. In 1912 he announced that he would not again be a candidate for reelection and that the only ambition he had was to serve out his term to the satisfaction of the people of California, Who had so often honored him with their confidence. By virtue of his faithfulness and ability, he haying been absent but twenty-three days, during the twenty-one years he has served while congress was in session, and that being caused by sickness. Senator Perkins has attained a high standing among his colleagues in the national upper house. He is a good speaker and well equipped to diligently watch the interests of his state and city in the senate.

Senator Perkins is widely known as a philanthropist and is connected with quite a number of charitable enterprises, including the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society, of which he has been president for twenty-seven years. He was for two years president of the San Francisco Art Association, president of the Chamber of Commerce in 1878 and again in 1887, and has been a trustee of the Academy of Sciences since 1886. He takes a deep interest in Masonry because of its instructive and moral influence. He was grand junior warden of the Grand Lodge of California in 1871; grand senior warden in 1872; deputy master in 1873; and grand master in 1874, by unanimous vote. In the Knights Templar he has held all the offices up to grand commander, which be held in 1882 and during the triennial conclave in San Francisco; while at the latter meeting he was elected grand junior warden of the grand encampment of the United States.

Senator Perkins was married in 1864 at Oroville, California, to Ruth A. Parker, and to them were born three sons and four daughters. And now in the evening of life, haying passed the milestone of three-score years and ten, Senator Perkins may well find cause for justifiable pride in the fact that he has not only achieved success in a material way, but has been of immeasurable service in his deeds and actions as a public man, especially to his adopted state—California.

Francisco Ignacio de Lemos is one of the foremost and in point of residence the oldest lawyer in Hayward. He is a representative of the Portuguese nation, so many members of which have become useful and substantial citizens of this state. He was born March 10, 1865, at Villa Nova, in the island of Terceira, in the Azores.

When about twenty-three years of age he crossed the ocean landing in New Bedford, Massachusetts, on September 20, 1888. In the latter part of October of the same year he made his arrival at the Mission San Jose and there wrote for a Portuguese paper which was published at that point and known as O Amigo dos Catholicos. Being attracted to Alameda county and Hayward by the opportunities of which he had heard so much, he came to this city a short tine later, arriving February 18, 1889, and entered the law office of the late G. S. Langan in order to teach Mr. Langan Portuguese and receiving in exchange instruction in English and law. He immediately took up his studies, which he unflaggingly pursued until he was admitted to practice before the superior court of Alameda county on June 16, 1894, and the supreme court on April 25, 1893. In the preceding January he had become a partner of Mr. Langan and continued in that association until November 1, 1903, when the partnership was dissolved by mutual consent. He immediately engaged in practice independently and has since continued to do so. Mr. Lentos has a large and important clientele. He represents a number of prominent commercial enterprises and has also been very successful in court work.

He is a director of the Bank of Hayward and also the Bank of Centerville and for nineteen years has acted as a notary public. Interested in the cause of education, he has served as clerk of the board of school trustees for five years, still holding that office. in the spring of 1914 he was chosen as one of a committee of Portuguese from California to visit their native country in order to induce the Portuguese government to participate in the Panama-Pacific Exposition. Since 1890 he has been a member of the U. P. E. C., a Portuguese society, and in 1896 and 1897 was supreme president of this order. Ever since 1898 he has been secretary of its board of directors with the exception of one year. Mr. Lentos has been continuously engaged in the active practice of law in Hayward longer than any other lawyer, having established himself in 1894. Among his countrymen he was also well known as proprietor of the Portuguese paper which he conducted for about four years and which is now known as O Arauto. In 1898 Mr. Lemos paid a visit to his native land and was there married on September 1, 1898, to Miss Adelaide L. Cotta de Menezes, a native of the Azores, who for several years prior to her marriage was a teacher. They have one son, F. Clemente, who is attending the Hayward grammar school. Mr. and Mrs. Lemos reside at No. 1272 B street in a handsome residence. In 1907 they, accompanied by their young son, took a trip to their native land, deriving great pleasure from this visit.

Mr. and Mrs. Lemos are devout communicants of the Catholic faith. For years he has been an adherent of the republican party but lately has changed his allegiance to the progressive organization and is actively interested in politics, doing much valuable work in a quiet way, although he does not expect or seek political preference in remuneration for his work. Fraternally Ile is a member of Cypress Camp, W. 0. W.; Alameda Lodge, No. lam ;, B. P. 0. E.; the Knights of Columbus; the Fraternal Order of Eagles; the Foresters of America; and the 1. D. E. S., a Portuguese society. He has held office in all of these organizations. Mr. Lemos has become one of the useful and public-spirited citizens of Alameda county and Hayward. He has made many friends in the community in which he resides, and all agree as to his high standards of manhood.

Charles William Heyer, a leading representative of business and political interests in Alameda county, of which he is a worthy and honored native son, has served for four terms of four years each as mayor of the mutt of Hayward, where during the past quarter of a century he has been active in the control and one of the owners of one of the largest steam beer breweries in the state outside of Oakland and San Francisco. His birth occurred in Alvarado, Alameda county, California, on the 22d of April, 1866, his parents being Julius and Caroline (Ubhoff) Heyer, both of whom were natives of Germany. The father emigrated to the United States at an early age and in 1857 made his way to California by way of the Isthmus route. During his active business career he was successfully engaged in the conduct of a brewery at Hayward, where he continued to reside until called to his final rest in 1873. To him and his wife were born two sons, namely: William, who is a resident of Hayward; and Charles W., of this review. The mother was married a second time, becoming the wife of Leo Palmtag, also a brewer of Hayward, by whom she has two children: Flora, the wife of Vincent Strovel, who is engaged in business as a butcher of Hayward; and Lena, who lives at home.

In the acquirement of an education Charles W. Heyer attended. the graded and high schools of Hayward. At the age of sixteen years he entered upon his business career in connection with a brewery, in which he remained until 1889, when he became a partner of his stepfather, Mr. Palmtag. This association was maintained with mutual pleasure and profit throughout nearly twenty years. In 1905 Mr. Palmtag retired, and they then incorporated as the Palmtag & Heyer Brewing and Malting Company with Mr. Heyer as manager. This business was so conducted until June, Iwo, when they consolidated with several Oakland breweries forming the Golden West Brewing Company. Mr. Hever's brewery has since been operated as a branch of that concern. Ever since consolidation Mr. Heyer has served as treasurer of the Golden West Brewing Company and manager of the Hayward branch.

Mr. Heyer is identified fraternally with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Native Sons of the Golden West, the Foresters of America, the Hermann Soehne and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He is known as a stalwart defender of democratic principles and his influence has been a potent element in shaping political interests of his city. He is a very active worker in the local ranks of his party and has been sent as a delegate to county and state conventions. For fourteen years he has served as a trustee of Hayward and for four terms of four years each he was chosen mayor of the city. his election being conceded by the opposition in each instance before the returns from the polls had been received. He has always given the town a businesslike, practical and progressive administration, characterized by many measures of improvement and value which contributed to the substantial advancement and looked toward the best interests of the municipality. His entire life has been spent in Alameda county and his record is that of one of its foremost, popular and most esteemed citizens. Mr. and Mrs. Heyer enjoy the hospitality of the best homes of Hayward, and their own household is noted for its attractive social functions.

Thomas Bartlett Russell has contributed in various ways to the development of Hayward and Alameda county, where he has important agricultural interests and also has been active in contracting and building for some time. He was born December 11, 1861, on a tract of the old Soto ranch near Hayward and is a son of Joel Russell, who settled there at an early day in the history of this county and of whom extended mention is made in another part of this work.

Thomas B. Russell attended the public schools of Hayward and subsequently entered the University of California, from which Ile graduated in 1885 in mining engineering. He then took up the profession of railroad engineering and followed this line of work in various states for three or four years, returning at the end of that time to Hayward, where he engaged in farming. He has since remained active in that occupation. In 1895 Mr. Russell also took up contracting and has erected several buildings which have added considerably to the beautification of Hayward. Among those structures is the new high school, a handsome concrete structure which was completed in 1911. Mr. Russell has reached out in other fields of endeavor and was one of the organizers of the First National Bank of Hayward, becoming its first president.

On the 4th of February, 1891, Mr. Russell married at Hayward, Miss Lelia Smalley, a daughter of David S. Smalley, a pioneer of Alameda county, and to this union were born four children: Maude M. attending the University of California; Thomas B., and Lloyd S., high school students; and Lelia Mildred.

Although Mr. Russell is not active in politics, he has ever loyally discharged his citizen's duties. He is a progressive and leans toward the prohibition party, interesting himself much in the betterment of humanity and giving his support to all movements which are undertaken in order to change conditions to the better. For many years he has been a notary public and is at present secretary of the board of library trustees, realizing the valuable influence which an institution of this kind has upon the education of the masses. He has also served for years as a member of the school board. Fraternally he is a member of Eucalyptus Lodge, A. F. Sr. A. M., having belonged to this organization for thirty years and having held the office of worshipful master. He also belongs to Eden Parlor of the Native Sons of the Golden West.

Energy, executive ability and well directed ambition guided and controlled by sound and practical judgment have constituted the foundation upon which Hon. Thomas William Harris has built his success and these qualities have brought him prosperity in business, distinction at the bar and prominence in the official life of Alameda county. He is known as a 'nail of exceptional virility and force who has shown marked fidelity to public trusts and has accomplished farsighted and capable work in his present position as judge of the superior court.

Judge Harris is a native of Minnesota, born in Chatfield, October 1, 1859. He is a son of William Harris, who moved to California in 1867 before the completion of the trans-continental railroad, Mr. Harris of this review, being at that time eight years of age. Responsibility came to him in his early years, for his father's health was poor and the care of his parents and sisters fell to his lot as the only son. His early education was acquired in numerous county schools in the different towns where the family resided and he afterward completed the grammar school course at Pleasanton, California. He supplemented this by a thorough course in bookkeeping which he studied evenings. Following the completion of his studies Judge Harris assisted his parents in various ways for two year and then became his father's partner in the livery stable business at Pleasanton. Being ambitious, energetic and quick to recognize opportunity, he advanced steadily in the business world and gradually became a prominent figure in commercial circles. After he and his father sold their livery stable they bought a warehouse business, and Mr. Harris, of this review, conducted this enterprise so successfully that he was later suffered the position of manager of the Chadbourne Warehouse Company in Pleasanton, retaining this position for a period of eight years.

Judge Harris had been a notary public for some time and upon resigning his position with the Chadbourne Warehouse Company took up the study of law with Judge W. H. Donahue of Alameda county. He was admitted to the bar in 1897 and began the practice of law at Pleasanton in the same year. Two years later he accepted an appointment as deputy in the district attorney's office, and the manner in which he conducted the cases which came under his supervision added materially to his reputation as a lawyer. His record in this office and his high professional standing finally led to his appointment by Governor Pardee in 1905 as judge of the superior court. Judge Harris has held this responsible position since that time and has made an excellent record, being known as a conscientious and painstaking judge who bases his decisions entirely upon the law and equity of the case and is never influenced by motives of personal interest. His conservative manner of administering justice with strict regard for the law has given him the confidence of the public, and the respect and esteem of all who are in any way associated with him.

Judge Harris has been twice married. He wedded first on October 21, 1883, Miss Leta Neal of Pleasanton, who died in Oakland in 1903, leaving two sons: Neal, a graduate of the University of California; and Myron, a student in the same institution, where he is a well known athlete, having inherited his father's splendid physique. Judge Harris' second marriage occurred February 11 1909, when he wedded Mrs. Mary E. Stipp of Oakland. During the course of a long career in the public service Judge Harris has made steady progress toward a position of distinction and he is today, not only one of the most important members of the judiciary of the city, but a well read lawyer of unusual attainments and a progressive, public-spirited and loyal citizen.

