A race of white people lived in Peru before the Indians.
They left Peru and settled around the Pacific Islands.
Myth or fact?
The Northern Advocate (May 2004)
Ancestral Arguments -- who came first and where did they come from?
From: Keri Hulme
Thursday, 24 June 2004 4:07 a.m. http://www.celticnz.co.nz/hot_mail6.htm
Subject: show me a wheel. show me iron, show me pottery, show me leather working,
in fact, show me *one* thing that cant be honestly traced to my Eastern Polynesian ancestors (o, I'm quite happy if something can be traced to my Western Melanesian ancestors.)
Just for a starter, only 70% OF MAORI HAVE A ROCKER JAW. It is a very high percentage for a human group, but NOT having a rocker jaw is not a diagnostic for a jawbone coming from a NON-Maori.Nor is being urukehu. Go have a look at people - just for instance - in the Bismarcks. Many blond kids there(and they don't have Euro mother/father/s.) That's too far from here? Nope, they followed the cuckoo too-
There is NOTHING - your stone works are a joke - real Celts built substantial rings and dolmens and chambers, not pathetic wee sighting heaps or rolled over tiny stones - EVER discovered here that says anyone except my Eastern Polynesian (possibly Western Melanesian at some stage) ancestors were here before my Celtic ancestors. I find your paranoia (re supposed Government cover-ups) and your racism sad. O, and nasty, offensive, vicious, and due to get its own comeback. Bye bye. Ka mutu tena.
The stone work on the New Zealand landscape is far from, "wee sighting pits or rolled over tiny stones", as you put it. Many of the individual, purpose placed obelisks are in the estimated range of ten or twelve tons...or a lot more.
THE BISMARCK ISLANDS & LAPITA POTTERY.
You mention the blonde Melanesian children of the Bismarck Islands, and I admit to having been long intrigued by the incidence of blonde hair there. Although the early blondness is not universal and generally recedes in maturity, it is, nonetheless a fascinating genetic phenomena. I've read a number of explanations for this, including claims that there is an ancient Caucasoid element present that triggers the "blonde" occurrence. It's, perhaps, very significant that the Bismarck group is in the belt where Lapita Pottery is found in the largest quantities, more-so than other regions of Melanesia or Western Polynesia.
For quite some time I have tried to source a comprehensive physical anthropological report on the "Lapita People" skeletons, but there seems to be academic reluctance to broach the subject clearly and concisely. This evasive attitude has been commented on by several writers. What little anthropological evidence can be gleaned, shows no real relationship between the Lapita People and the much later Polynesians and this is, apparently, being reinforced as time goes on. Typical of this "withholding of evidence" relates to a very good find in 2002. The following is the first/ last newspaper report we received on the subject. The only variation in articles is found in the fact that the first press release said the skeleton was of a person 2 metres high (approaching 6' 7"):
'Mysterious skeletal remains of what appears to be a 3000-year-old giant have been unearthed on a South Pacific islands, but the bones' discovery has rattled local archaeologists who say poor treatment of the remains may have lost vital information.
Little is known about the highly unusual find, which includes a skull bearing strange holes drilled into its cheekbones, with authorities keen to keep the controversial discovery under wraps.
According to sources, the body, found at Lomaiviti, an island to the north of Suva, predates European exploration of the Pacific and it is believed the man was originally from the Solomon Islands.
The body was discovered last week by a Solomon Islander from the University of the South Pacific (USP), alongside examples of Lapita pottery & artifacts created by a group of Melanesians believed to have been the founders of modern Polynesia.
Measuring 1.9 metres (the earliest report of the find said 2 metres), the body is unusually large considering its age and origin. Pictures of its skull show the holed cheekbones, a feature unseen in previous discoveries, according to Fiji Museum sources.
The head of prehistory archaeology at the museum, Sepeti Matararaba, said the discovery of the body and pottery was "significant"....'
"Patrick Nunn, the supervisor of the archaeological team analysing the remains at USP would not comment and said on Sunday "we have decided to keep our find under wraps". 14 July 2002.
