"For the construction of such a wheel,
take a silver capsule like that of a concave mirror, and worked on 
the outside with fine carving and perforations, not only for sake 
of beauty, but also for purpose of diminishing its weight.
You should manage also that the eye of unskilled may not 
perceive what is cunningly placed inside."  
~ Petrus of Marricourt

This article is the second part of the presentation of
Universal Magneto-Mechanical Motors (further, shortly: 
U3M) which have emerged from experimental investigation of 
Magnetorefractive and Geomagnetic Motive Systems.

Here is revealing conceptual design of Magnetorefractive 
Structure which absorbs magnetic flux of aplying magnets 
and re-emit it so that vectors of magnetomotive forces 
become parallel to each other and in-perpendicular to 
re-emitting wall of said structure. The unit of such structure 
and magnet is conventionally named: Asymmetric 
Magnetomotive Tugger (shortly: AMT) and its details and 
functions are explaining in the first paragraph here. Second 
paragraph explains methods of construction of series of 
AMTs forming linear (and/or ringular) magnetomotive trains, 
and of construction of 
U3Ms where AMTs are arranged in 
parallel trains having magnets integrating into spiral reluctant 
magnetic circuits integrating into ambient magnetic fields. 
Third paragraph is about concepts of various utilities 
suggested for application of AMTs.


AMTs consist of three basic components:
long-bar permanent magnet (shortly: Magnet), 
Ferromagnetic Conducting Loop (shortly: Loop), and 
Dia-magnetic Deflecting Lattice (shortly: Lattice).

Magnet continuously produces magnetic flux which is 
continuously absorbing, conducting and re-emitting by Loop 
having one of its wall covered by Lattice which continuously 
incline flux so that vectors of magnetomotive forces along 
Lattice appears parallel to each others and un-perpendicular 
to outer wall of Lattice and interacting plane of AMT.


Presenting here conceptual prototypes are constructed with 
permanent magnets which are permanent sources of 
magnetic flux causing magnetomotive interactions generating 
torque or motion of applying components. Supposed that 
applying magnets can be of different geometries and even 
electromagnets but current presentation is only with long-bar 
types of permanent magnets having magnetic poles on/in 
smallest walls of long-bars.
These permanent magnets consist of atoms of ferromagnetic 
metals which have theirs electrons orbiting on approx. 
parallel planes and inducing permanent magnetic fields with 
approx. parallel magnetic axes. Atomic magnetic fields 
integrate into single magnetic fields of bar magnet what can 
last longer than visible Universe unless ambient conditions will 
cause disintegration of magnets or dis-alignment of plains of 
electrons orbiting in there.

Drawing above demonstrates planar view of long-bar 
permanent magnet (black thing) and measured 
magnetomotive forces round magnetic poles of magnet. 
Green vectors indicate directions of magnetomotive forces 
and green lines indicate equipotential planes where strengths 
of magnetomotive forces are equal. These point-symmetric 
geometries are known for most of men and it is scientifically 
believed to be a cause why "magnetic motors are impossible". 
Following are explanations how to convert these 
point-symmetric magnetomotive vectors into parallel.


Long ago was noticed that geometric parameters of magnetic 
fields are different for different substances so that magnetic 
permeability of group of Ferromagnetic materials is greater 
than groups of Para-magnetic and Dia-magnetic materials. Also 
was noticed that Ferromagnetic and Para-magnetic 
substances act as sort of conductors of magnetic flux, while 
Dia-magnetic have slight insulating or deflecting properties.
Also was noticed that when magnetic flux traversing such 
substances - it change its strength and direction, and 
changes of directions of vectors of magnetomotive forces are 
greater when flux traverses ferromagnetic structures.

Such properties of magnetic fields allow countless designs of 
complex structures which cause countless (though mostly 
useless) variants of geometries of vectors of magnetomotive 
forces. Yet investigation of such variants has revealed some 
practical constructions partially explaining here.

Above is pictures of magnets affixed to Ferromagnetic 
Conducting Loops. Loops are made of ferromagnetic plates. 
Each loop has two long opposite walls and two short opposite 
walls, where short walls are approx. five times shorter than 
long walls, and widths of long walls is about half of its lengths. 
Magnet has one of its magnetic poles attached to one side of 
one of long wall, which is conventionally named "absorbing 
wall" because that magnetic flux of attached magnetic pole is 
being absorbed by ferromagnetic plate. Absorbing flux is 
further conducting through structure of high magnetic 
permeability and is re-emitting randomly almost perpendicular 
to walls of Loop.
Long wall of Loop which is opposite to absorbing wall is 
conventionally named: "re-emitting wall", however all walls are 
re-emitting magnetic flux but this long re-emitting wall is facing 
sector of space where AMT is supposed to produce 
magnetomotive interactions and work.

