Negerhollands

Negerhollands(Black Hollandic) is an extinct Dutch base creole, once the main language of the US Virgin Island (St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John). It was derived from Flemish and Zealandic version of Dutch. 

Negerholland was a language in its own right as early as 1765. The first book printed in Negerholland was in 1765, but the manuscript of the text seem to go back to 1736, written by the Moravian Brethren. The last text printed was in 1834, under Danish rule. The last printed text by the Moravian Brethren was in 1833. Negerholland fluorished between 1730-1830. English eventually became the main language of the islands by the nineteenth century, even under Danish rule.

Akan( Asante, Akwamu) and Ewe left the greatest impact on the language. Most slaves arriving in the Virgin Islands came from the Gold Coast. The Dutch and the Danes had slave ports in the region. Contributions came from other African languages: Yoruba, Fon, Tishiluba, and Igbo.

Two theories of origins exist on Negerhollands: 1. It was formed in St. Eustatius and brought to the Virgin Islands 2. It was birthed by native born slaves in the Virgin Island. The language developed when 20% of the slave population was born on St. Thomas.

In 1969, United States Virgin Islands had only 6 speakers of the creole. The last known Negerhollands speaker died in 1980. Robin Sabino, A Phd from the University of Pennsylvannia, made major contribution to the study of the language. She spent a significant amount of time with the last speaker and learned the language. She also translated the Anansi stories of J.P.B. de Josselin de Jong. The anansi stories in the US Virgin Islands were translated from Negerhollands and reflects the strong Akan and Ewe cultural prescence, on the islands. 

Dutch linguist/archaeologist/anthropologist, J.P.B. de Josselin de Jong was able to collect Anansi stories in Negerholland. It was published in 1926. The individual sources were born between 1841 and 1863.

Magens produced the first grammar on the creole. The following authors added to the understanding of Negerholland:
  1. Oldendorp added some information
  2. Hesseling(1905) wrote a historical monograph based on printed text.
  3. de Josselin de Jong(1924, 1926) publish works using later remnants of the language. 
  4. Pontoppidan(1881)
  5. Schuchardt(1914)



Works Cited

Webb, Eric Russel. A Survey of Voicing in Dutch Derivatives: Afrikaans and Negerhollands

1975. Negerhollands: Virgin Islands Creole Dutch. University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 58

http://odur.let.rug.nl/koster/DenBesten/Muysken.pdf

http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/20006617?uid=3739832&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21101485400491

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/ross026creo01_01/ross026creo01_01_0007.php

http://eres.lndproxy.org/edoc/FacPubs/cnd/DeKleineC/NegerhollandsCreoleDutch-07.pdf

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=4179964