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Digital Image Processing (3rd Edition)
THE leader in the field for more than twenty years, this introduction to basic concepts and methodologies for digital image processing continues its cutting-edge focus on contemporary developments in all mainstream areas of image processing. Completely self-contained, heavily illustrated, and mathematically accessible, it has a scope of application that is not limited to the solution of specialized problems. Digital Image Fundamentals. Image Enhancement in the Spatial Domain. Image Enhancement in the Frequency Domain. Image Restoration. Color Image Processing. Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing. Image Compression. Morphological Image Processing. Image Segmentation. Representation and Description. Object Recognition. For technicians interested in the fundamentals and contemporary applications of digital imaging processing87% (9)
Manhattan Waterfront West/Jersey City, NYC USA sunset
[Canon 5D/Tamron 28-300VC, B+W MC UV filter, ISO1600 1/500s F8 300mm effective -1.5eV > dcraw 5D ICC H0W AHD 3-color +0.0eV > Gimp rotate, contrast +3, usm 1.0-0.50-10] "eh"...& starting to get a bit noisy in the shadows but still technically-great for ISO1600...though overall "eh..." It's not quite level (seriously, an ongoing issue in photography) and probably this exposure is too high compared to the real scene. Maybe. Anyway the sun has set behind the buildings, there's not much light to shoot with here. I just shot this as a test-shot, ran this off as a test-PP and posted it to see what it would look like here at 500x400 vs 2MP full-image, testing the whole way down the line. You know, it's funny, DxO is a good tool and far cheaper than Photoshop not to mention Lightroom or Capture One or any of the derivatives, but they are getting blindsided by plugins that add the missing functionality into PS that DxO has over it. And the basic problem beyond that is that the corrections aren't perfect, the user can do better, the user has to tweak, and tweaks take time & effort. And what I find is that pretty-much my interest in post-processing stops when I find that it takes an inordinate amount of time to perfect a tweak, not to mention any real effort. I don't care if the results aren't perfect, what I care about is whether it is worth it to me to fix the flaws and a large part of that is how long will it take and what sort of improvement will I see. Getting the horizon level is an ongoing issue but I'll be dammed if it's worth the time to get it exactly right. And hell, I can make a long list and spend a lot of time fixing flaws in my shots, and I can really see the appeal of software that does a great job with all of those flaws "automatically". But it would have to do a *great* job, *automatically*. If I have to futz with the results afterwards then I won't bother to use it. The key thing to me is that I see a problem, the method of resolution is clear, the controls come up quickly and are easy to use, and the correction executes quickly. I've already spent a hell of a lot of time & energy figuring out how to do these corrections and do them. I don't have the time or desire to fuck with slow, buggy tools or make multiple attempts to fix something and then have little if any progress between attempts. For me, for the A200 & the D700, these ICC profiles work really well, it was fairly-easy to implement them and apply them to my shots in post-processing and the process has dramatically-improved the contrast and color-balance, pretty-much removing that entire area of concern in post-processing. ICC-profiling has had either no effect or very-little on my Canon shots, and they *still* require quite a bit of futzing to get decent results. #1 the shots are too gray, #2 getting the overall exposure/contrast balance right is always a chore unless I simply luck-out and get the exposure right in the camera. With the A200 the big problem is to keep the SNR up so that means shooting slow and somewhat "hot", but given that, given a decent, stable exposure, it's easy to get good results in post-processing. It's like Canon are the idiot-savants of the camera world, the shots are either good or bad with no in-between. I can run-off 5 things off the top of my head that I routinely see wrong in my Canon shots that are probably the direct result of their gear being either "cheap" or "high-resolution" if not both. Sony are modestly-competent, capable of good things, mostly-reliable, great on occasion yet rarely excellent, if anything they are bound by their overall competence, like a race-car driver who is consistently in the Top 10 but can't actually win the race because they are so worried about their Top 10 status. Nikon is that driver who has you glued to the news, the mostly-unrealized genius that occasionally falls flat but also will occasionally make my jaw drop with astonishing results. If anything they suffer from excessive expectations that they have a habit of often meeting. Nikon is the company that makes people think that they can take great pictures just by buying their cameras, and given a few pointers and the right scene, they're right. Take a picture of that same scene with a Canon and you will see how tricked-up the results are in an attempt to overcome the fundamental weaknesses of the camera. Meanwhile a guy comes along with a Sony and gives you the exact fucking colors that are in the scene. The thing is that often Nikon can & will do *better* than the true colors. Or maybe the Sony doesn't have the WB exactly-right, but the Nikon will, sure Sony AWB is usually a little warm. It doesn't matter if the Canon gets the WB right because it can't capture the blues properly anyway so you end up getting purple or cyan instead of blue just as on the long side it gives you orange and yellow instead of red. Capturing the primariesPhotographic Psychology: Head Transplants