Robert M. Fitzgerald, a leading attorney of Oakland, practicing as senior partner of the firm of Fitzgerald, Abbott S Beardsley, was born in San Francisco, California, in January, 1858, a son of Edward and Catherine (Mullins) Fitzgerald. He acquired his preliminary education in the country schools of Marin county and afterward attended the public and high schools of Oakland, to which city the family removed in 1874. Subsequently he entered the University of California, from which he was graduated on the 23d of May, 1883, with the degree of LL. B.

The same year he was admitted to the bar and at once opened an office in Oakland, where he practiced with constantly increasing success until 1900. In that year he became a member of the San Francisco law firm of Campbell, Fitzgerald, Abbott & Fowler. This association was dissolved in 1905 and Mr. Fitzgerald and Mr. Abbott continued in practice in San Francisco under the firm style of Fitzgerald & Abbott. After the fire they came to Oakland and in 1913 Mr. Beardsley joined the firm under the present name of Fitzgerald, Abbott S Beardsley. This is one of the leading law firms of Alameda county, all of the partners being forceful and able members of the bar. They have a large and distinctively representative clientage. They are retained by many important corporations, among which may be mentioned the Central National Bank and the Central Savings Bank. They are receivers for the Union National Bank in Oakland and are attorneys for the city of Oakland in its litigation with the Contra Costa Water Company and the Peoples Water Company. For more than three decades Mr. Fitzgerald has been well known at the bar of California and in a profession where advancement depends entirely upon individual merit he has made continuous progress. He handles important legal questions with comparative ease and finds ready solution for intricate and involved law problems. He is well known also in financial affairs as the vice president of the Central National Bank of Oakland.

In December, 1902, Mr. Fitzgerald married Miss Laura M. Crellin, and they are parents of a son and a daughter. In social circles of Oakland they are well known.

The extensive legal practice of Mr. Fitzgerald and his fraternal and political associations have gained him a wide acquaintance throughout the state. He gives his political allegiance to the democratic party and in 1889 became a member of Oakland's first board of public W arks, while from 1895 until 1905, or for a period of ten years, he served on the state board of prison directors. As a delegate he has attended five of the national conventions of his party, in 1888, 1896, 1900, 1908 and 1912, and has been a delegate to nearly every state democratic convention since he began the practice of law. He has also held other positions of public trust and responsibility and is equally prominent in fraternal and club circles. He is a past grand president of the Native Sons of the Golden West, having been honored with the highest office of that organization in 1891 and 1892. He is a member of the Bohemian, the Pacific-Union and the Athenian Clubs and is also a member of the Claremont Country Club and the Elks Club. Fortunate in possessing the ability and character which inspire confidence, he has gained for himself a position of prominence in professional, official and social circles, and his influence is always given in support of whatever he feels will promote the best interests of the community.

Elmer Grant Still, editor and publisher of the Livermore Echo, is a son of Wilber and Anne E. (Webb) Still, of whom mention is made elsewhere in this volume, and was horn in Livermore, May 24, 1880. He graduated from the Livermore grammar school in 1895 at the head of his class and after attending high school for a time rounded out his education with studies independently conducted while employed in his father's newspaper office, and in October, 1904, his father retired, and he assumed the management of the paper.

From the age of seventeen years he has made a study of the occult and mental sciences. He is unbiased in his investigations and believes and accepts no theory or impressions for which he cannot find actual proof, preferring to explain psychic phenomena by matter-of-fact instead of spiritualistic premises. His object in pursuing these studies is to find the exact and whole truth, without fear or prejudice, in regard to the laws of nature governing these sciences and to demonstrate how they may be made of great practical usefulness to mankind, in detective work, the diagnosis and cure of disease, the treatment of criminals and the insane, avoidance of accidents, etc. By means of his scientific investigations \Ir. Still has discovered an entirely new, but reliable and accurate, method of long-range weather and earthquake forecasting, having demonstrated the possibility of making such entirely accurate forecasts in numerous instances, and is now seeking cooperation with capital to put the system into regular operation, it being quite expensive. He has also evolved a method of positively reforming criminals by means of phreno-magnetism and hypnotic suggestion combined with ordinary methods, the idea being to stimulate and thus gradually enlarge these portions of the brain which tend to uprightness, higher ideals and love and sympathy for one's fellowmen, thus giving them self-control over the evil tendencies which, through heredity, prenatal influence and environment, have become overdeveloped. It is through the old and much-neglected study of phrenology that Mr. Still has made these discoveries, in which he will endeavor to interest the world's penologists and criminologists.

He has also made a scientific study of aeronautics, especially aviation, and has written a number of articles on the improvement of the aeroplane Which have been published in such journals as London Aeronautics, New York Aeronautics and the Scientific American. Instead of patenting his discoveries in aviation he has concluded to give them to the world, explaining his ideas as to the safe and efficient flying machine of the near future, which he is convinced will be a "combined helicopter and back-stepped multiplane, with upper- surface wind-deflectors, automatically downward-turning hinged sections, right-angle, balance sets of variable-pitch propellers, and sets of very narrow, variable-angle planes just in front of the helicopter and at each lateral side to the rear," for successfully coping with "air-holes" and accomplishing hovering, slow and vertical flight. He has patents pending on improvements in moving-picture machines and film, reference-book indexes, phonographs, talking pictures, two-cycle engines, automatic block-signals, etc.

Mr. Still is also interested in lexicography and has contributed to both the new Webster's and Funk & Wagnalls' dictionaries, furnishing, under contract, clippings of some one thousand five hundred new words and phrases, and in the 1913 edition of the latter dictionary- acknowledgment of his services in making suggestions and corrections is given in the preface.

Although now an enthusiastic and successful newspaper man, Mr. Still expects, in a comparatively short time. to devote practically all his time and energy to scientific research and invention. He is an independent republican, reserving the right to support any better-qualified candidate of another party and being always a strong advocate of non-partisanship in county and municipal elections, which has now become a state law. He belongs to the Foresters of America and is well known through fraternal and journalistic connections, as well as through his scientific researches and investigations. He is a student of the signs of the times and the breadth of his learning is indicated in the extent and variety of his connections and activities.

Albert H. Merritt is vice president and general manager of the Coast Manufacturing & Supply Company, doing business at Livermore, California. A spirit of unfaltering enterprise actuates him in all that he undertakes and in his business affairs he quickly discriminates between the essential and nonessential. He was horn in Quincy, Illinois, in 1870, a son of James B. Merritt, now a retired capitalist of Oakland, of whom more extended mention is made elsewhere in this volume.

The nucleus of the company of which Albert H. Merritt is now the head was a little New England enterprise. The business was founded in Connecticut in 1836 by Joseph Toy, who came from England and settled at Simsbury, Connecticut, where he embarked in business under the name of Toy, Bickford & Company. In 1868 a branch of this business was established in California. Their plant was located in what was then known as Fitchburg but is now a part of Oakland. James B. Merritt assumed the management of the business, which he successfully conducted for thirty years. Following the demise of his stepfather, Joseph Toy, the name of the company was changed to the Ensign-Bickford Company. Prior to 1903 there were in operation in and near Alameda county four independent fuse manufactories. These were the Ensign-Bickford Company, the California Fuse Works, the Western Fuse & Explosive Company, and the Metropolitan Fuse & Match Company. This existing condition was not productive of prosperity for any of the parties concerned and in that year Mr. Merritt together with others succeeded in bringing about a consolidation of these interests, which resulted in the organization of the Coast Manufacturing & Supply Company. All of the plants were operated for a time but one by one the three smaller ones were closed and in their closing they were all virtually merged into the one big enterprise. In the fall of 1912 they purchased a tract of one hundred and fifty acres at Trevarno, one mile east of Livermore, to which their huge plant in Oakland was removed in the summer of 1913 without the loss of a day's time, and the whole move was made by motor truck, no part of the machinery or equipment being sent by rail. The little town of Trevarno, which has been upbuilt by this industry, embraces a group of twenty- seven factory buildings, offices, several cottages for the foremen and three handsome homes for the men who guide and promote the success of the company.

As vice president and manager Albert H. A Merritt is the sole bead and director of the company on the Pacific coast and his authority is unquestioned. The secretary is T. W. Morris and the technical representative is Grant H. Todd. The output is confined exclusively to one product, that of the Safety Fuse.

Mr. Merritt was an infant of but sixteen months when brought to California. After mastering the regular educational course furnished by' the Oakland grammar and high schools he attended the California Military Academy and later on the university of the Pacific at San Jose, whore he remained for two years. Immediately afterward he became associated with the business of his father was for thirty years the active head. He is remarkably well equipped by experience and training for the conduct of the extensive and important enterprise that is now under his guidance. In the course of his experience he has worked in every part of the factory and understands every phase of the industry. The machinery used in the plant is not of a nature that can be purchased, so it has been improved on and manufactured by Mr. Merritt in the company's plant. Since the consolidation of the business in 1903 Mr. Merritt has been manager and since 1905 has been vice president. He is a director of the First National Bank of Livermore and a director of the Luther Burbank Company, of which he was one of the organizers in 1911 and 1912. His judgment in business, his keen sagacity, his unfaltering activity and determination are valuable assets to the commercial growth and development of the west.

In San Jose, on the 1st of August, 1892, Mr. Merritt was married to Miss Florence Burnham, a resident of Oakland, and they have a son and daughter, Ralph and Vera. The former is a senior in the University of California. He has been very active in athletics and has won high honors in rowing ever since his freshman year.

In his political views Mr. Merritt is an earnest republican. He served as a member of the school board of the Fremont high school district from the time the Fremont district was organized until the annexation and was president of the board at the time of the erection of the Fremont high school. He also served for three terms as a member of the board of the Lockwood school. Aside from his activity along educational lines he has neither sought nor desired public office, although an active worker for the party. For many years he attended both county and state conventions.

He is very prominent in Masonic circles and is a life member of the various branches of the order with which he is now connected. He belongs to Oakland Lodge, A. F. & A. M.; is a past high priest of Oakland Chapter, R. A. M.; and past vice illustrious master of Oakland Council, R. Sc. S. M. He has been past grand master of the council of the state of California and is a member of Oakland Commandery and a past commander of De Molay Council of the thirtieth degree of the Scottish Rite. He likewise belongs to the Knights Commander of the Court of Honor of the Scottish Rite and to Aahmes Temple of the Mystic Shrine. He is a past patron of Golden Wave Chapter of the Eastern Star, of which his wife is a past matron. He is a member of Cherry Camp, W. O. W., of San Leandro, and of Alameda Lodge, No. 1015, B. P. 0. E. For years he has been a member of the Manufacturers Committee of the Oakland Chamber of Commerce and is a cooperant factor in the well formulated plans of that organization for the upbuilding, development and improvement of the city. Contemporaries and colleagues speak of his business ability in high terms and are equally cordial in their endorsement of him as a man and citizen.

Amongst the early pioneers of California none stand out more prominently for honesty, integrity and ability than Zachariah Montgomery, better known to the early settlers of California as "Zach" Montgomery.

Mr. Montgomery was born on the 6th of March, 1825, near Bardstown, Nelson county, Kentucky. He came by inheritance to those qualities which distinguished his eventful career, being the descendant of a Norman family that accompanied William the Conqueror to England. According to tradition it is two hundred years since the Montgomery's came over to America with Lord Baltimore and settled in Maryland, later descendants following the westward trend of population and locating in Kentucky.
Zachariah Montgomery died in the city of Los Angeles, California. September 3, 1900.

He was educated at St. Mary's and St. Joseph's colleges in his native state and graduated from the last named institution with high honors. In 1850 he was admitted to the practice of law in Kentucky and July 31, 1850, crossed the plains to California. On reaching California he essayed the occupation of a miner but shortly afterward took up the practice of law in which profession he continued with but little intermission until the close of his brilliant and honorable career.

