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Wayfinding encompasses all of the ways in which people and animals orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place.


Wayfinding is often used to refer to traditional navigation methods used by indigenous peoples.[citation needed] In more modern times, wayfinding is used in the context of architecture to refer to the user experience of orientation and choosing a path within the built environment, and it also refers to the set of architectural and/or design elements that aid orientation.

Urban planner Kevin A. Lynch coined the term in his 1960 book Image of the City, where he defined wayfinding as “a consistent use and organization of definite sensory cues from the external environment”. In 1984 environmental psychologist Romedi Passini published the full-length "Wayfinding in Architecture" and expanded the concept to include signage and other graphic communication, clues inherent in the building's spatial grammar, logical space planning, audible communication, tactile elements, and provision for special-needs users.

Historically, wayfinding refers to the techniques used by travelers over land and sea to find relatively unmarked and often mislabeled routes. These include but are not limited to dead reckoning, map and compass, astronomical positioning and, more recently, global positioning.[citation needed]

This term is also used in reference to parking management strategies that help drivers find parking garages.

Types of Signs

Regulatory signs






Regulatory signs “give a direction that must be obeyed.” Often these signs show content or action that is either allowed or prohibited and these two modes are signified by colour (i.e. green and red), orientation (i.e. open circle and circle with diagonal line through the centre) and/or shape (i.e. square and triangle).

Warning signs

Warning signs give a warning of that there are dangerous or unusual conditions ahead. Often these signs have a greater more conspicuous presence than a regulatory sign. These signs often do not have much text on them, as they should be internationally understood due to the nature of the message that they are conveying.

Information/directional signs



Information signs give information about direction and distance, usually guiding drivers to destinations, facilities, services and attractions. Often these signs have names of locations with an arrow pointing towards the direction of the destination and a number giving the approximate distance.



Temporary Condition Signs

These non-permanent temporary signs are erected to warn drivers of unexpected conditions such as road work zones, diversions, detours, lane closures and traffic control. Often these signs are portable and can also be digital variable message signs.

Interaction design and traffic signs

When designing traffic signs it is recommended to follow the four basic steps of interaction design: Identifying needs and establishing user requirements, developing alternative designs, building interactive versions, evaluating the designs.

Identifying needs and establishing requirements

Drivers, cyclists, pedestrians and other types of pedestrians are the users that will be interacting with traffic signs. These users are using the roadways for transportation purposes and must receive information about the roadways and their destinations as they are traveling.

Developing alternative designs

This task is divided into two categories: conceptual design and physical design. Conceptual design will be the discussion of alternative traffic signs and ways of conveying information to the users. Physical design will be the discussion of what physical aspects (i.e. colour, shape, orientation) will be on the sign to convey the messages identified during the conceptual design.

Building interactive versions

This task is the actually building of traffic signs. These can be prototypes of a very low or very high fidelity.

Evaluating designs

This task is the testing of the prototypes and actual signs in order to determine if they convey the desired message in the desired time by the appropriate users. This will let the users know the usability of their signs.

Design Principles

Traffic sign comprehension and understandability are higher when the signs comply with ergonomic principles.  It is recommended to follow the below principles in order to increase driver comprehension and understandability.

Spatial Compatibility

The matching between the physical symbols on a sign with the literal directions/information the sign is trying to convey. “The physical arrangement in space, relative to the position of information and directions.”

        * Application: Having a regulatory sign that informs a driver they must turn right, have an image of an arrow that curves to the right.

Conceptual compatibility

The correct association between the physical symbols on a sign and the information the sign is trying to convey. Good conceptual compatibility means that a driver will know the meaning of a symbol without having to reflect and interpret its meaning.

        * Application: Having an information sign that represents an airport, have an image of an airplane.

Physical representation

The similarity between the information that is being represented and the actual content on a sign. Good physical representation means that a driver will experience what is shown on a sign.

        * Application: Having a warning sign that means to watch for pedestrians have an image a person.

Frequency

The frequency that which a sign appears will determine how familiar it is to drivers. Good frequency means that the sign is used often and that the meaning of its contents is well known.

        * Application: Having a regulatory sign that informs drivers of the current speed limit of the roadway be frequently placed along every road.

Standardization

The extent to which any sign can be grouped into a type of sign with similar or equal shape, colour and orientation. Good standardization means that all signs of the same type have the same template of shape, colour and orientation. Ideally standardization should be across cities, regions and countries.

        * Application: Having all warning signs have a diamond shaped with a black border and a yellow background.

[edit] Singular Functionality

The representation of only a single meaning for a single sign. Good singular functionality means that a sign that gives information should not also imply a regulatory meaning or another piece of related information. [13]

        * Application: Having an information sign that signifies the beginning of a school zone should not also be meant to imply that the speed limit in this area is reduced.

Visibility

The extent to which any sign can be seen. It should be visible by drivers of all age groups from an appropriate distance that will allow the driver to react to the signs contents. Visibility also means that the sign has enough contrast with the background to be conspicuous and that the contents on the sign have enough contrast with the background of the sign to be conspicuous. [14]

        * Application: Having a white regulatory sign have a black border with a black symbol and a red highlight. “Solar-powered smart street signs that light up for easy reading at night, can add to readability.” [15]

Conclusion

It has been shown that following these principles when designing traffic signs will make the signs more comprehensible. [16] Minimizing the time and effort it takes drivers to interpret traffic signs may help to reduce driver mental workload and frustration. It is also especially important to attempt to follow the standardization principle because, due to the increase in globalization, many drivers may be visiting internationally. It is also particularly important to follow the principle of visibility because of the increasing average age, and thus vision difficulties, of drivers.

“someone says:handle every stressfull situation like a dog!!! if you can't eat it or play with it piss on it and walk away!!! :)”


Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism, whether actual or imagined. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and accelerated heart rate.

The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism, and "stressor" to the perceived threat. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. Eustress, for example, can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals.

The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful.

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Are we walking in formation?

*The word heading has various meanings:

    * It is synonymous with the related word Headline.
    * A heading is used to provide hierarchical information about other information. Headings can emphasize or tell people what information is where, such as a title or subtitle or topic at the top or beginning of a paragraph or letter or chapter. Headings are used in wiki, HTML, and other markup languages.
    * In navigation, a heading is the direction a person or vehicle is facing or pointing.
    * In some mining jargon, a heading is a communication tunnel which is being extended in a given direction.It also The sender name and information.

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