Our forensic scientists are (in the new, Pacific socio-political climate) denied access to human skeletons for study. Lisa Matisoo-Smith of the University of Auckland, New Zealand is obliged to use "Kiore Rat" remains in order to learn something about ancient Pacific peoples:
'Unable to research genetic variations in ancient people, she turned to the next best thing - rats. Matisoo-Smith and a colleague, J.H. Robins, examined the variations in mitochondrial DNA of ancient and modern samples of a rat species, Rattus exulans, from Bougainville, New Britain and other Polynesian islands. This species was used as food by the Lapita people in their outrigger canoes when they settled parts of Oceania roughly 3,000 years ago... There is much evidence the Lapita people took R. exulans along for food. Unlike European rats, Matisoo-Smith said, exulans do not swim and they dislike wet conditions. So it is unlikely that they accidentally reached the islands through infested ships.
As a food source, the rats don't require much effort. The Lapita would just have to release them on the islands they settled, and rats being rats, there would soon be plenty for eating.
That also left plenty of rat remains for analysis. Ancient human remains in the Pacific are rare and off-limits for study, Matisoo-Smith said. So there was no hope of comparing genetic variations in old and new human tissue'.
Dr. Kirch, in 1992, reviews four Lapita sites with the human remains, the best one on Watom Island, in the Bismarcks (p. 108). But Kirch, in spite of some fudging, admits that these Watom remains are not really a lot like the Polynesian type (see Patrick Vinton Kirch, The Lapita Peoples: Ancestors of the Oceanic World, Blackwell Publishers, 1997).
Associate Professor, Ian Lilley of the University of Queensland states: Interestingly, the fact that the creators of the imposing statues on far-flung Easter Island are descendants of the so-called "Lapita people" is hinted at by the startling resemblance between the monoliths and faces etched into the much earlier pottery.
Ancient Easter Island skeletons show the lowest incidence, in the entire Pacific Island region, of the "Rocker Jaw". There are also the well known oral traditions of the red headed/ white (kiri puwhero/ uru-kehu) people living there, who were ultimately annihilated by the latter influx of Polynesians.
As it turns out, production of Lapita pottery commenced abruptly in about 1900 BC. By about the time of Christ production of the ornately ornamented kind had long-since ceased and only some plainware pottery was still being made in Melanesia and Polynesia. After that an entirely new group, who did not produce pottery at all, took over the Islands.
Anita Smith of the University of New England in, An Archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory, 2002. - comments, comparing Lapita with plainware ceramics in Polynesia:
'Therefore plainware appears to be a simplification of the Lapita cultural complex caused by isolation.
Archaeological evidence indicates that plainware pottery ceases abruptly in Samoa around 0BC, being replaced by classic Polynesian cultural complex. This clearly indicates a change in ownership of the islands, from the waning Lapita settlers to a culture that lacked pottery making skills, who used fishhooks and tanged adzes.
(Peter Bellwood - The Archaeological Origins of the Polynesians pg. 58). Scientific studies have also found that the temper of Lapita pottery found on the Marquesas indicates that it was imported from Fiji.
Let's look at Lapita Pottery design symbolism and try to figure out whose pottery, contemporary to that era (circa 1900 BC), it most resembles. Nothing resembling prototypes of the Lapita pottery has been found in Taiwan or southern China, from whence Polynesians are supposed to have come:
Lapita pottery facial images are quite European. They show the pointed prominent chin and small mouth clench, the leptorrhine [long, narrow] nose, facial hair (including the moustache) or beards and thin lips. In the shard shown to the right the face, incorporating European features, is housed within an Egyptian Ankh design. For many millenniums prior to the epoch of the Lapita people and at the height of Lapita civilsation, Egypt was ruled by Nordic European (physiology) Pharaohs. The population of Egypt was still mostly European, but declining, as the years wore on (see anthropological reports on pre-Dynastic and Dynastic mummies of Egypt to about 1500 BC...several mummies of the Pharaohs are on display at Cairo Museum). After many centuries of stave-off warfare the Egyptians were finally overwhelmed by the Nubians in about 800 B.C (the 24th and final dynasty of Egypt, with a Nubian Pharaoh).
The circle dot markings seen on the Lapita shards infer counts that, undoubtedly, relate to celestial cycle durations, calendar counts or navigational numbers. This "knop" type marking was used from ancient Israel to Ireland (see ancient Celtic crosses). The Lapita people were very adept sailors and navigators and during their era, spanning about 1500-2000 years, ranged over a wide area of Melanesia and Polynesia. They also had domesticated animals (pigs and dogs) or poultry and planted crops. They were largely responsible for the introduction of the Polynesian Rat to many far-flung locations. The Polynesian (Kiore) Rat has been in New Zealand for at least two millenniums. Perhaps the same is true of the Norway Rat as well, the introduction of which is blamed on Captain Cook. The native dog was, undoubtedly, introduced along with the Polynesian Rat, two or more millenniums ago.