In the early 50's he married Ellen Evoy who together with her mother was an early pioneer of the state of California. Mrs. Montgomery is a true type of the heroic women who crossed the plains to the wild and unknown West and are the mothers of the builders of this great and incomparable state. The fruit of this marriage was: John J. Montgomery, who became afterwards noted as an early pioneer in aerial navigation and a scientist of world wide renown; Zachariah Montgomery, who died in infancy; Mary C. Montgomery; Margaret Montgomery; Rose Montgomery, who died in infancy; Richard Montgomery, who has been prominently identified with the development of the city of Oakland; Jennie E. Montgomery; and James P. Montgomery, an attorney who has been actively identified in the civic uplift of his native city, Oakland.

In the early history of California Zachariah Montgomery was an active and vigilant worker for the interests of his state as well as the interests of the entire country. He was elected to the assembly of California in the early 50's and was one of the stalwart figures in this great state in the development of its laws and in the formulating of its destinies. :NIL :Montgomery was a strong democrat and a fearless and conscientious supporter of all that tended to the uplift of his adopted state. In 1884 he was called upon by Grover Cleveland to act as assistant attorney general of the United States and in this office performed invaluable services for his country and stood as a bulwark against the greed and avarice of corruptionists in their endeavor to make way with the public lands.

As a man his word was never questioned; as a lawyer he enjoyed national reputation; as an orator he had few equals; and in his passing away his adopted state and his country lost a brilliant statesman, a great orator and a man on whose tomb might well be written the word "Just."

The subject of this sketch is the youngest son of Zachariah Montgomery, whose fame as a lawyer and statesman was nation-wide, and a brother of the late Professor John J. Montgomery of Santa Clara College whose advancements in the world of science gave him a position and recognition equal to that which his father had held in jurisprudence and civil government.
James P. Montgomery was born March 1, 1865, in the city of Oakland, where he attended the Christian Brothers School in his boyhood, afterward attending St. Ignatius College in San Francisco, and Santa Clara College, and finally completing his college course, including a course in law, in 1889, in the University of Georgetown, District of Columbia.

After completing his collegiate education he returned to his native state and engaged in the practice of law in partnership with his father, first in San Diego and later in Los Angeles. In 1897, allured by the call of the Klondyke gold fields, he gave up for a while his professional career, in which he had already gained considerable distinction, and undertook the pursuit of gold mining which he followed for the next ten years, and in which he frankly confesses he acquired much more experience than wealth. In December, 1607, he returned to his native city and resumed the profession of law, demonstrating by his success and his devotion to the profession in its higher and broader aspects, not only the ability of man trained in the profession to make good after ten years spent in other pursuits, but also that he himself is "a chip of the old block" of whom his distinguished father, if still living, might well feel proud.

Mr. Montgomery is known throughout his native county, Alameda, and far beyond its boundaries as a progressive citizen, active in every movement for the uplift of society and the promotion of civic virtue and public welfare, and fearless in his stand for the right upon all questions affecting the public weal regardless of partisan or personal considerations. He was chosen as a member of the board of freeholders who framed the present charter of Oakland and during the deliberations of that body he was indefatigable in his efforts to embody in it the reforms which the general advancement of the city had made necessary, and from the time of its adoption he has been one of the most alert and active among those who have shown a determination to see that the charter should be lived up to and enforced in its spirit as well as in its letter. Among the many improvements in civic development for which the charter opened the way, and which have received special help from Mr. Montgomery, may be mentioned the annexation of the district east and southeast of the city, the provision of playgrounds in various sections of the city and the recent election for an issue of bonds to complete the Auditorium. In all of these 'natters he put his shoulder to the wheel in aid of the city administration, and to his efforts as much as to those of any other individual the people owe the success that was achieved in each case.

Though he has been a fearless and sometimes a severe critic of the management of the city government, he has been at all times ready to give the administration the heartiest and best support of his abilities when its policy has seemed to move in the direction of higher ideals and better service to the people.

Dr. Ilo Rafenel Aikin, a practicing physician of Oakland, was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, May 26, 1876, a son of N. J. and Edna J. (Gates) Aiken, the former a native of the state of New York and the latter of Canada. The father passed away many years ago, but the mother survives and now makes her home in Oakland.

Dr. Aikin was a lad of twelve years when he arrived in the city where he now resides. He acquired his education in the public schools of Grand Rapids and of Oakland, pursuing the high-school course here. He entered upon the study of medicine in the Hahnemann Medical College at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and completed his course in the Hahnemann Medical College of the Pacific at San Francisco, winning the degree of M. D. in 1898. He then practiced for a few months and in February, 1899, at the opening of the Masonic home at Decoto, was appointed medical superintendent of that institution and continued in that capacity for five years. He next accepted the position of chief surgeon for the Miller Plantation Company at Cautotolapan, in the state of Vera Cruz, Mexico, where he continued for one year. Returning to California, he located at Niles, Alameda county, where he practiced for eight months and then went to New York city, where he pursued a post-graduate course for six months. On the expiration of that period he returned to Oakland, where he entered upon practice, continuing active in the profession in this city to the present time. He has built up an extensive practice and his increasing ability enables him to successfully cope with many of the difficult and intricate problems which continually confront the physician.

In Oakland, in the fall of 1907, Dr. Aikin was married to Miss Annie Welling, of Troy, New York, and they have become parent; of two sons, Ilo Rafenel and John Stewart. The parents attend the Episcopal church and Dr. Aikin holds membership in Oakland Lodge, No. 171, B. P. 0. E. His political support is given to the republican party, although he is not an active worker in party ranks. Along strictly professional lines his membership is with the Alameda County, the California State and the American Medical Associations, and thus he keeps in touch with the advanced thought of the profession and with the latest scientific research and investigation. He makes his professional duties his first interest and is a most conscientious and capable practitioner of medicine.

E. Nelson Mabrey has for a number of years been connected with educational work in Hayward. He is supervising principal of the Hayward school, having held that position since 1906, and has not only proven himself a most successful teacher but also a man of remarkable executive force, who deals strictly with teachers and pupils, at the same time maintaining the most harmonious spirit in his school. He was born Friday, December 13, 1867, at Eagletown, Indiana, and it seems that this day was for him a particularly lucky omen, for, like President Wilson, he has ever since considered the thirteenth as a day on which the stars would be most favorable to him. His parents were James M and Sarah Melvina (Hoskins) Mabrey, the former a native of North Carolina and the latter of Ohio. The father enlisted in Company A, One Hundred and First Indiana Volunteers, Captain Jay commanding and served in the Civil war, for two years and eleven months. He died in the latter part of 1870.

E. Nelson Mabrey came with his mother and brother in January, 1881, to California, the family establishing their home near Chico, Butte county. In December, 1886, when only nineteen years of age he began to teach school, continuing so for some time. In the fall of 1897 he entered Leland Stanford, Jr., University, graduating from that famous school in June, loot, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. In July, 1906, he received a call to accept the principalship of the Hayward school, being then at the head of the Eldorado county high school, which he organized. During the seven years in which he has had charge of the Hayward school he has introduced a number of new studies and has made other changes in the system which have been of the utmost value to the school. He introduced the study of domestic birds—those of the neighborhood—the work being continued in the grades up to and including the high fourth. The fish and game commission of California pronounced this work superior to any which was done in the state in the preservation of bird life. A cabinet of two hundred birds has been collected during the last six and a half years. The commission form of government was established among the pupils of the school nearly three years ago and "Daddy" George said that he had witnessed no finer government on his western trip. The interest in this government is largely stimulated by principal Mabrey and the pupils take the greatest interest in that work. Those who are officers wear beautifully designed badges to designate their rank. Departmental work among the more advanced grades was inaugurated seven years ago and has been a very great success in almost every way. Expert service has been the result, as each teacher now instructs in just one particular subject. A veritable art gallery has also come into existence. In less than seven years there have been placed in the building: one hundred and sixty-six reproductions of the world's best paintings; fifty feet of plaster frieze, representing Alexander the Great's Triumphal March into Babylon; twelve plaster busts; a representation of the victory of Samothrace; a winged Mercury on a Roman pedestal ; two Gothic pedestals; a brass tablet in honor of the principal's energy and enthusiasm; an exquisite picture of the Mission of San Juan Capistrano, which was hung in honor of Miss Clara E. Ketelsen, the vice principal; and four jardinieres of great artistic value. The above mentioned collection has cost over fifteen hundred dollars and it is said that this sum represents about three-fourths of the actual retail value. Under the enthusiastic leadership of Professor Mabrey the Hayward school has become one of the best of its kind in the state according to the judgment of eminent educational authorities, among them superintendent of schools, George W. Frick. The school is credited with having completely satisfied the county board of education. Although many of the measures which were considered sound by Mr. Mabrey were first strongly opposed, he went ahead undauntedly and after years of forward movement he has now the satisfaction of having realized his ideas and ideals and having proven their value to those doubting Thomases who are to be found at any time and anywhere and who will never depart from the grooved road of habit and who will never acknowledge that any new ideas are of value until confronted with results.

E. Nelson Mabrey married on August 23, 1887, in Biggs, Butte county, California, Miss Hattie Streeter, a native of the Golden state and a daughter of Daniel Streeter. a pioneer of Biggs. In their family are two children: Charles Streeter, of Sacramento; and Harold Monroe, attending the State Normal School in Oregon. Mrs. Mabrey is deeply interested in charitable and betterment work and is financial secretary of the Hill and Valley Club. Not only has Professor Mabrey contributed to educational advancement, but he has ever taken an active part in other forward movements which make for a higher plane of intellectuality and for a better citizenship.

Dr. W. A. Sehorn, town trustee of San Leandro, was born in Richmond, Virginia, September 1, 1838, and after pursuing his studies in public and high schools took up the study of dentistry at Stanton university in Richmond, Virginia. In 1877 he went to Texas, where he remained for a short time, and in 1879 he removed to Princeton, California, where he engaged in the practice of his profession for five years. He next located at Red Bluff, where he remained for only a brief period, and in 1886 he took up his abode at Glen Willows, where he established the Willows journal, the first newspaper ever published in that town. Dr. Sehorn continued as proprietor and editor for twelve years, but then went to San Francisco, where he resumed the practice of dentistry. He was not long in building up a good business and continued there until the fire of 1906, having his offices in the Press Club building. He next removed to San Leandro. where he entered upon active practice, but is now living retired. For an extended period he ranked with the leading representatives of his profession in this part of the state and his pronounced ability and skill won him high standing in the regard of his professional brethren, as well as an extensive practice. Dr. Sehorn now has important business connections through his investments. He is a director in the Los Angeles Development Company, which holds a large tract of farming land that is being subdivided as sites for small homes. His investments have been carefully made and his success has resulted largely therefrom.

Throughout his entire life Dr. Sehorn has been a stalwart democrat, and his political activity dates from the time when at Red Bluff he was captain of the Cleveland and Hendricks Guards. At the time of the Lane-Pardee contest for the governorship of California Dr. Sehorn purchased and published the Vallejo Times. The town of Vallejo has always been strongly republican, but the strenuous efforts of Dr. Sehorn turned the tables and secured a large democratic victory. His editorials were logical and his clear reasoning and thorough understanding of the situation, together with his clear and concise expression of opinions, constituted a most potent force in swerving public thought. in the furtherance of the cause he published an "extra" every afternoon, which was largely responsible for the success of the campaign at Vallejo and through that region. He has been present at every state convention of his party since the celebrated Stockton convention. Dr. Sehorn was also an active force in politics while residing in San Francisco and in 194 was elected town trustee of San Leandro with a majority of two hundred and ten.

In San Francisco was celebrated the marriage of Dr. Sehorn and Miss Ethel Hayes, of San Jose, California. His religious faith is that of the Catholic church. His life is one of untiring activity in support of any cause, business, political or otherwise, with which he is connected, and his efforts have been notably resultant.

