Free Energy Diode Research

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Component dealers:

Arrow Electronics
Find IC
Source ESB
American Microsemiconductor
Future Component Superstore
Richardson Electronics Ltd.


SMS7630 - First choice. Zero bias diodes, about 40 cents per two diodes.
Virginia Diode Inc.
- THz GaAs diodes.
Phiar - MIM (Metal-Insulator-Metal) THz diodes

Diode arrays that produce usable amounts of energy

Note: Early 2008 I predicted that mixing correct materials and applying a DC voltage would form countless natural microscopic diodes, and that such diodes would rectify to some degree natural ambient thermal energy (NATE). The following two gentlemen have been successfully making such batteries.

Marcus Reid - The Reid battery that never runs out of power. Since 1999 the Reid batteries have been producing usable amounts of power. My detailed analysis on Reid's temperature measurements shows with decent probability his batteries cool when in use, which if true would show that the energy is coming from ambient thermal energy. Reid is trying to market his batteries in addition to further research to improve his batteries. It is possible that the Reid batteries are microscopic diodes that rectify natural ambient thermal energy

John Hutchison - Video at YouTube that shows John's batteries producing usable amounts of power. John claims his batteries do not run down and have been shorted for years. John's description of how he makes his batteries is identical to my description of how such a diode batter would be made. It is possible that Johns batteries are microscopic diodes that rectify natural ambient thermal energy. John is also trying to market his batteries and is unwilling to describe the exact chemicals.


Spice & Models

LTspice - One of the best Spice simulations, and it's free:
swcadiii.exe - direct LTspice download link.
LTspice - download page.
All LT - All Linear Technology sim programs.
- Diode spice models.

Other sims: - Simple java applet simulation.

Molecular/Atomic simulations

Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications
MD - Molecular Dynamics simulation
BD - Brownian Dynamics simulation
Dynamical Simulation Methodology
Radial Distribution Function
Lennard-Jones model

How to make diodes

Info & Links

Wafer (electronics)

Chip making process - Excellent. See all 22 pages, and the comments toward the bottom of the page.

Physical vapor deposition - PVD

Lots of good links

Materials and Processes for Silicon Technology



High performance diodes

Polysilicon from CVD or LPCVD - Simple method of producing a coating of wafer with Polycrystalline silicon. Also includes a simple way of adding dopants during coating process. The metal and ohmic contacts could be added by simple evaporator deposition. Polycrystalline silicon is used for most chips. Amorphous silicon offers low performance.

Low performance diodes

Wikipedia: Cat's whisker diode

Other NATED (Natural Ambient Thermal Energy Devices)

University of Toronto FIR solar cells

1355nm Photovoltaic cell - University of Toronto in Canada achieves 1355 nm photovoltaic cell.

IR solar cell record set

Thermoelectric - Cools or heats from electrical power source. Uses special diodes.

Harvesting the sun's energy with antennas - Collecting IR energy, and eventually blackbody radiation.

Diode science

Schottky Diode - Very technical.

Schottky barrier height - good equations. The other lectures are here.

PN Junctions

PN Junctions

Thermal voltage

Thermal energy

Diode modelling

Physical Properties of Materials for Engineers - Google book. Includes the Thomson Seebeck & Peltier effect.

Semiconductors - Good section on Thomson & Seebeck & Peltier effect.

Seebeck coefficients

Seebeck coefficients

Thermal Engineering - See seebeck coefficients.

Thermoelectric extreme details - Excellent!

Thermoelectric details 

Thermoelectric effects

Thermoelectric effects - Wikipedia.

Thermoelectric effects in metals

Thermoelectric effect - Nice clear diagrams and descriptions.

Thermoelectric effects - Interesting description of Peltier effect.

Diode modelling

Semiconductor thermodynamics

Principles of Semiconductor Devices - Very nice!
Ideal p-n diode current
p-n Junctions

Conduction band
Valence band
Electronic band structure

Carrier generation & recombination

Free electron model
Nearly-free electron model
Tight binding model


About Components:

Schottky diodes - Very nice
Schottky barrier
Schottky diode
- Wikipedia
- Some details descriptions of various resistors.


Theorems and energy related

Equipartition theorem

Specific heat capacity

Thermodynamic temperature


Degrees of freedom

Thermal wavelength

Planck's law of black body radiation

Fermi gas

Debye model

Dulong-Petit law

Johnson Noise

Yale University - Real measurements.
What is Johnson noise?