Above drawing demonstrate measurements of magnetomotive 

forces along re-emitting wall of Loop attached to Magnet, 
where most vectors of magnetomotive forces are approx. 
perpendicular to re-emitting wall. Equipotential plane 
appears further from Loop at its side where Magnet is 
attached and strength of magnetomotive forces become 
weaker at side of Loop which is further from attached 
Magnet. So produced equipotential magnetic plane along 
re-emitting wall should to be approx. parallel to plane where 
AMT is acting and is conventionally name: "plane of 
interaction", and on drawing is indicated by 
dashed-black-line. Plane of interaction of AMT is un-parallel 
to re-emitting wall of Loop (approx. 10 - 20 degrees) and 
distance between interaction plane and re-emitting wall is 
greater at side of Loop where Magnet is attached to it.

So designed Ferromagnetic Conducting Loop acts between 
magnetic pole of Permanent Magnet and plane of 
magnetomotive interactions of applying Magnet, where Loop 
acts as path of Least Resistance for traversing it magnetic 
flux. Absorbing, conduction and re-emitting of magnetic flux 
cause initial curvature of magnetic fields causing its 
geometric conversion from often point-symmetry. Vectors of 
magnetomotive forces become parallel to each others and 
un-perpendicular to plain of magnetomotive interactions.

The angle between vectors of magnetomotive forces and 
interaction plane appears proportional to resulting effect of 
magnetomotive forces, and it was found that advanced 
constructions of Loop produces advanced inclination of 
vectors. Also this inclination can be advanced by additional 
magnetorefracting structure covering Re-emitting wall of 


Following Principles of Least Resistance - it was suggested 
that magnetic flux might change its direction when traversing 
structure made of alternating layers of materials of different 
magnetic permeability. Indeed, testing of numerous 
prototypes of various geometries has confirmed that layers 
of dia-mgnetic plates with para-magnetic plates between them 
- cause that direction of traversing it magnetic flux change to 
become more parallel to layers. This phenomena is best 
manifesting self when difference of permeability of layers 
are greater and when the angle of incidence of flux against 
dia-magnetic walls is shallow. Achieved knowledge allowed 
to build various Dia-magnetic Deflecting Lattices which 
produce efficient inclination of magnetic flux along 
re-emitting walls of Asymmetric Magnetomotive Tuggers.
Above is picture of simple Asymmetric Magnetomotive 
Tuggers assembled of explained Magnet-and-Loop units 
where Loops have Dia-magnetic Deflecting Lattices.
Each Lattice is made of approx. square dia-magnetic plates 
having its sides uniformly secured on re-emitting wall of 
Loop, and opposite outer sides are uniformly curved so that 
outermost edges of plates are secured on near plate. Plates 
are secured to be approx parallel to each others and 
unperpendicular to wall of Loop so that all plates are inclined 
toward side of AMT where Magnet is attached to Loop. 
Spacings between diamagnetic plates are filled with air which 
magnetic permeability if different from permeability of 
diamagnetic plates, what cause that re-emitting magnetic flux 
traverses layers of different permeabilities what causes that 
flux incline toward parallel of layers or plates.

Above drawing demonstrates measurements of magnetic 

fields along outer wall of Lattice which is parallel to plane of 
interaction of AMT. Resulting vectors of magnetomotive 
forces appears approx. parallel to each others and 
un=perpendicular to plane of interaction so that integral of 
vectors is inclined about 10 - 20 degrees toward 
Magnet-side of AMT.

So achieved geometry of magnetomotive forces allows 
constructions of various utilities composed of numerous 
AMTs which Lattices forming large single planes along which 
magnetic fields are similar to fields along single AMT.


Multy-magnetic systems of AMTs are designing as devices 
integrating numerous magnetic fields which integrating 
magnetomotive forces producing practical effects (here it is 
motion or torque) which can serve for generation of 
propulsion and/or energy. Presenting here prototypes are 
solutions for constructions of numerous AMTs forming 
magnetomotive trains, and solutions for constructions of 
system where two trains integrate and interact producing 
motion of trains parallel to each others.