O. F. Olsen, now living in Sacramento, was formerly the manager of the Oakland store conducted by the John Brenner Company of Sacramento, dealers in house furnishings, and by virtue of this responsible position and the force of his ability, enterprise and discrimination was one of the foremost business men of Oakland. During the entire course of his active career he has been associated with this concern and has risen steadily through successive stages of progress and advancement to a place of prominence in its affairs.

Mr. Olsen is a native of San Francisco and when still a young man entered the employ of the John Brenner Company of Sacramento, applying himself to his duties conscientiously and assiduously and learning the business in principle and detail. He was gradually advanced through the various departments as his ability became known and recognized until he finally held the important office of manager of the Sacramento store. The John Brenner Company deals in all kinds of household furnishings and is prepared to furnish a home from top to bottom. There are three stores, in Sacramento, San Francisco and Oakland, and the company controls an important and growing patronage. It is the exclusive agent for the Gustav Stickley Craftsman furniture made in Syracuse, New York, and is interested besides in many other lines of house furnishings. The business is managed along the most progressive and modern lines. The directors of the company believe in advertising and they give away each year a fine lot and a new bungalow to one of their customers. There is a combination mattress factory, warehouse and garage in Alameda and there all the mattresses sold by the concern are manufactured and all the upholstery work done. The John Brenner Company is one of the largest and best known institutions of its kind in California and its policy is one of development and advancement, nothing being neglected which will aid in the expansion of the business or promote its rapidity of growth.

In 1906 the John Brenner Company decided to open a branch store in Oakland and, recognizing Mr. Olsen's excellent administrative and organizing ability and his detailed knowledge of the business, selected him as manager of the enterprise. Their choice proved an excellent one for under Mr. Olsen's able direction the Oakland store became the most profitable of all the branches, furnishing employment to one hundred persons in the store and warehouse. In connection with the retail business Mr. Olsen conducted a house-rental department and was thus enabled to keep in touch with the newcomers who intended to make their home in Oakland. He studied modern business conditions and did everything in his power to cooperate with his employes for their mutual benefit, organizing a Mutual Aid Society. This brought him in close touch with his employes and proved a measure of great benefit in fostering a wholesome social life among them and enabling them to provide for their needs in case of sickness or death.

Mr. Olsen is a member of the Athenian, Elks and Commercial Clubs and fraternally is connected with the Masonic order, holding membership in the Shrine. While a resident of Oakland he took an energetic part in the promotion of all progressive movements and was a powerful individual factor in municipal growth and expansion. He served at one time as a director of the Chamber of Commerce and his cooperation can always be counted upon to further projects of permanent community interest. He is preeminently a business man and he possesses the integrity, the aggressiveness and the keen insight necessary for success along business lines. With true administrative skill he founded and developed in Oakland a large and profitable commercial concern and built it up along true economic lines, making it a source of profit to the company and a valuable addition to the industrial resources of the city.

A pioneer of Alameda county, a man who by his own initiative, hard work and good judgment in real estate investments made a marked financial success was Frederick Delger. Born in Saxony, Germany, March 11, 1822, he spent his early manhood in his native land. In 1847 he came to America, remaining for a time in New York city, where in 1848 he was united in marriage with Miss Ernestine Blecher. In 1852, with his wife and one child, he started for California by way of Cape Horn, reaching San Francisco, January 7, 1853.

Being a hard worker and thrifty Mr. Delger accumulated enough money to enable him, in 1855, to open a retail shoe store for himself, and soon thereafter a second one and later a branch store in Sacramento. His business prospered and a few years later, selling out the retail stores, he opened, and for a while conducted, a wholesale shoe business. In the meantime He began the purchase of real estate in San Francisco and in 1860 made quite an extensive investment in real estate in Oakland. These several purchases proved to have been wisely selected and by the development of the two cities greatly increased in value. In 1860 he moved his residence to Oakland and thereafter until his decease that city was his home. He subdivided and improved his real-estate holdings and thus materially aided in the expansion of his home city, and business blocks of both San Francisco and Oakland still bear his name.

Possessed of benevolence of character, he gave to many worthy objects, among which may be mentioned the Fabiola Hospital and The Altenheim, to which he and his wife contributed liberally.

To Mr. and Mrs. Delger were born four children: Mrs. Matilda Brown and Mrs. Annie Muller, both of Oakland; Edward F. Delger, of San Francisco; and Mrs. Lillian D. Powers, now residing abroad. At the age of seventy-six, on April 25, 1898, Mr. Delger's life work ended. He was survived by his widow until January 5, 1908.

The name of Charles H. Wente has come to he regarded as synonymous with development and progress in Alameda county, for not only is he one of the most successful and progressive vineyardists in this part of the state but his varied interests have also touched closely many phases of financial and commercial development. He was born in Germany in 1851 and grew up on his father's farm there, taking charge of the property in partnership with his older brother when he was eighteen years of age. He acquired his education in the public schools of his native country.

Charles H. Wente came to the United States in his early manhood and after one year of travel settled in California in 1882. For a short time he worked as a farm hand and later moved to Napa county, where he was employed in one of the first vineyards in that locality. In the interests of his employer he laid out a large vineyard, and he continued this occupation in the employ of others for three years thereafter. At the end of that time he came to Livermore and bought an interest in fifty acres of vineyard land belonging to Dr. Benard. Before the latter's death, in t887, they made ten thousand gallons of wine in one year, and after Dr. Benard passed away Mr. Wente with his two new partners increased the capacity of the enterprise steadily, setting out more vines year by year. In 1896 Mr. Wente purchased four hundred and forty-six acres and in the following year set out upon this property one hundred acres in vines. In 19o1 he purchased his partners' interests and has operated this enterprise alone since that time, owning today one thousand acres of land, three hundred acres being set out to vineyards. He has a plant the capacity of which is half a million gallons of wine and for the better disposal of his property purchased in 1908 the business controlled by the Napa & Sonoma Wine Company, of San Francisco. of which he is now president and majority stockholder.

Mr. Wente is also well known in financial circles, having extensive and important connections along this line. He was one of the organizers of the Livermore Valley Bank, founded in 1905, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars. He was made vice president of this concern, holding this position until 19o7, when the enterprise was reorganized as the First National Bank of Livermore with Mr. Wente as president, an office which he occupies at the present time. At the time of the reorganization of the First National Bank Mr. Wente also established the Livermore Valley Savings Bank in connection with it and is at the head of this concern also. The combined resources of the two banks are seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars and the capital stock of the Savings Bank is twenty-five thousand dollars and of the First National Bank fifty thousand dollars. Mr. Wente was the organizer of the Farmers Warehouse Company in Livermore and resigned as treasurer of this concern after a number of years of able service in order to establish the Independent Warehouse Company, in which he still owns an interest. He controls a large brick yard in Livermore, being president of the only fire brick plant in this region, and he is a director and was one of the organizers of the Vulcan Fire insurance Company of Oakland. He, with several others, founded the Livermore Valley Building & Loan Association, and he has been a director therein from its organization. He was one of three men who established the 'Masonic Hall Association of which he is president. The building together with the lot cost twenty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, and is the finest edifice in Livermore. Thus it may be seen that his interests are extensive, varied and important, and they are conducted always in a progressive, farsighted and intelligent manner so that he stands today among the men of power and prominence in this locality.

Mr. Wente married Miss Barbara Troutwein, a native of Germany but a resident of Oakland at the time of her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Wente have become the parents of seven children: Ida May and Caroline H.. at home; Charles F., assistant cashier of the First National Bank of Livermore; E. A., who is in the wine business in association with his father and acts as manager of the vineyard; Herman L., attending the University of California; and Freda B. and Millman, who are attending school. Mr. Wente is a member of the Masonic fraternity and is identified also with the Sons of Herman and the Grape Growers Association. His home located two miles from Livermore is called the Renard Vineyard. in 1913 he purchased the famous Oak Spring Vineyard which is situated just across from his home and which has been noted for many years because of the fine spring which afforded a watering place for the many travelers who went from San Jose to Stockton, from Stockton to Oakland, etc., on horseback. He holds a high place in business circles of Alameda county and his integrity, enterprise and ability have made him widely known and greatly respected.

Ambition, energy and a progressive spirit, combined with a true sense of the dignity and meaning of the law and of the value and benefit of its aims and purposes, have brought Judge William H. Waste to a position of prominence and distinction at the bar of California and to a place of honor on the bench. For many years he has assisted materially in the development of Alameda county and his public services have been especially important as judge of the superior court to which he was appointed by Governor Pardee on the 13th of April, 1905.

California numbers Judge Waste among her honored native sons, his birth having occurred on a farm in the vicinity of Chico, Butte county, October 31, 1868. His parents were John Jackson and Mary C. (McIntosh) Waste, the former a native of New York and the latter of Kentucky. The father was a true California pioneer, for he crossed the plains in 1851, riding a fine thoroughbred Kentucky horse and carrying his ride on the pommel of his saddle. He acted as hunter and guide for an emigrant train which was over three months in making the trip, and after his arrival in California he settled in Sutter's Fort, whence he removed to Princeton, Colusa county, where he engaged in general farming and stock-raising. He followed the same occupations after he removed to Chico, Butte county, and was a prosperous and prominent agriculturist at the time of his death which occurred in 1882. His wife has also passed away.

In the acquirement of an education Judge Waste attended public school in his native community and supplemented this by a course in the University of California, from which institution he received a degree of Ph. B. in 1891. He had determined to make the practice of law his life work in pursuance of this ambition he entered Hastings Law school in San Francisco, graduating with the degree of LL.B. in 1894. During his law student days he was also interested in journalism, acting as a reporter on the San Francisco Examiner, the San Francisco Chronicle and the Oakland Tribune and Times. After he was admitted to the bar he began the practice of his profession in Oakland, there securing a large and representative clientage and there remaining until he came to Berkeley where he has since remained an honored, active and loyal citizen.

Judge Waste stands high in the councils of the local organization of the republican party and has had a distinguished and successful political career. He was elected to the state assembly from the fifty- second district in 1902, his able work winning him reelection in 1994. On the t3th of April in the following year he was appointed by Governor Pardee Judge of the superior court and he has since served in that capacity, dignifying and elevating the high office he holds. He has proved his fitness for the position by eight years of straightforward, successful and beneficial work, his decisions being always just, impartial and in accordance with both the principles of humanity and the requirements of the law. His work has been constantly constructive, beneficial and far-reaching in its effects and is destined to form a part of the judicial history of California.

A man of broad views, modern ideas and well developed powers Judge Waste has not confined the field of his activities to his heavy and responsible professional and public duties, his interests extending to anything which he deems will promote the growth and development of the city or the best interests of its citizens. It was through his influence in the legislature that the appropriations for a large state building at the University of California were secured and he secured also an appropriation fur an agricultural building which, however, was not erected owing to lack of funds. He was the organizer and first president of the Holmes Library Association of Berkeley to which Mr. Carnegie contributed forty thousand dollars for the erection of a building, and he has identified himself closely with various important business enterprises, acting as attorney for the First National Bank, the Homestead Loan Association of Berkeley and the Berkeley Bank of Savings and Trust Company.

Judge Waste married in Berkeley on the 16th of September, 1896, Miss Mary Ewing, a daughter of Archibald and Rowena (Taylor) Ewing, natives of Virginia. judge and Mrs. Waste have two children, William E. and Eugenia McIntosh. Fraternally judge Waste belongs to the Masonic order, holding membership in Durant Lodge. A. F. & A. M. of Berkeley, of which he is past master; Berkeley Chapter, No. 92, R. A. Al.; Berkeley Commandery, No. 42, K. T.; and Aahmes Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S. He is identified also with Berkeley Parlor, N. S. G. W., and Peralta Camp, W. 0. W. He is one of the prominent and well known members of the Methodist Episcopal church and is an active religious worker, contributing liberally to the support of the church and its charities. He has served as president of the Young Men's Christian Association of Berkeley and is prominent in the Epworth League. The excellent qualities of his character, his high integrity and righteousness, have molded his destiny along honorable lines, bringing him professional success, personal prominence and public distinction—all worthily won and wisely used.