Johnson derive - pdf

Johnson noise -pdf

Johnson noise - pdf

Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 8.

Noise colors - Black noise, Brown noise, Gray noise, Green noise, Orange noise, Pink noise, Purple noise, Red noise, White noise.

Johnson noise - Includes gaussian distribution and histograms.

Gaussian distribution

Diode Johnson noise

Diode noise measurements - Performed by Virginia Diode Inc. Yes, even diodes generate Johnson noise, Vn=sqrt(4 k T BW)

KT/C Noise - aka Reset Noise

Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 10.

Thermal noise on capacitors

Rese Noise in multiplexed photodiode arrays - pdf

Reset noise reduction - pdf

Flicker Noise

Device noise models - Good simple flicker noise equation.
(Also backed up here.)

Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 3.

Flicker noise - "KF 2.4x10-25 flicker noise coefficient. Reasonable values are in the range 1x10-19 to 1x10-25 V2F"

Telekinesis at the quantum level

CCD Noise Sources and Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Shot Noise

ngspice shot noise - Shows how diode shot noise = thermal noise at zero bias.

A readers challenge - See the section titled, "A readers challenge."

Sub-Poissonian shot noise - Discusses shot noise differences between metals and semiconductors.

WikiPedia - Also see the Discussion area.

Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 8

Popcorn Noise

Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 9.

Generation/Recombination Noise

Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 9.

Blackbody radiation

Spectral Calc - online calculator.

Emission Calculator - online calculator.


Random Electrical Noise: A Literature Survey

Op Amp Input Offset Voltage

Square Law Diode Detectors

Square law detection -pdf

Zero Bias detector - pdf

Nanoscopic noise - new discovery

Fundamental flaw in transistor noise theory discovered




Misc. diodes


Web site:
Web page:
Web page:
Part #: LED50
Wavelength: 4750 nm - 5050 nm
Price: $175

Web site:
Web page:
Web page:
Part #: LED46 (package TO-18)
Wavelength: 4400 nm to 4600 nm
Price: $108

Web site:
Web page:
Type: InGaAsP LED
Part #: L1550-03
Wavelength: 1550nm
Price: $9.71

Photo diodes:

Web site:
Type: Photodiode
Part #: PD1900-35T00
Wavelength: 1900nm
Price: $16.71

Web site:
Type: Photodiode
Part #: PD1900-35T52
Wavelength: 1900nm
Price: $17.50

Instruments & Probes

DC Picovolt meter model P12 - measures down to 10pV DC. The input bias current and offset voltage are unknown, which are vitally important in terms of measuring diode arrays.

Probe tutorial


Op-amp Voltage Offset - Vos. The voltage that must be applied to the input so as to drive the output to zero.

Op-amp Bias Current - Ib. The current that flows into the inputs, averaged.

Input Offset Current - Ios. The difference between the currents flowing into the two inputs.

Various definitions

Misc. Companies

MC master - Just about everything, except diodes.

M & K Metal - Gardena, CA. USA


PCB trace impedance calculator

Thermal noise calculator 1
Thermal noise calculator 2

Capacitor Calculator. Calculates capacitance from two parallel plates given any dielectric constant.

RC Time Constant Calculator - My favorite.
RC Time Constant Calculator 2
RL Time Constant Calculator 3

Online multilayer air core inductor calculator

Single turn loop inductance calculator

Skin effect calculator #1 - excellent, more detailed.
Skin effect calculator #2 - scroll down. Very nice. Lots of details.
Skin effect calculator #3

Capacitor calculator - various types-- plate, rolled, jar, sphere, toroid.

Voltage - Impedance - dBm Power Calculator

AM Loop Antenna Calculator

2nd Law of Thermodynamics & related

2LoT - Second Law of Thermodynamics

Fluctuation Theorem

Jarzynski equality

The Electrical Engineering Handbook

Does Nature Break the Second Law of Thermodynamics? - see all 5 pages.

Maxwell's demon

Entropy - Smoluchowski’s Trapdoor - pdf, Entropy - Smoluchowski’s Trapdoor. by Lyndsay G M Gordon.
[The original: Entropy - Smoluchowski’s Trapdoor]

Pro's for NATED (Natural Ambient Thermal Energy Devices)

Modified Feynman ratchet w/ velocity-dependent fluctuations - Makes reference to: "Spontaneous rectification of thermal voltage fluctuations in diodes with very small capacitance at. very low temperatures is studied in, e.g.: McFee, R. Self-Rectification in Diodes and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Am. J. Phys. 1971, 39, 814–820"

Con's for NATED (Natural Ambient Thermal Energy Devices)

Regular and Chaotic Oscillations - Briefly mentions Brillouin's work on diodes rectifying thermal energy and the voltage-current shift due to fluctuations.