Shards (a), (b) and (e) in the above sample clearly show the lozenge pattern that was very prominently displayed on "Beaker People" pottery of Britain. The Beaker people/ Wessex folk, who flourished in Britain from about 2500 BC erected standing stone circles and barrow mounds, much the same as are found throughout the Pacific, with its huge sampling of, mostly muted and played down, "stonework", including many laboriously built, cut-stone, stepped pyramids. The Lapita People, like the Beaker People, used bows and arrows and wove garments.
A string of seven carved "lozenges" and two "part-lozenges" is shown above the ancient "Winter Solstice window" opening at Newgrange in Ireland, which dates to about 3000 BC. Both the "late" Beaker people (Wessex folk) of England and the "early" Lapita people of the Pacific, lived quite contemporary to each other and used the "lozenge" pattern as their foremost cultural symbol.
Lozenge memory devices were very important to ancient astronomer/ priests and have been excavated from their barrow mound graves in Southern England. The Bush Barrow Lozenge device was located very close to Stonehenge and archaeologists theorise that the individual with whom it was buried was somehow affiliated with the happenings at Stonehenge. The Clandon Barrow Lozenge (left) is, similarly, mathematically sophisticated and was found not too far Southwest of the Bush Barrow Lozenge. To assess the circle and linear geometry by which the Beaker People (Wessex Culture) or their forebears fabricated both lozenge memory devices, view: http://www.celticnz.co.nz/Clandonwebsitefiles/Clandon1a.htm (six sections).
These lozenge devices carried cyclic and navigational codes in their dimensions and angles, extractable by callipers, a 360-degree compass and rule, they were used as memory and teaching aids or to regulate all aspects of society, including quantity assaying in the marketplace. They were very essential teaching tools for masters involved in schooling initiates to the astronomical/ navigational arts. The never-to-be forgotten scientific parcel of numbers that they incorporated assurred the continued maintenance of civilisation and abundance.
Inasmuch as navigational codes were built into the lozenges, they, like the Egyptian Hypocephalus funerary amulet, were metamorphisised into symbolic or religious use as guidance devices for the afterlife. The lozenge illustrated or incised burial beakers, found in Beaker graves, inferred that correct navigation to the heavenly home had been spiritually calculated and set. The god Ptah, depicted on the Egyptian Hypocephalus, serves the same spiritual role to safely convey the newly dead to Orion, where Osirus dwells. Just as the priestly lozenges had played such a primary role in the mundane guidance of Beaker People society during mortality, so also did they in immortality. Lozenge symbolism was thus adorned on the funerary beakers.
It would appear that some of the Lapita pots are "grave goods", like the Beaker pots. The lozenge design of the Lapita People became one of the most important and venerated sacred symbols to be incorporated into Oceanic "tapa" cloths.
Keri, you seem intense in your desire to stifle any findings that might indicate an ancient Caucasoid or European presence in Oceania (and New Zealand, especially) prior to the Maori. Any such heretical suggestions you, rather vindictively, equate to "racism" and attempt to villify and muffle by slander or gloved threats. You are the revisionist, not me. You are the racist, not me. I have stayed with the reliable concepts of 40-years ago; it's you who has embraced the new plastic pseudo-history-religion, not me.
You can, very conveniently, hide behind your new-age fantasy-fictional writing and side-step the tangible facts that lie all around you on your home landscape or within the oral traditions recorded by your forebears. You pretend to be in touch with Maoritanga, but display all of the attributes of a shallow, superficial new-ager, appologising for having European blood running in your veins. But Europeans are people too and they, very definitely, went places and did things all over the globe in remote antiquity...including setting up ancient, long-term colonies in New Zealand and the greater Pacific. Maori culture is, largely, European culture, with almost all symbols and artefact pedigrees traceable back to Britain, Continental Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Branches or influences of Maori culture came via South America or other routes. Our "semi-flightless" native Pukeko (swamp-hen) has long been a native of Spain, Portugal and South America. Very old New Zealand Pohutakawa trees (600-years old) grow in La Coruna, Spain and were the subject of a recent Spanish radio broadcast... then of course there's the Egyptian-European-South American Hei-Tiki, etc., etc.