Hon. William S. Wells, who is at present presiding in department 4 of the superior court of Alameda county, enjoys the distinction of being the first superior judge in the county to receive the republican nomination for that office direct from the people, he, having on the 16th of August, 1910, received a handsome majority at the primaries. Judge Wells was born in Fairfield, Salaam county, California, June 24, 1861. He comes from old New England stock and has inherited the qualities that generally lead to success. His father, William S. Wells, was a native of Maine and came to California in January, 1850, and was one of the sturdy pioneers who helped to make California what it is today. The father settled in Solano county and practiced law there and later in San Francisco. He was a resident of Oakland at the time of his death, which occurred on Christmas Day, 1878.

Judge Wells acquired his preliminary education in the public schools and later entered St. Augustine College at Benicia, subsequently completing his studies at the University of California. He was admitted to the bar of the state in t884 and began the practice of his profession in Contra Costa county with almost immediate success. He received the appointment of assistant district attorney of Contra Costa county in 1886, and his record in that office led to his appointment as judge of the superior court in that county January 26, 1899, in place of Joseph P. Jones, deceased. Judge Wells was afterward elected to fill the unexpired term and again for a full term which expired in January, 1909. In April of the same year he was appointed to the superior court of Alameda county upon the passage of the law, creating an additional judge in this county and since assuming office he has won the approval and respect of the community for his fair disposition and just rulings. As a judge of the probate department of the superior court, where many complicated and intricate points of law are coming before him, he has shown a comprehensive and exact knowledge of the underlying principles of his profession and a sound judgment which only long experience and careful study can produce.

On the 4th of November, 1885, Judge Wells was united in marriage to Miss Ella O'Neil and he has two children: William S. Wells, Jr., a graduate of the University of California, now practicing law in Oakland; and Ella M., a graduate of Miss Head's school. Both are married. Judge Wells is prominently known in fraternal circles, being past grand master of Masons of California, a member of Oakland Lodge, No. 171, B. P. 0. E., and belonging to the Woodmen of the World. He is prominent socially in Oakland, and his sterling worth and many excellent qualities of mind and character have brought him a wide and representative circle of friends.

The years which covered the active business career of William Henry Parrish chronicled his success as the result of determined and persistent purpose, close application and indomitable energy, for he started out without influence and by his executive ability and genius for organization built up in Oakland what is still the largest teaming and draying establishment in the city. He is also entitled to representation in this volume as a veteran of the Civil war.

Mr. Parrish was born in McHenry county, Illinois, January 24. 1841, and was a son of Ransom and Adelia (Lowell) Parrish, natives of New York. The father came to California about the year 186a and in this state secured employment as a carpenter and mechanic. Soon afterward he turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, settling on a farm in Sonoma county, where he remained until ill health compelled him to retire. He then moved to Oakland, dying at the home of his son in this city at the age of sixty-seven, having survived his wife for six months. Of their children Malinda died at the age of nineteen and Norman. also deceased, owned the California planing mill in San Francisco for a number of years.

William Henry Parrish teas reared in Wisconsin, where he remained until he was seventeen rears of age. At that time he moved to St. Louis, Missouri, and there secured employment in a store, retaining this position until the outbreak of the Civil war, when Ile returned to Illinois. At Rockford, that state, July 13, 1861, he enlisted in Company G, Forty-fourth Illinois Infantry, in which he served three years and one month, receiving his honorable discharge August 13, 1864. On the 29th of October of the same year Mr. Parrish arrived in California and for about seven years thereafter worked in a planing mill. At the end of that time he turned his attention to the draying and truck business, establishing the enterprise with which his name has since been honorably associated. For a time he was in business with a partner but from 1890 until his death conducted the concern alone, his office being located at 428 Sixth street. He began with a meager equipment, but his business expanded rapidly and at the time of his death he had seven draft teams, modern wagons and a force of eight men to assist in the hauling and moving. All modern appliances for the safe conduct of a business of this character were found in his establishment and his workmen were all specially trained in this line of labor. Many of the largest business houses in San Francisco and Oakland retained Mr. Parrish to relieve them of the details of their freight and express department. By his special system he paid all freight and expense bills and then presented the entire account when the goods were delivered to his patrons. Under his able management his concern grew to extensive proportions, being at the time of his death one of the largest and most important of its kind on the coast. The business is nosy under the direction of his sons, who have adhered to their father's policies and maintained the business at its usual standard of efficiency.

While on the journey to California on the steamer Golden Rule, Mr. Parrish made the acquaintance of Miss Catherine Machwirth, a native of Buffalo, New York, and a daughter of Adolph and Catherine Machwirth. The acquaintance thus formed ripened into affection and culminated in their marriage four years later. Six children were born to their union, of whom one, Arthur, has passed away. The others are: Norman A., who is connected with the Machwirth Cornice Company of Buffalo, New York, having had charge of the architectural work of several of the largest buildings at the St. Louis fair; Clinton C., who assisted his brother in the exposition work; Charles C., and Wilfred E., managers of their father's interests; and Louisa C., who is now Mrs. George Denison. Mrs. Parrish survives her husband and is one of the well known and popular woolen of Oakland, having made her home at 2033 Webster street the center of a hospitable social circle.

William Henry Parrish had extensive and important fraternal affiliations, being a member of Lyons Post, G. A. R., and well known in the affairs of the Oakland lodge of the Knights of Pythias. He joined this organization in 1870 and was trustee and marshal for many years, being for a long period prior to his death the only surviving charter member. Mr. Parrish became a Mason May t883, taking the first degree in Live Oak Lodge, No. fit, F. & A. On May 18 he rose to the second degree and on June 22 received the third. In December, t884., he was elected marshal; one year later was chosen junior warden, serving two years in that capacity; and was made senior warden in December, 1887. He was honorary member of the Veteran Association of the Pacific Coast, his connection with this dating from October 13, 1887. He was identified also with University Lodge, I. 0. 0. F. Mr. Parrish's principal interest, however, lay along business lines and his determination and reliable methods enabled him to accomplish whatever he undertook. He dealt honestly and honorably with all men and his name came to be regarded as a synonym for integrity in business circles of the city, where his activities were for more than a quarter of a century a force in commercial progress.

Thorough scientific training qualified Dr. Charles D. Cobb to take up the active work of the profession to which he has devoted his life and has won for him place among the representative physicians and surgeons of Alameda county. A resident of Oakland, the extent of his practice indicates his high standing in the regard of his fellow citizens, for he has been accorded a most liberal practice, that finds its justification in the splendid results that attend his ministrations. California claims him as a native son, his birth having occurred in San Francisco, on the 12th of December, 1872, his parents being Isaac and Katharine Cobb. Following the discovery of gold on the Pacific coast the father came to California in 1849 and sought wealth in the mires near Redding until 1853. Like many others, he recognized the fact that, while gold was not to be had for the asking, this rich state offered many other opportunities for the attainment of success and in the year mentioned he removed to Solano county, where he secured a ranch of two thousand acres. Thereon he engaged in farming until t866, when he removed to San Jose, where he purchased a large tract of land. He was one of the first to raise prunes in the valley and gave strong impetus to what is now one of the most important horticultural enterprises of the state. He continued in active connection with the fruit-raising interests until death terminated his labors in 1880.

In the meantime the family home had been established in San Francisco and Dr. Cobb there pursued his early education to the age of ten years. He then crossed the continent to Boston, Massachusetts, where he became a high-school pupil, being graduated at the very early age of thirteen. He afterward became a student in the State Normal at San Jose and was graduated with the class of 1888. For four months he engaged in teaching and then returned to Boston, where lie entered the College of Oratory, in which he completed a course in 1889. Immediately afterward he again came to California and through the succeeding three years was a student in the State University, making a specialty of social science. He afterward spent a year in the Cooper Medical College and on the expiration of that period went to Chicago, where he studied for a year in the Rush Medical College. The succeeding year was passed as a student in the St. Louis Medical College, from which he in due time graduated. He also attended courses of lectures in the Marion Sims Medical College of St. Louis and is a graduate of that institution. Still later he did post-graduate work in the Harvard Medical College, remaining there for a year and a half, after which he became instructor of clinical surgery in the St. Louis University, occupying that chair until 1905. In the same year he again went to Boston, where he practiced for a year, and then returned to the Pacific coast, spending four years in practice in Seattle, Washington. The succeeding two years were devoted to clinical work in the east and since his return to California he has been practicing continuously in Oakland. No dreary novitiate awaited him here. His reputation had already extended to this section of the country, and his pronounced ability brought him almost immediate success. Always careful and cautious in diagnosis, prompt and ready in action, his efforts have been followed with excellent results and his practice has been not only of an extensive but also of a most important character. He has contributed to the literature of the profession as a newspaper and magazine editor and writer and his opinions upon various subjects are largely accepted as standard. Never content with what he has accomplished, he is continually broadening his knowledge by further reading, research and investigation, and he has few equals on the coast in the breadth of his knowledge and none who recognize more truly the opportunities and the responsibilities of the profession.
In Bradford, Pennsylvania, in May, 1906 C. Cobb married Miss Rogerson, and they have one son, Charles. who is six years old.

Politically Dr. Cobb is a republican and fraternally belongs to the Native Sons, the Loyal Order of Moose, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Masons. He is also a member of the University Club of California, there meeting kindred spirits, all of whom pronounce him a hail fellow well met. Along professional lines he belongs to the Alameda County Medical Society. Since coming to Oakland Dr. Cobb has taken a great interest in the growth and development of this city and in a quiet way has supported a number if enterprises which have for their aim a greater and better Oakland.

Frederick H. Wheaton is engaged in real-estate transactions in Oakland as a member of the firm of Sullivan & Wheaton and deserves mention among the leading business men of the city. He Was born in Greenville, Pennsylvania, on the 23d of July, 1869, and is a son of William H. Wheaton. He attended the public schools of Greenville and Grove City, Pennsylvania, until twenty years of age and then spent a year as a student in Thiel College at Greenville.

On attaining his majority F. H. Wheaton became identified with the P. L. Kimberly Iron Company as bookkeeper and assistant manager, acting in those capacities for five years. On the expiration of that period he went to Chicago and was there engaged with the Marsh & King Company in various capacities. He became a member of the firm which conducted a stock commission business, and continued therewith until 1902, when he sold out and embarked in the business of leather goods manufacturing, remaining the senior member of the firm of Wheaton & Smith for two years or until he disposed of his interests. Subsequently he made his way to Seattle, Washington, where he was engaged in the real-estate business for four years and then went to Nevada, conducting a brokerage business in that state for one year. He then removed to San Francisco, where he was engaged in the real-estate business for a year and afterward was associated with the George Schmidt Real Estate Company in Berkeley until July, 1911. At that time he resigned his position and came to Oakland, opening a real-estate office in the Syndicate building, while in October, iot3, he joined Mr. Sullivan in a partnership under the firm style of Sullivan & Wheaton. They enjoy an extensive and gratifying clientage and are meeting with well merited success in their undertakings.

In Greenville, Pennsylvania, on the 24th of December, 1892, Mr. Wheaton was united in marriage to Miss Rose Hodge. In politics he is a republican. His fellow townsmen recognize his merit and ability, and his business colleagues entertain the warmest admiration for his many good qualities.

There are few men in official life in Oakland mare deserving of the encomiums of their associates and the respect and confidence of the public than Hon. Frank B. Ogden, who enjoys the distinction of having served more than twenty consecutive years as judge of the superior court, a longer continuous term in this office than any other man on the bench except Judge Ellsworth. His work in this responsible position has been intelligent, constructive and impartial and he fully deserves the confidence and respect which the community has accorded to him.