Thermodynamically valid noise models for nonlinear devices - Includes Brillouin's work.

Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, Classical and Quantum Information, Computing

Fluctuations in Physical Systems



Coulomb blockade

Quantum tunneling (Electron tunneling)

Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices - Google books.

Field emission - aka Fowler-Norheim tunneling or cold emission.

Thermionic emission



Davisson–Germer experiment - wave nature of electrons.

Quantum point contact

Fermi point

Quantum wire

Introduction: Early Quantum Mechanics

Misc. Op-amp circuits

Current to Voltage

Current to Voltage op-amp circuit
Current to Voltage op-amp circuit

Voltage to Current

The following could be used as a current source.

Voltage-to-Current Amp - Current going through R1. R1 could be an LED. At

Voltage to Current op-amp circuit


Combination Notch & Bandpass Filter

High Q Bandpass Filters

Op Amp Filter Circuits


How to measure Vos

Miscellaneous unit converter

Low voltage Peak detector, pdf. See page 12.

Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS)

Amplifying DC Diode Detector Output

Operational Amplifiers--DC

Transconductance op-amp - Wikipedia
Transconductance op-amp

Norton op-amp

CMV  - Common Mode Voltage.

How to cancel input voltage offset

Op Amp Input Offset Voltage

Contact electrification

Contact electrification - Wikipedia

Triboelectric effect

Misc. Science


Atomic diffusion 

Molecular diffusion 

Kirkendall effect 

Electronic band structure 

Anderson's rule 

Phonons - Wikipedia.

Thermoelectric effect - Wikipedia.

Thermoelectric cooling - Wikipedia.

Thermoelectric Cooling - pdf, Peltier effect. [A copy]

Seebeck coefficient - Wikipedia, Thermopower.

Peltier effect - Various links.

Seebeck coefficients 1
Seebeck coefficients 2
Seebeck coefficients 3 - See pg 622 or search for Seebeck coefficients.

Electron mobility - Wikipedia. Average charge drift velocity in a material from an electric field.

Molecular Dynamics simulations - java applet. Nice.
Lennard-Jones java applets
Full configuration interaction
Intermolecular Interactions - Van der Waals Radii
Lennard-Jones model
Lennard-Jones potential

Electron wave-packet interference 


1/8 watt Metal Film performance
Such resistors have ~ 3pF of parasitic parallel capacitance. A 1000 ohm 1/8 metal film resistor is good up to about 20 MHz where the resistance begins to significantly drop. Higher performance 402 and 201 SM Metal film and Thin film resistors are typically good up to at least 10 GHz to several hundred GHz. sells some inexpensive high frequency Thin film resistors that should be good for ~ 10 GHz, RR0306P-471-D

HgCdTe - Material used in Night Vision goggles. Varying the amount of Cd changes the forward voltage of a diode. This allows a manufacture to make diodes with any Vf . See HgCdTe at Wikipedia.

Gunn diodes

Tunnel diodes

Application notes on reducing stray noise on a voltage meter circuit.

Dr. Xinyong Fu Thermal Electrons violating 2LoT:
Realization of Maxwell's Hypothesis
Another Way to Realize Maxwell's Demon

Converting Heat into Electric Energy

Voltage reference chip: Part #: REF3240AMDBVREP - Tolerance = ±0.01%, Temp coeff = 7 ppm/°C

Amplifying DC Diode Detector Output
Energy related science & tech links

Photodiode Characteristics, with circuits
High Impedance Sensors

Varactor patent

Wikipedia: Diode

The Unusual Diode FAQ

The Light Emitting Vegetable Diode

Negative Resistance Oscillator with Homemade Tunnel Diode

Forum thread - Homemade Transistor

Wikipedia: Diode p-n junction


LEDs and band gap science

Wikipedia: Table of resistivities
Resistivity of various materials
Resistivity table
Resistivity of a few elements
Range of resistivities for rocks & sediments
Rsistivity range of earth materials

Wikipedia: Band gap table

Common Ions

Wikipedia: P-type semiconductor
Wikipedia: N-type semiconductor
Wikipedia: I-type semiconductor

About the skin effect

Near-Field and Far-Field


Rectification analysis

Links & Components

Diode Battery

How To

Barrier height

Contact me

View my page on PickensPlan