Free Energy Diode Research
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Note: Early 2008 I predicted that mixing correct
materials and applying a DC voltage would form countless natural
microscopic diodes, and that such diodes would rectify to some degree natural ambient thermal energy (NATE). The following two gentlemen have been successfully making such batteries.
Marcus Reid - The Reid battery that never runs out of power. Since 1999 the Reid batteries have been producing usable amounts of power. My detailed analysis on Reid's temperature measurements shows with decent probability his batteries cool when in use, which if true would show that the energy is coming from ambient thermal energy. Reid is trying to market his batteries in addition to further research to improve his batteries. It is possible that the Reid batteries are microscopic diodes that rectify natural ambient thermal energy
John Hutchison - Video at YouTube that shows John's batteries producing usable amounts of power. John claims his batteries do not run down and have been shorted for years. John's description of how he makes his batteries is identical to my description of how such a diode batter would be made. It is
possible that Johns batteries are microscopic diodes that rectify
natural ambient thermal energy. John is also trying to market his batteries and is unwilling to describe the exact chemicals.
LTspice - One of the best Spice simulations, and it's free:
falstad.com - Simple java applet simulation.
Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications
Chip making process - Excellent. See all 22 pages, and the comments toward the bottom of the page.
Polysilicon from CVD or LPCVD - Simple method of producing a coating of wafer with Polycrystalline silicon. Also includes a simple way of adding dopants during coating process. The metal and ohmic contacts could be added by simple evaporator deposition. Polycrystalline silicon is used for most chips. Amorphous silicon offers low performance.
Thermoelectric - Cools or heats from electrical power source. Uses special diodes.
Harvesting the sun's energy with antennas - Collecting IR energy, and eventually blackbody radiation.
Schottky Diode - Very technical.
Physical Properties of Materials for Engineers - Google book. Includes the Thomson Seebeck & Peltier effect.
Semiconductors - Good section on Thomson & Seebeck & Peltier effect.
Thermal Engineering - See seebeck coefficients.
Thermoelectric extreme details - Excellent!
Thermoelectric effects - Wikipedia.
Thermoelectric effect - Nice clear diagrams and descriptions.
Thermoelectric effects - Interesting description of Peltier effect.
Johnson derive - pdf
Johnson noise -pdf
Johnson noise - pdf
Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 8.
Noise colors - Black noise, Brown noise, Gray noise, Green noise, Orange noise, Pink noise, Purple noise, Red noise, White noise.
Johnson noise - Includes gaussian distribution and histograms.
Diode noise measurements - Performed by Virginia Diode Inc. Yes, even diodes generate Johnson noise, Vn=sqrt(4 k T BW)
Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 10.
Reset noise reduction - pdf
Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 3.
Flicker noise - "KF 2.4x10-25 flicker noise coefficient. Reasonable values are in the range 1x10-19 to 1x10-25 V2F"
ngspice shot noise - Shows how diode shot noise = thermal noise at zero bias.
A readers challenge - See the section titled, "A readers challenge."
Sub-Poissonian shot noise - Discusses shot noise differences between metals and semiconductors.
WikiPedia - Also see the Discussion area.
Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 8
Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 9.
Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS - pdf. See page 9.
Spectral Calc - online calculator.
Emission Calculator - online calculator.
Square law detection -pdf
Zero Bias detector - pdf
DC Picovolt meter model P12 - measures down to 10pV DC. The input bias current and offset voltage are unknown, which are vitally important in terms of measuring diode arrays.
Op-amp Voltage Offset - Vos. The voltage that must be applied to the input so as to drive the output to zero.
Op-amp Bias Current - Ib. The current that flows into the inputs, averaged.
Input Offset Current - Ios. The difference between the currents flowing into the two inputs.
MC master - Just about everything, except diodes.
M & K Metal - Gardena, CA. USA
Capacitor Calculator. Calculates capacitance from two parallel plates given any dielectric constant.
Capacitor calculator - various types-- plate, rolled, jar, sphere, toroid.
2LoT - Second Law of Thermodynamics
Does Nature Break the Second Law of Thermodynamics? - see all 5 pages.
Modified Feynman ratchet w/ velocity-dependent fluctuations - Makes reference to: "Spontaneous rectification of thermal voltage fluctuations in diodes with very small capacitance at. very low temperatures is studied in, e.g.: McFee, R. Self-Rectification in Diodes and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Am. J. Phys. 1971, 39, 814–820"
Regular and Chaotic Oscillations - Briefly mentions Brillouin's work on diodes rectifying thermal energy and the voltage-current shift due to fluctuations.
Thermodynamically valid noise models for nonlinear devices - Includes Brillouin's work.
Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices - Google books.
Field emission - aka Fowler-Norheim tunneling or cold emission.
Davisson–Germer experiment - wave nature of electrons.
The following could be used as a current source.
Voltage-to-Current Amp - Current going through R1. R1 could be an LED. At hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu
Low voltage Peak detector, pdf. See page 12.
CMV - Common Mode Voltage.
Contact electrification - Wikipedia
Phonons - Wikipedia.
Thermoelectric effect - Wikipedia.
Thermoelectric cooling - Wikipedia.
Seebeck coefficient - Wikipedia, Thermopower.
Peltier effect - Various links.
Electron mobility - Wikipedia. Average charge drift velocity in a material from an electric field.
1/8 watt Metal Film performance
Application notes on reducing stray noise on a voltage meter circuit.
Voltage reference chip: Part #: REF3240AMDBVREP - Tolerance = ±0.01%, Temp coeff = 7 ppm/°C
About the skin effect
View my page on PickensPlan