Judge Ogden is a native of New Jersey, born in Newark, April 29, 1858. His parents came to California in 1870, when the judge was a lad of twelve, and he has lived in this state continuously since. After completing a public-school education he determined to follow the legal profession and accordingly studied law in San Francisco, being admitted to the bar in 1882. He remained in private practice for two years, his work showing a comprehensive and exact knowledge of underlying legal principles and keen insight and sagacity along the lines of his profession. When he was only twenty-eight years of age, in 1886, he was elected to the bench in the justice court, where he served with credit and ability for six years. Because of his excellent record, his efficiency and the general satisfaction with which his administration had been received he was in February, 1892, appointed by Governor Markham to the superior court of Alameda county and he has served in this important position for more than twenty years. His public work is like an open hook and his interpretation of the law, his understanding of equity in involved cases and his correct rulings, free from prejudice or favor, have made him an ideal judge.

Judge Ogden has four children: Marguerite, a graduate of the University of California; Clarence and Rosalie. now students in that institution; and Frank, attending the Oakland high school. The judge is preeminently a man of judicial temperament, careful, conscientious and open-minded. These qualities have made him eminently successful on the bench, while his many excellent personal characteristics have gained him the esteem and admiration of his friends and associates.

Dr. Joseph Kyle Warner has been actively engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery at Livermore for the past eighteen years and is recognized as an able representative of the profession who ever keeps in touch with the most advanced methods and discoveries. His birth occurred in Shellsburg, Lafayette county, Wisconsin, on the 2d of September, 1868, his parents being John and Julia F. (Berry) Warner, the former a native of England and the latter of Wisconsin. John Warner came to California in 1868 and in the spring of 1870 brought his family to this state, locating in Stanislaus county, where he embarked in business as a general merchant. Subsequently he served as county assessor and later was engaged in the lumber business for several years. He is now living retired and makes his home in San Jose, Santa Clara county, this state. Mr. and Mrs. John Warner have the following children: John B., who is employed in the engineering department of the United States government at San Francisco but resides in Oakland; Joseph Kyle, of this review; William B., who is engaged in business as a general merchant of Hickman, Stanislaus county; Edna, the wife of Dr. F. B. Pearce, of San Jose; Ethel, who gave her hand in marriage to John Gallegos of Mission San Jose, a descendant of one of the very old families of Alameda county; and Adel, still at home.

Dr. Joseph K. Warner acquired his early education in the public schools and continued his studies in the State Normal School of San Jose. In preparation for the practice of medicine he entered the medical department of the University of California and was graduated from that institution with the degree of M. D. in 1891. Subsequently he spent one year as interne in the Marine Hospital of San Francisco and was afterward engaged in practice in that city until 1894, when he went to New York, there pursuing post-graduate work for one year. Returning to San Francisco he followed his profession until 1896 and in that year came to Livermore, where he has maintained an office to the present time. In Iwo he went abroad and visited London, Berlin, Vienna and Paris in post-graduate work, familiarizing himself with the most improved foreign methods in medicine and surgery. He likewise spent considerable time in the Maternity Hospital at Glasgow. Dr. Warner acts as local surgeon at Livermore for the Western Pacific Railway and is widely recognized as a leading and successful representative of his chosen profession.
At Berkeley, California, on the 22d of July, 1911, Dr. Warner was united in marriage to Miss Ethel V. Cumberpatch, a native of London, England, and a daughter of George Cumberpatch, who is connected with the engineering department of the Southern Pacific Railway and has been a resident of this state for twenty years. The Doctor and his wife have two children, Joseph Kyle and Frances Jean. Dr. Warner gives his political allegiance to the republican party but takes no active part in politics. Fraternally he is identified with Oak Lodge of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Foresters of America and the Masons at Livermore. In the course of a life devoted intelligently to the amelioration of the ills of mankind he has conscientiously attempted to perform his duty, and he richly merits the esteem in which he is held by the people of Livermore and its vicinity.

Eugene E. Trefethen, junior partner in the firm of Chapman & Trefethen, attorneys at law in Oakland, is a native son of the city, born January 11, 1875, his parents being Eugene A. and Ada S. (Van Syckle) Trefethen. Representatives of the paternal branch of the family, which was of Welsh origin, came in the early part of the seventeenth century from England to Maine, while the maternal ancestors were among the early Dutch residents of New York. The father of our subject came to California about the year 1869 and acquired valuable timber interests in this state.

Eugene E. Trefethen was reared on the east side of the bay and acquired his education in the old Lafayette and Cole grammar schools of Oakland, which he attended from 1883 until 1889. He was afterward a student in the Oakland high school from 1890 to 1892 and later took a post-graduate course in that institution. In 1893 he entered the University of California, but shortly before the completion of his course in the College of Social Science was compelled to leave without his degree on account of an injury to his eve. He went to Alaska and there spent two years engaged in mining and other occupations, numbering among his friends and companions at this time Rex Beach, the famous author. In 1898 Mr. Trefethen returned to the university and was graduated with the degree of Ph. B. with the class of 1899. He afterward took a course in shorthand and typewriting and in September of that year entered the law office of Chapman C. Clift as stenographer and clerk. In his spare moments he studied law and on the 1st of September, 1901, was admitted to practice before the supreme court. The firm of Chapman & Clift was dissolved in 1902 and Mr. Trefethen remained with Mr. Chapman as assistant attorney until June, 1910, when he was admitted to partnership. He occupies a high position at the bar of Alameda county and enjoys in an unusual degree the confidence of his clients and the good-will of his fellow practitioners.

On the 31st of August, 1905, Mr. Trefethen was united in marriage to Miss Georgia Van Voorhies Carroll, and they have become the parents of four children, Carol A., Dorothy J., Eugene E., Jr., and Van Syckle.
Mr. Trefethen is a member of the Nile Club and connected fraternally with the Royal Arcanum. He is one of Oakland's popular and representative citizens and in a profession where advancement depends almost entirely upon individual merit has made rapid and steady progress, standing today in the front ranks of able and successful attorneys.

During a period of connection With the Standard Oil Company dating from 1897, J. C. Black has become known as one of the most capable and reliable representatives of that great corporation. He has risen in its service until he is now chief engineer at the large refining plant at Point Richmond. He W as born in Indiana and reared in Chicago, Illinois, acquiring his education in the public schools of that city and in Armour Institute.

Following the completion of his studies J. C. Black entered the employ of the Standard Oil Company, a concern with which many of the members of his family had previously been identified. He first joined the company in 1897 at the refinery at Whiting, Indiana, and so quickly proved his ability that when they decided to erect a mammoth refining plant at Point Richmond in 1901 he was chosen to take charge of this work. He arrived in Point Richmond October 7, 1901, and has since remained a resident, witnessing the development of a little village into a prosperous community of sixteen thousand inhabitants. Mr. Black had charge of all of the construction work at the plant, which is one of the largest oil refineries west of the Mississippi river. It was erected at a cost of many millions of dollars and has since made Point Richmond famous as an oil-shipping center, the shipments averaging over one and one-half million tons a year. The capacity of the plant, which now covers three hundred acres of land and gives employment to two thousand men, will be doubled in the near future. Thus the importance of Mr. Black's position as chief engineer may readily be seen. Through seventeen years' connection with the Standard Oil Company he has proven his capability in positions of trust and responsibility as well as his integrity of character and his superior professional attainments.

Mr. Black is a director in the First National Bank of Richmond and has become well known in business circles of the city, where his ability and honesty are recognized and respected. He commands and holds the confidence and regard of all who are in any way associated with him.

The roster of city officials of Alameda contains the name of no more worthy, conscientious and capable public servant than Frank E. Browning, who since May 1, 1907, has filled the position of city clerk with credit and ability. He was born in Livingston county, Michigan, September 20, 1866, but he is nevertheless a representative of one of California's pioneer families, his birth having occurred while his parents were visiting in the east. His grandfather moved from New York to Livingston county, Michigan, in the early '30s and his father, Jacob Browning, came to California in 1849. He settled in San Francisco in the early days of the city's history and engaged in the teaming business there until three years before his death, which occurred in l909. He was one of the founders of the Mechanics Institute and a member of the Vigilance Committee of San Francisco and at one time owned all of the property upon which the St. Francis hotel now stands. His death was a loss to the city, as the ranks of her honored pioneers numbered one less, and was sincerely and deeply regretted by many friends to whom his upright character and genuine personal worth had greatly endeared him.

His wife, who was in her maidenhood Miss Zernah Smith, was born in Michigan, a daughter of William and Leah Smith, of Livingston county.

Frank E. Browning grew to manhood in San Francisco, acquiring his education in the grammar and high schools of that city. In 1885, after his graduation from the latter institution, he joined his father in the teaming business and for thirteen years engaged in that occupation, building up a large and representative patronage. In 1898 he began his public career, entering the county clerk's office in San Francisco as deputy under Frank C. Jordan. After four years he came to Alameda and identified himself with the Pacific Light Company of this city, acting as collector and statement taker until April, 1907. In May of that year he was appointed city clerk of Alameda and he has served by reappointment since that time, his return to office signifying the high quality of his services and the excellent results which have attended his labors.

Mr. Browning married Miss Mabel Hussey, a daughter of George V. and Sarah A. Hussey, of San Francisco. Mr. and Mrs. Browning have become the parents of two children: George N., aged twenty-three; and Ella, eighteen. Mr. Browning is well known in local fraternal circles, holding membership in Alameda Lodge, No. lots, B. P. 0. E.; Alameda Aerie, No. 107:6, F. 0. E.; and Alameda Lodge, No. 509, L. 0. M. He was initiated into the Masonic order according to the Scottish Rite and is now a member of Apollo Lodge, No. 396, A. F. & A. M. He was for four years secretary of the Alameda Boat Club, of which he is still a member, and he is affiliated also with the California Pioneers. He gives a great deal of his time to the. conduct of the affairs of his office and has made an excellent record for probity, enterprise and ability, a record which adds to the honor and esteem in which his name has long been held in this section of the state.

Among the honored dead of Alameda county is numbered Robert Farrelly. His career was one of distinct usefulness and benefit for many years to the community in which he lived. He stood as a high type of American manhood, citizenship and chivalry, and he ever represented the highest standards of industrial, educational and moral activity. He contributed much to the welfare and prosperity of Alameda county through the development of its fruit-growing possibilities and his place, Elmhurst, became famed as one of the most important horticultural centers in the vicinity of Oakland. A native of Parkesburg, Chester county, Pennsylvania, he was born February 24, 1824 His father, Patrick Farrelly, was a native of Ireland and there learned and followed the weaver's trade, but in early manhood sought the opportunities of the new world, crossing the Atlantic to the United States. Thereafter he was a resident of Pennsylvania until called to the home beyond, his death occurring in Philadelphia when he had reached the age of fifty-eight years. It was in that state that he married Sarah Wetherlow, who was born in Coatesville, Chester county.