Asymmetric Magnetomotive Tuggers initially were designed 
for building of multy-magnetic utilities where numerous 
AMTs forming magnetomotive trains, and Lattices of many of 
AMTs forming single linear, ringular etc. plane along which 
magnetic fields are uni-polar (eg.:only North or only South 
magnetic polarity) and integral of vectors of magnetomotive 
forces is un-perpendicular to interacting plane of 
magnetomotive train.

Above are pictured three AMTs forming testing prototype of 
magnetomotive train. All AMTs have South poles attached to 
theirs Loops, Loops are secured along perimeter of disk with 
little spacings between them, and all plates of Lattices are 
inclining in same direction and covering near Lattice such 
forming single interaction plane which is section of ring 
(D=444 mm). Loops are made of silicon-steel and Lattices 
made of plates of tin, bismuth, lead, etc. with air between 
them performing as conducting medium.

Above is drawing where green vectors indicates direction of 
magnetomotive forces measured along plane of interaction 
of magnetomotive train build of three AMTs. Near placed 
magnetic fields integrate and vectors of forces near spacing 
between Loops appears inclining less, yet remain 
un-perpendicular, inclining similar to all other vectors. Such 
measurements were conducted on trains of different 
numbers of AMTs made of different materials and of similar 
design, - and most of prototypes produced magnetic fields 
which vectors are approx. parallel to each other and 
un-perpedicular to interaction plane.

Having wished parameters achieved, it was decided to build 
testing prototypes where efficiency of magnetomotive forces 
can be contemplated in action. Following are explanation of 
such devices and results of its successful testings.


Presenting here magnetomotive trains made of AMTs 
appears one of the best variants among hundreds of 
different tested magnetorefracting systems. This caused 
obvious decision to build magnetomotive system of two 
parallel and inversely symmetric trains which have theirs 
Lattices facing each other. One of train has North magnetic 
polarity along its Lattice and second train has South polarity, 
so that parallel trains attracting each others. Such 
arrangement causes that between such trains emerges 
reluctant gap where vectors of magnetomotive forces are 
un-perpendicular to trains, what cause that attraction 
between trains also causes generation of torque that force 
trains to move along or parallel to each others.

Following the conception of "integration of working magnets 
into ambient magnetic fields" - it was decided to design 
system of parallel trains which magnets integrate into single 
reluctant magnetic circuit which integrates into ambient 
magnetic circuits.

Above drawing demonstrates axial section of presenting 
prototypes where parallel magnetomotive trains produce 
magnetomotive interaction. Gray color indicates 
ferromagnetic components of prototype which are: 
ferromagnetic base having ferromagnetic hub in the middle 
of base, hub is secured perpendicular to base and has set of 
ball-bearings and ferromagnetic structure round bearing so 
that magnets are attached to structure to be able to move 
round hub and parallel to base. Magnets are indicated by 
black color and are in two series: one set of magnets has 
their axes perpendicular to hub with South magnetic poles 
attached to structure round bearings and North magnetic 
poles facing outside from hub; second set of magnets has 
theirs North magnetic poles affixed on perimeter of 
ferromagnetic base and its opposite South poles are are 
facing North poles of first set of "motive" magnets. So base, 
magnets and hub forming stator of prototype and motive 
magnets forming rotor which outer North poles are attracting 
by South poles of stator.

Space between rotor and stator attracting magnetic poles 
appears most reluctant part of integrating magnets, because 
that base and hub absorb and conduct magnetic flux of 
applying magnets while air within reluctant gap has lowest 
magnetic permeability of arranged ringular magnetic circuits
Green vectors indicate general direction of arranged 
magnetic circuits which form ringular hub symmetric loops 
and if many magnets are set on rotor and stator then 
magnetic circuits forming spiral or torus geometry.

Red color indicates Dia-magnetic Deflecting Lattices Affixed 
on Ferromagnetic Conducting Loops affixed to applying 
Permanent Magnets, so that reluctant gap becomes narrow 
(approx. 2 - 3 mm). Magnetomotive forces between Lattices 
generate torque and motion of rotor round hub.

Because that ferromagnetic components partially absorbing 
magnetic flux - integrated spiral magnetic circuits integrate 
into circuits of ambient magnetic fields what allows 
convenient  integration of working utilities having its hubs 
horizontallyvertically or inclined to axis of ambient magnetic 


Above explained arrangement of spiral reluctant magnetic 
fields is designed for building of ringular co-axial trains but 
currently it is applied for testing of diametrically symmetric 
identical pairs of linear trains of various lengths. Two 
axis-symmetric sets of AMTs are secured on wooden disk 
secured on ball-bearings on hub which is affixed in the 
middle of ferromagnetic base which has axial-symmetric sets 
of AMTs affixed to perimeter of the base. Applying magnets 
have theirs magnetic poles affixed to Loop-and-Lattice sets 
where outer static AMTs have theirs Lattices facing inside 
toward axis and are made of copper and aluminium, and 
inner dynamic magnets have theirs Lattices facing outward 
from axis and are made as explained in preceding 
paragraph. Diametrically opposite pairs of trains generate 
torque causing displacement of trains along each others 
what causes motion of disk round hub.