The 1902 edition of the Encyclopaedia of New Zealand (pg. 693) showed these pictures of Mr. George Proudfoot Ewing, long-term resident and farmer at Whangarata, 38-miles south of Auckland City. Mr. Ewing had come to New Zealand from Scotland in 1881. The picture to the right shows Mr. Ewing measuring, what is described as,"a large Oak" tree at Whangarata or in the nearby district. It would appear strongly that this tree is not a native species of New Zealand, as the only native tree that we have described as an "Oak" is the Alectryon excelsus (Titoki), which is a medium sized tree that achieves a maximum height of only about 8-metres (26-27 feet).
The girth of the tree shown is very substantial and it would be impossible for a European Oak to have achieved such dimensions in the circa 100-year time frame between the first trickle of European settlers arriving in New Zealand and Mr. Ewing measuring the big girth tree.
The Tuakau-Whangarata-Drury area was not developed into farms until around 1850 or later, so where did this large species "Oak" tree come from? In comparison to European Oaks of similar girth (approximately 5.5 feet, wide in the picture when scaled) this tree should have been between 200-300 years old by the year 1900, which means it would have taken root as early as 1600 to 1700 AD. Perhaps the rich volcanic soils of that South Auckland region and the mild winters might have accelerated its growth somewhat, but even under the best case scenario this tree must have predated European colonisation of New Zealand by a century or two. At Drury, South Auckland is the Runciman Oak, which is supposed to have been propagated from an acorn from the famous Cowthorpe Oak of England. Whatever became of Mr. Ewing's venerable old Oak tree?
The Runciman Oak of Drury, which sits on land that was once a part of the Runciman farm of 2000 acres. Pictured on the left is Captain James Runciman, who was a member of Colonel Nixon's Light Horse Cavalry throughout the Waikato Wars and commander of the Cambridge troop. The Runciman Oak tree trunk (shown on the right) has a diameter of 2 metres at half a meter above ground level. It's overall circumference (somewhat oval shaped) is about 4.7 to 5 metres (about 16.4 feet). The tree has been slowly dying since the motorway was put in beside it in around 1966. Sadly, the north-eastern side of the tree is now quite rotten and has lost substantial surface wood. Most of the large boughs have been lopped off in an attempt to save the tree.
"Officially", this Oak is reported to be only around 130-years old and grown from an acorn taken from the Cowthorpe Oak of England (brought to New Zealand by the Runciman's?).
An ancient form or development of the Hei-Tiki from Syria. There appears to be a link between this figurine and the owl-eye circle geometry that was used to create the Bush Barrow and Clandon Barrow Lozenges of the Beaker People of England. See the design geometry at: http://www.celticnz.co.nz/Clandonwebsitefiles/Clandon1a.htm
Because the, now extinct, ancient European Patu-pai-arehe of New Zealand or Children of Poutini (the offspring of Tangaroa) throughout Oceania can no longer speak for themselves, I will, unashamedly, speak for them and applaud their great works... despite the fact it's not considered PC or in-vogue within the designer-engineered, social climate that you've been duped into embracing.
THE CLANDON BARROW LOZENGE.
Some of the "Wessex" grave goods recovered from Clandon Barrow in 1882. Items included a macehead made of Kimmeridge shale or jet stone (with 5 inlaid gold bosses) and a broken dagger. The dark object in the photo, showing two gold semi-spheres, is the macehead and the fragmented vessel to the upper right was formerly an incense cup. The pot to the upper left is but one of the types of burial pots or beakers that were commonly found in Beaker folk graves. Many burial beakers of this era (3rd or 4th millennium BC) were bell shaped and adorned with multiple lozenge patterns, similar in style to the main find at Clandon Barrow...the intricately incised gold lozenge.
The similarity in style between the Bush Barrow Lozenge and the Clandon Barrow Lozenge, coupled with the relatively short distance between the archaeological sites where each artefact was found, has caused some archaeologists to comment that both lozenges were probably fabricated by the same artisan (See The Wessex culture: a minimal view, by John Coles and Joan Taylor, Antiquity, XLV, 1971, pages 6-13).
Whereas an examination by Coles and Taylor of these Wessex goldwork, lozenge artefacts, 'suggests to them that the individual hand of a particular craftsman can be recognised', the two objects can also be compared mathematically.