Barrier height
Free Energy Diode Research

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It is well known by conventional semiconductor physics that the barrier height always exists in a diode, even at zero bias. The following diagram taken from the book "Solid state devices and circuits" shows various barrier heights for a GaAs Schottky diode at (a) Zero bias, (b) 0.2V forward bias, (c) 5V reverse bias.

Ec = Conduction band energy, in eV
Ev = Valence band energy, in eV

The electronvolt (symbol eV) is often misunderstood as voltage, but eV is a unit of energy, 1 eV = 1.60217653e−19 J.

The vertical axis is the barrier height in eV. The horizontal axis is distance from the diodes junction. The barrier height is higher near the junction.


The Schottky-Mott theory is expressed as follows:
fbo = fm - cs

where,
fbo = barrier height at zero bias
fm = work function of the metal
cs = electron affinity of the semiconductor.

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