Above is picture of axially-symmetric pairs of trains where 
two rotor-trains are made of three AMTs each, attracting by 
two stator-trains of four AMTs each. Clicking 
on image links 
to short video of testing of magnetomotive behaviors of 
prototype. AMTs of stator are bit shorter than AMTs of rotor 
and trains of rotor are approx 30 mm. longer than trains of 
Magnetomotive asymmetry manifesting self in two ways:
first - when the middles of trains are forced to coincide 
diametrically, then magnetomotive forces generate torque 
and 10 mm. displacement of rotor in desired clock-wise 
direction. When middles of trains of stator are forced 20 mm. 
back (count-clock-wise) then magnetomotive forces displacing 
train 20 mm. clock-wise, into previous position;
second - when succeeding ends of rotor-trains are forced into 
diametric coincidence with  leading edges of stator-trains - 
then torque is generated causing 30 mm. clock-wise 
displacement of rotor, and if tested inversely - when leading 
edges of rotor-trains coincide with succeeding ends of 
stator-trains - then rotor remain motionless.

These and similar testing allow obvious suggestion that 
current versions of AMTs can be applied for building of 
larger ringular co-axial trains where sector of repetition of 
magnetomotive potentials will be shorter than 10 mm. which 
is displacement generating when middles of trains are 
diametrically coinciding.

Additional testing reveals similar but also other behaviors of 
trains of presenting Asymmetric Magnetomotive Tuggers.

Above is picture of prototype of U3M composed of two trains 
where rotor made of 10 AMTs attracting and moving by 
stator made of 15 AMTs. Clicking 
on image links to 167 sec. 
video of successful testing where  magnetomotive train 
carries load weighting as one AMT-unit. Testing trains are 
integrating in spiral reluctant magnetic circuit as explained 
previously, and granite-stones are added for 
weight-balancing of rotor.

Motive train appears bit less agile but produces bit longer 
displacements. These bit longer displacement also were 
noticed by shorter trains without loads - what allows to 
suggest that each AMT has some excessive potential so that 
its forces can move weight of AMT itself plus little bit more.
Current testing has confirmed this suggestion because that 
each applied AMT due to carry 10 percent of the weight of 


Analyzing of all testing of various AMTs and various trains 
made of AMTs - the following decisions are made:

first - building of U3Ms of ringular trains of tens to hundred 
of currently developed versions of AMTs, where excessive 
potential will be sufficient for tens to hundreds watts of 
applied load (eg.: set of electroinducting coils secured 
along inner moving magnetic poles of magnets of rotor). 
Such larger utilities will also benefit from longer diameters of 
rotors where due to "rule of lever" - same magnetomotive 
forces will generate greater rotational momentum;
second - building of advanced variants of Asymmetric 
Magnetomotive Tuggers, having advanced structural designs 
and made of advanced (more efficient) materials - what shall 
allow building of smaller and/or less massive or more 
powerful utilities;
third - building of prototypes and analyzing of possibilities of 
building of sets of trains of AMTs set parallel with theirs 
lattices forming large uni-polar planes, where plains can be 
motive parts of transportation systems interacting with 
ambient magnetic field and causing propulsion of systems 
through interacting fields;
fourth - building of prototypes of multiple AMTs forming 
complex uni-polar or many-polar planes which magnetic 
fields will interact with enclosed mediums (such as plasma, 
projectiles, etc) causing acceleration of mediums in desired 

Even more methods of utilization of AMTs have been 
guessed and more might be un-guessed yet, - and all of 
them are planed to be published in following reports of 

All rights reserved.
22. 12. 2013.
Published by Taras Leskiv - author of this article and
the inventor of various Magnetorefractive Motive Systems,
and the inventor of various Asymmetric Magnetomotive 
Tuggers, and the inventor of numerous Universal Magneto 
Mechanical Motors.

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Note for manufacturers:
proposals of drafts of "Agreements of co-operation" 
are welcome, 
and are expected to be mailed as plain-text-documents.

Last update:  December of 2013.