The family home being established in Philadelphia, Robert Farrelly was there reared and educated and, as usual with the boys of the period, he began learning a trade, taking up carpentering, when seventeen years of age, in that city and in Reading, Pennsylvania. At a period in life when a story of opportunity and adventure takes a strong hold upon one, he heard of the west and resolved that he would try his fortune upon the Pacific coast, where the discovery of gold seemed to open a limitless field for ambitious young men. On the 26th of February, 1849, two days after celebrating his twenty- fifth birthday, he joined a company intending to go to California, a company that chartered a schooner which was to convey them to Tampico, Mexico. From that point they traveled overland to San Bias on the Gulf of California, at which point Mr. Farrelly and four companions embarked on another ship for San Francisco, where they arrived on the 15th of July. There was a great demand for carpentry work, and Mr. Farrelly, therefore, resumed activities in the line of his trade. He had no difficulty in finding not only all the work he could do but more and was thus employed until March, 1850, when he went to San Jose Mission, where he also spent a year carpentering. In 1851 he became a resident of San Lorenzo, Alameda county, then a part of Contra Costa county, and purchased of William Castro sixty-five acres of land, turning his attention to general farming, in which he continued until 1859. He then disposed of his land and in 186o purchased the farm on Stanley road, near Oakland, on which he continued to reside until his demise. He came into possession of an uncultivated tract and at once began the work of development, the result of his labors being manifest in one of the most valuable ranches of Alameda county. His place comprised fifty-two and a quarter acres, rich and productive, and as the result of the improvements which he placed upon it, it became worth five hundred dollars per acre. He soon proved the possibilities of his place for general farming and then turned his attention to the cultivation of fruit, planting a cherry orchard in 1861. Within a few years his cherries became famed throughout the United States. Year after year he continued his horticultural activities until he retired in the later years of his life. No man did more to demonstrate the possibilities of California for fruit production, and the example which he set was followed by many others, resulting greatly in the benefit and prosperity' of his section of the state. Mr. Farrelly, as success attended him, made large investments in bank stock and was one of the organizers of the Bank of San Leandro, of which he became a director, so continuing until his death, while for many years he was also vice president. Other banks profited by his wisdom and judgment and his life at all times was one of distinct worth and value to his county.

On the 26th of December, 1852, was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Farrelly and Miss Henrietta Wilson, who was born in Pulaski, Mercer county, Pennsylvania. Theirs was a union of kindred interests in every particular. Mrs. Farrelly is prominent among the pioneer women of Alameda county, where she has. lived for more than three score years. She has witnessed the entire development and up-building of this section and the transformation of towns into thriving metropolitan cities. She is a daughter of William M. Wilson, who owned a ranch in this section in pioneer days, haying been drawn to California by a desire to win wealth in the gold fields. Mrs. Farrelly was born in 1837 and afterward became a resident of Cincinnati, whence she came to California with her stepmother by way of the Isthmus route in 18c1, joining her father in Alvarado. The following year she became the wife of Robert Farrelly and for a number of years they were residents of Alvarado, removing thence to the place which became notable as their home.

In politics Mr. Farrellv was an active figure for an extended period, exerting a wide influence in support of republican principles in Alameda county. He was frequently called to office, serving as county treasurer for two terms and as supervisor for six terms. The validity and value of his public acts were never questioned and his public spirit was a marked force for good. lie never met defeat at the polls and had the general support of broad-minded citizens, who recognized his fitness and ability. His lift was always one of benefit to the community. He had an extensive acquaintance and his influence was invariably on the side of progress and improvement. His were the blessed accompaniments of old age—honor, riches and groups of friends. Ere his death it was written of him after he had passed the eightieth milestone on life's journey:
"On all occasions when it has lain within his power to render material assistance to promote the welfare of the community he has not shirked his duty, but on the other hand has given freely of his time and means toward the advancement of the best interests of all and the elevation of the industrial, educational and moral status of Alameda county. A man of unimpeachable integrity and abounding public spirit, whose religion is a spirit of good-fellowship and an adherence to the golden rule, his name will long be remembered as that of one of the most useful and representative men of California. In the twilight of his life he and his wife are surrounded by those comforts to which their long labors entitle them, honored and respected by all who know them. Throughout their lives they have set an example which may well serve to guide those of the younger generation who would win not only success but the regard of their fellowmen."

One of the commanding figures of the business life of Oakland is E. A. Heron. Coming to California at the age of twenty-one, he has ever since made steady progress toward prominence and is today connected with many important interests which have made for growth and expansion. He has also large financial interests and has been in a large measure instrumental in making this city what it is today—one of the most flourishing of the Pacific coast.

Mr. Heron was born in Galena, Illinois, in January, 1852, and acquired his education in the common and high schools and also in private institutions. The lure of the west induced him to come to California in 1873 and in 1875 he became secretary to E. C. Sessions, a well known banker and real-estate operator in his day. In 1876 Mr. Heron became one of the organizers of the Highland Park & Fruitvale Railroad and in the following year, 1877, established an extensive real-estate business, in which he was active for twenty- five years with ever-increasing success. in that connection he became acquainted with the conditions and needs of the country. acquiring a broad outlook as to the financial and commercial situation. In 1886 he was one of the organizers and became the president of the Piedmont Cable Railroad, which was subsequently absorbed by the Oakland Traction system, of which he has served continuously as president since its organization in 1893. Mr. Heron has displayed extraordinary executive ability and succeeded in building up one of the most perfect systems in the state. He has also other important financial interests. He Was one of the organizers and until recently the president of the San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Consolidated Railway, now known as the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railroad Company, and is vice president of the Realty Syndicate. He is also a director in the Oakland Hotel Company.

In 1862 Mr. Heron married Miss Elizabeth L. Dudley, of Stockton, California, and they have two sons, William D. and Ernest A. Mr. Heron is prominent in Masonry, being a member of Oakland Chapter, No. 36, R. A. M.; and Oakland Commanders, No. 11, K. T. Careful of his own interests, he has always considered those of others and never loses sight of the effect his activities have upon the general welfare. He is deeply convinced of the great future in store for California and his city and exhibits a healthy enthusiasm which he makes effective in promoting public enterprises of worth. He has well earned the proud American title of self-made man and has taken his place among the foremost railroad men and financiers on the coast, having brought about his elevation to the high and important office he now holds entirely by his own efforts.

John J. Callaghan, one of the leading and successful attorneys of Livermore and Oakland, engaged in the general practice of law in partnership with A. F. St. Sure and J. Leonard Rose, was born in Livermore, September 13, 1877. He is a son of John and Margaret (Moy) Callaghan, the former of Whom engaged in teaching school in Ireland in his youth and afterward became a prominent stockman in California. He died March 6, 1905, and was survived by his wife until November 28, 1907. To their union were born seven children, five of whom are living. The eldest is John J., of this review. Henry J. is a wireless telegraph operator in Manila, Philippine islands. Margaret married Charles Owens, purchasing agent in Livermore, California, and has one son. Edward F. is engaged in the stock business on a portion of his father's estate in Livermore.

He is married and has a daughter. Susan E. married Emmet Moran, postmaster of Altamont, California, where he is also engaged in the hotel business. They have become the parents of a son.

John J. Callaghan was reared in Livermore and acquired his preliminary education in the grammar and high schools of his native city. He afterward enrolled in Hastings Law College of San Francisco, which is now the law department of the University of California, and he was admitted to practice before the state courts in June, 1900. In May of the following year he received his degree of LL.B. from the university. Following his graduation he returned home and managed the estate until January, 1913, when he formed a partnership with A. F. St. Sure, of Oakland, opening offices in Oakland and Livermore. The partners control a large and growing patronage and are connected with a great deal of important litigation. Mr. Callaghan has interests aside from his profession, for he owns a stock ranch in San Joaquin county and is secretary of the Stockman's Protective Association of Alameda and San Joaquin counties, being active and prominent in the work of this organization. He was at one time a director in the First National Bank of Livermore and is now attorney for the Farmers & Merchants Bank of this city. He is a director in the Chamber of Commerce and interested in the development of Livermore, supporting many movements which have for their object the permanent interests of the community.

Mr. Callaghan is connected fraternally with the Knights of Columbus, the Foresters of America and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and he has been grand director of the Young Men's Institute. He gives his political allegiance to the democratic party and is a member of the democratic county central committee. He is a young man of energy, enterprise and discrimination and holds a high place in professional, business and social circles of Livermore.

In the death of Edson Adams, which occurred December 14, 1888, Oakland lost its founder and first settler and a man who had been a conspicuous figure in the uphuilding and development of the Bay country of California, where for nearly forty years he had made his home. His life had been so varied in its activities, so honorable in its purposes and so far-reaching in its effects that it constituted an integral part of the history of the state, and his death is still deeply and sincerely regretted after a quarter of a century. Mr. Adams was descended from one of the early Colonial families, his paternal ancestor, Edward Adams, having established the name in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1640. Four years later the American progenitor of the branch, Edward Nash, became a resident of Norwalk, Connecticut.

Edson Adams was born in Fairfield county, Connecticut, May 18, 1824, and acquired a public-school education in his native state. Following the completion of his studies he engaged in trade until 1849, when, attracted by the reports of the gold discoveries in California, he took passage on board a steamer bound for the Pacific coast, arriving in San Francisco in July of the same year. In the following September he went to the mines and after a few months returned to San Francisco, whence he conducted a thorough examination of the Bay country with the purpose of establishing a town. On the 16th of May, 1850, he located permanently at a point now known as the foot of Broadway, Oakland, taking up one hundred and sixty acres of what was then public domain. His property lay on either side of the present Broadway and extended from the estuary of San Antonio north to the present location on Fourteenth street. Mr. Adams was the first settler in this locality, which was then a frontier wilderness. But others followed soon afterward, among the first of whom were Andrew Moon and H. Carpentier. In the latter part of 1851 Mr. Adams with Mr. Carpentier and Mr. Moon employed Julius Kellersberger and others to survey, lay out, set the stakes and make maps and plats for the present city of Oakland, to be founded upon a tract of land including the properties of the three gentlemen. Mr. Adams took a very active and prominent part in the organization of the community and after it was founded was elected to fill various offices, the duties of which he discharged in an efficient manner and with a public spirit worthy of a pioneer. He and his associates in this enterprise labored under nanny disadvantages, for as a rule the first settlers in California were single men who preferred to spend their time in the mines rather than assist in the upbuilding of a town in which they would probably not care to reside permanently. The citizens of San Francisco were slow in making Oakland their home because of the poor ferry conditions, the only means of travel at first being an occasional excursion from San Francisco to the new town, then called Contra Costa. Finally a company was induced to establish ferry communications with at least one round trip each day. The fare was one dollar each was but was finally reduced to fifty cents, with the chance of being detained by foggy weather five or six hours on the trip. Gradually all of these conditions changed, immigration became heavier and, with the appearance of new settlers in the town, city conveniences became a matter of course, and Adams lived to see his dream fulfilled and a city of importance and prosperity grow from his efforts and those of his associates in the early days.

On the 3d of May, 1855, Mr. Adams was united in marriage to Miss Hannah J. Jayne and they became the parents of three children, Julia P., Edson F. and John C. Throughout his entire life, which came to a close December 14, 1888, Mr. Adams continued to reside in Oakland and became one of its foremost citizens, active in all work of municipal progress and a leader in the furtherance of any plan for the advancement of the general welfare. His honorable and useful life, which bore the closest investigation and scrutiny, gained for him the unqualified respect and esteem of the people of the city which his enterprise and ambition had founded and his progressive spirit built up and developed.

With every phase of ranch development Edward H. Clawiter is familiar and his efforts have been an element in bringing about rapid progress and development in the production of both grain and vegetables in this section of the state. Today he is living retired as the possessor of a handsome competence, which has come to him through well ordered business affairs. He is a strong, forceful and resourceful man, active and energetic, and the most envious cannot grudge him his success, so honorably has it been won and so worthily used.

When Alvarado was known as Union City, Edward H. Clawiter was born there November 27, 1852. His father, Edward Clawiter, Sr., was born in Prussia, Germany, in 1817, and in his youthful days learned the machinist's trade, but the spirit of wanderlust was in him in early manhood and led him to leave his native country, seeking opportunity and adventure elsewhere. Thus, eventually he came to California. He had spent some time upon the sea and had been advanced until he was occupying an official position on the ship that bore him to the harbor of San Francisco in 1847. He did not then give up the sea, but returned to San Francisco from another voyage in 1849. It was then that he learned of the discovery of gold and, abandoning the ship, he went to Sonora, where he engaged in the search for the precious metal, meeting with considerable success. He it was who bore the first American gold to Germany and it was deposited in the Museum of Berlin. During this temporary sojourn in his native country he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Garding, a native of Bremen, Germany, born in 1830. In 1831 he brought his bride to the new world, taking up his abode in Union City, California, where he embarked in merchandising, having originally but a small stock. His enterprising methods, however, were soon manifest in a growing trade and in time he was at the head of a very gratifying business. During the residence of the family at Union City their first child was born and she was the first white female child to claims Union City as the place of her nativity and was given the name of Union, while John M. Horner, who owned most of the town site, presented her with a lot, owing to the tact that she was given the name. Three other children were afterward added to the family: Edward H.; Mary, who lives with her mother; and Ida, who became the wife of H. Krusi, a resident of Alameda. The eldest daughter, Union, became the wife of Converse Howe, who was auditor of Los Angeles county and died at a comparatively early age, leaving four sons.