In digital photography, transplanting a head from an individual onto the body of another (human or animal) can lead to fun, fascinating, and sometimes quite powerful results. Of course such digital operations move us beyond realistic photography and into the realm of fiction and fantasy. Why would someone want to do such a transplant? In many cases it’s a visual joke to play on a friend or a famous person. Like putting the head of your friend or the president onto Arnold Schwarzenegger’s body. In other cases, as in contrived political images, a serious visual statement is being made, even if the image is humorous. That visual statement is usually about the character of the person whose head is being transplanted. You might use the new body as a way to amplify and exaggerate some aspect of the individual’s personality, as in placing a patriotic person’s head onto the body of Uncle Sam. Or, in a perhaps playful, ironic, or sarcastic fashion, you propose a reversal of some aspect of the individual’s personality by joining the head to someone who seems to be the exact opposite, like attaching grandma’s face onto a skate-boarder flying high above the pavement, or placing a conservative celebrity onto a hippie’s body. Some psychological theories state that the human psyche contains polarities. Beneath personality traits that appear on the surface, you’ll find underlying, perhaps unconscious, traits that are the exact opposite. A very passive person, for example, might harbor hidden aggression. For this reason, the new body might be a way to point out some latent, undeveloped, idealized, or wished-for characteristic of the person. The new body alone might express these intentions, or in some cases it’s the environment around the new body that conveys the message. Unfortunately, head transplants could be used for the purpose of deliberate deception – as an attempt to alter a person’s public image or reputation by placing them on a particular body or in a particular situation. Celebrities could be given more lovely figures. Careers could be wrecked by placing people in a context that ruins their social standing. By developing a trained eye for some of the visual cues that I’ll mention in a moment, such fakes can be detected. I should also mention that head transplants might be used to solve some practical problems in photography, without any intention to deceive, generate humor, or comment on someone’s personality. For example, you might have two shots of a person: one in which the composition is perfect but the subject’s facial expression isn’t optimal, and a second in which the composition is flawed but the facial expression is perfect. So why not transplant the “good” head into the shot with the good composition? Or, if you have several shots of a group of people, but there’s no one shot where all the facial expressions look right, take the shot with the most number of good heads, and transplant into it some good heads from the other shots. OK, you’re probably thinking, but how do I do it? Here in Photographic Psychology I don’t delve deeply into the specifics of image processing techniques. However, I can offer a few basic suggestions. Head transplants do entail some skill in pulling the effect off successfully so that it looks realistic, rather than like an obvious mismatched combination – although botched transplants can be very comical, if that’s the intended effect. Pulling off a realistic transplant involves two sets of skills: a trained eye that can detect why the head and body don’t seem to go together, and some image processing techniques to correct the discrepancies. Choosing the images: If the head and body come from the same image, the task will be easier than if the components come from different ones, because the lighting on both head and body is probably the same. When using different images, pick ones that are as compatible as possible in terms of shadows, contrast, sharpness, and color. If the components are mismatched on those dimensions, you can use an image editing program to make their visual qualities more compatible. You can try matching colors when the images are still separate (as in using the Photoshop “match color” feature), but often it’s best to transplant the head first, and then adjust it to match the body. Sometimes you might adjust both the head and the body to bring them closer together in terms of their visual qualities. Color: Photoshop and other image editing programs are quite good at altering color, so that part of the process of matching head to body will be a bit easier. In Photohop, try using combinations of color balance, hue/saturation, and levels. If you know how to work with layers and empty adjustment layers, that will come in very handy to fine-tune your work. Tonality: Matching tonality (i.e., the range and contrast of brightness levels) will be more tricky. This is why it’s best to start with two images that are as similar as possible in terms of
A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applicationsRelated topics:
Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It’s an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists who require highly specialized image processing.
Algorithms now exist for a wide variety of sophisticated image processing applications required by software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and related specialists
This bestselling book has been completely updated to include the latest algorithms, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches, details on modern classifier methods, and graphics cards used as image processing computational aids
Saves hours of mathematical calculating by using distributed processing and GPU programming, and gives non-mathematicians the shortcuts needed to program relatively sophisticated applications.
Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision, 2nd Edition provides the tools to speed development of image processing applications.
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