In his merchandising venture Mr. Clawiter met with substantial success for two years. He possessed good business ability and, moreover, was a linguist, speaking Spanish, German and English fluently. When the boom subsided he invested in land in Mount Eden and San Lorenzo and continued the cultivation of five hundred acres until 1877, when he turned the management of the ranch over to his son Edward H. and took up his abode in Alameda, where he passed away December 13, 1883. His portrait, presented by his son, Edward H. Clawiter, occupies a place in the Museum in Golden Gate Park of San Francisco. He was the owner of much valuable property, also holding extensive realty at Oakland and other parts of this state. For many years he held membership with the Odd Fellows and was a charter member of Sycamore Lodge at Hayward.

While Edward H Clawiter was horn in Union City, he was still an infant when his parents removed to the farm. After attending the public schools he became a student in the Pacific Business College of San Francisco and thus prepared for the onerous and responsible duties of later life. His education completed, he became the active assistant of his father and afterward took over the management of the ranch and other properties held by his father. In all he has displayed splendid business ability, and his record p roves that success is not a matter of genius, but is the result of sound judgment, experience and keen insight. His plans are carefully formulated, his investments wisely made and he has extended his holdings and increased the value of the properties he inherited. He was married on the 18th of October, 1877, at Mount Eden, to Miss Annie G. Schafer, a native of Eldorado county, California, and they have become parents of two children, Edward Ivan and Grace B. The son, after completing a common-school course, entered the University of California, from which he was graduated in 1900. He took up the study of law and was admitted to the bar upon examination before the supreme court in June of the same year. He likewise pursued a course in civil engineering at the Vander Naillen School in Oakland. Soon after completing that course he went to Manila, P. I., where he remained for more than five years. While there he met and wedded a young lady, who was a native of one of the eastern states. He returned to the United States, but soon afterward went to Europe and subsequently engaged in engineering work on the Suez canal. After once more returning to America he became associated with the Atlantic, Gulf C Pacific Company, a large firm of harbor contractors, and was for a time engaged on work on the Erie canal. At the close of that work he severed his connection with the firm and went to Buenos Aires, South America, remaining in that country for seven months, during which time he converted one hundred miles of steam railroad into an electric line. After a brief visit to the States he again went to South America for a year. He was then transferred by his firm to Los Angeles, California, and later to San Francisco, having now lived in the latter city for the past year. The daughter is a musician, possessing both instrumental and vocal talent in a marked degree, and is a member of the Ade1phi Club of Alameda.

Politically Mr. Clawiter is a stalwart republican, doing all in his power to advance the interests of his party. Fraternally he is well known as a member of Hayward Lodge, No. 243, A. F. & A. M.; Doric Chapter, No. 66, R. A. AI., of San Leandro; and Oakland Commandery, No. II, K. T. He also belongs to Aahmes Temple of the Mystic Shrine and is a member of Eden Parlor, Native Sons of the Golden West, of Hayward.

While in active business Mr. Clawiter utilized his ranch for the production of grain and vegetables and in 1887 purchased the warehouse at Mount Eden station and for many years dealt in grain on a large scale. In 1904, however, he discontinued his warehouse business and retired. He now leases his large ranch, retaining only the orchard which surrounds his beautiful home. In the summer of 1910 he and his family made a two months' tour of the east, visiting the principal cities and places of interest. He owns valuable real estate in the city of Alameda as well as his ranch property. His chief recreation is motoring and he has a fine car, enabling him to indulge his desires along that line.

William Edward Dargie was for many years the owner and editor of the Oakland Tribune and built up the paper from a Small and unimportant journal to one of wide influence and great power. He was known to all newspaper men in the state as a man of unusual personal force and ability and the regret at his death in 1911 was statewide.

Mr. Dargie was a son of John and Eliza G. Dargie, both of whom have passed away, the mother surviving the father until a few years ago. The subject of this review was born in San Francisco on the 13th of March, 1854, and received his early education in the public schools of that city. After his graduation from the Union grammar school he took a special course in the high school in order to prepare himself for the business career which had been his ambition from his earliest years. When but thirteen years of age he became bill clerk for the firm of Armes & Dallam, of San Francisco, then the leading wool and willow house of that city, and discharged the duties of that position in a manner which commended hint alike to his employers and to those working with him. He remained in the employ of this firm for some time, but he was anxious for an opportunity to become connected with the publication business and at length he was given a place in the office of the San Francisco Bulletin. He became an apprentice printer and proved painstaking and industrious in learning the trade. He was considered the brightest apprentice the office had ever known and when he had completed his term and become a journeyman, he was as proficient in the craft as the most expert member of the staff. After thus mastering the details of the mechanical part of the business he joined the reportorial and editorial department and for a time was one of the most expert gatherers of news in the employ of the paper. While still a youth, he manifested a keen news sense which often enabled him to secure exclusive and important information for his paper.

About this time, however, Mr. Dargie realized that a more liberal education would enable him to do better work in his chosen profession and he therefore became a freshman in the University of California in 1875. He knew, however, that he would not take the full course, because he intended to enter business for himself at the earliest possible moment, and as his time in school was to be limited, he made the most of every minute and took advantage of every opportunity to acquire knowledge. While in college he supported himself by working as a reporter for the Bulletin, furnishing that paper with accounts of all the happenings of the campus and all the conferences of the faculty. His style of writing was simple, graphic and well adapted to newspaper work and even then he gave promise of becoming well known in journalism. While in the university he watched with interest the Oakland Tribune, then a paper small in size, of limited circulation and of still more limited influence. He recognized, however, that the east coast of the bay would in the future grow rapidly and that there was a place for a live, energetic, able newspaper which would develop as the city of Oakland and the county of Alameda grew in population and importance. Accordingly, before the close of the vacation succeeding his freshman year in the university, or on the 24th of July, 1876, he purchased a controlling interest in the Tribune with money loaned to him for the purpose by the late A. K. P. Harmon.

Mr. Dargie immediately assumed control of the management and policy of the Tribune, which was at that time about as large as a hand-bill. The new owner and editor was but twenty-two years of age, but under his direction the paper rapidly increased in size, circulation and influence. It eventually became the leading newspaper in Alameda county and its news columns were complete and unusually reliable. Its editorials were devoted to the securing of good government and the welfare of Oakland and Alameda county in general and there was always room for the publication of letters from the people on any topic of public interest. There was noticeable in every department, whether news or editorial comment, a completeness equaling that of the cosmopolitan dailies and the paper became widely known. From the time that he acquired the paper until ill health forced him in a large measure to retire from business, there was not a day that the paper failed to receive the closest attention of Mr. Dargie and there was not a moment when it was other than representative of the personal feeling, energy and enterprise of its controlling spirit. The paper was his pride and there was nothing that could be done to better it that was not done. If it was a question of securing some important news first there was no expense that was too great. If a new news service was required it was procured regardless of expense. If the public demanded a new department the man or woman was secured to satisfy the demand. If a new style of type was wanted to render the pages more attractive or more easily read, the want was supplied. One department followed another and shortly before Mr. Dargie was compelled to retire from active control of his business he had one of the most completely equipped press rooms in the west, while his paper was known for its excellence throughout the Pacific slope. He realized at the start that competent reporters, writers and editors were essential to the success of the paper and surrounded himself with a corps of workers which in ability, brilliancy and devotion have seldom been equalled on the coast. In fact, it has been recognized for years that the Tribune has been the school in which were trained many of the brightest minds in the journalistic world of the present day.

As the Tribune grew in power and influence its editor and manager received distinguished consideration at the hands of the people and of the leaders of the republican party, his first preferment being the appointment. on the 27th of February, 1223, to the office of postmaster of this city, a position which he assumed with the approval of every citizen of Oakland. He held the office for four years and discharged the duties thereof with a devotion and assiduity that was unusual. There was nothing that could be done to afford the people a more satisfactory mail service that was left undone and the good work that was accomplished in this respect at that time is not forgotten by residents of the city who were living here then. This improvement in service was accomplished without imposing upon the employes of the office unnecessary burdens, but solely by the husbanding of resources, the conserving of energies and the wise direction and utilization of the forces at his command. There was during his term of office an increase in the number of !nails delivered each day and there was also an increase in the number of collections, but this added work was handled efficiently and with dispatch.

In 1887 Mr. Dargie retired from the office and again devoted all of his time to the management of his paper. At various times he was besought by the people to become a candidate for an elective position, but he invariably declined, as he wished to give his time and attention to the Tribune. He was always more than willing to use the influence of Iris paper to assist in the election of good men to office, but he had no desire for office himself. However, there came a crisis in the affairs of the republican party and there was a movement on the part of the young men of the organization to select young men for office and upon Mr. Dargie fell their choice for state senator. At first Mr. Dargie declined the request of his young friends, but he eventually allowed his name to go before the people With the result that he was elected to the state senate by an overwhelming majority, serving in that body during the terms of 1880 and 1891. During those senatorial sessions a great deal of important legislation was enacted and in the discussion of the measures and in their passage Mr. Dargie played an important part. In recognition of his service in the senate that body passed a resolution of congratulation a few years ago when the citizens of Oakland Were celebrating his fifty-fifth birthday. At the expiration of his terms as senator he was again free to devote his energies exclusively to the conduct of his paper and it continued to grow in power and became one of the greatest influences in the development of Alameda county.

Mr. Dargie was married in San Leandro, December 15, 1881, to Miss Erminia Peralta, and they became the parents of two children, a daughter, who died in infancy, and a son, William E. Dargie, Jr., who died on the threshold of manhood. Mr. Dargie is survived by his widow. He was for many years a member of Live Oak Lodge, A. F. & A. M., and belonged to the :Athenian and Nile Clubs of this city and the Union League, Family Club and Press Club of San Francisco.

His death occurred at his residence in Oakland on the evening of February 10, 1911, and was the result of a nervous breakdown caused by overwork. His demise was sincerely regretted in the business, social and industrial world of Alameda county and indeed of California. He held to the fullest extent the admiration of those who Worked under him and to those who needed assistance he proved a friend indeed. The newspaper men of the coast knew and respected him most highly as a master of the profession and the many readers of the Tribune felt a personal interest in him. Out of respect for his memory the flag on the city plaza of Oakland was ordered at half-mast and the Alameda Press Club passed resolutions reciting the accomplishments of Mr. Dargie and recounting his many admirable traits of character, and in these resolutions it was stated that it was the belief of the club "that not only has the profession lost a member of unusual eminence, but that this community has lost an effective advocate and defender, and the members of this association a warm and personal friend." The state senate manifested respect for its former member by adjourning and adopting resolutions of condolence. Senator Stetson said at the time, "my acquaintance and friendship with Senator Dargie has extended over many years, rarely finding myself in accord with him in my political views or his with mine. Nevertheless, he gained and enjoyed my complete respect as he did that of all others who knew him well.
"He did not demand conformity of others to his own views, but he did demand sincerity on the part of his opponents." The Senator also said that, "he had no small share in the upbuilding of the city of Oakland, where most of his life was spent, as well as of the greater community of California."


Past And Present Of Alameda County, California - Volume II , Chicago
The S J Clarke Publishing Company, 1914
Transcribed by: Martha A Crosley Graham, 26 June 2010, Pages 523-589