Free Energy Diode Research
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The following outlines the physics, mathematics, and recent experiments taking place regarding diodes producing power from Thermal noise that exists in all matter. In terms of the mathematics, diodes must rectify Thermal noise according to conventional diode modeling physics. Thermal noise is a natural ambient thermal energy that exists in all matter, which is sustained by Solar energy. Theoretically, each diode could produce over 20nW of continues power. Creating a diode array chip consisting of hundreds of billions of microscopic diodes would be inexpensive if mass produced. Extensive recent measurements conducted in rural desert areas have shown that the SMS7630, a Zero Bias Diode, contained within sufficient shielding are producing a DC voltage ranging from nano volts to over one micro volt per diode. The DC voltage instability is still being investigated, but in every case to date the instability was caused by a change to the diode array in either temperature or load. So far the diode array has been stable when left undisturbed; i.e., by not changing the load on the diode array, or rapidly changing the temperature. If present research is correct, then diodes produce "Free-Energy." According to preliminary predictions, a microscopic heavy doped Schottky diode with a plate area of 100nm x 100nm could produce 1.4mV DC per diode-- details outlined below. At 150Kohms per diode, the power produced per diode is 1.4mV^2 / 150Kohms = 13pW per diode, which requires 77 billions diodes to produce one watt. Such a diode chip would be ~ 2" x 2", which comes to 36 watts per square-foot. Given mass production, such chips could be inexpensive.

All matter has Thermal Energy. ## Still Unknown by Conventional Science

Often someone will ask, if diodes produce a DC voltage then why hasn't it been detected by now. The three main reasons are,

1. According to the mathematics, the DC voltage produced by nearly all diodes is in the pico to nano volt region-- far too difficult to detect over noise.

2. A simple diode, say a 1N914A, connected to a voltage meter produces a measurable DC voltage, sometimes in the millivolts, due to the rectification of RF noise such as radio stations and WiFi routers. For this reason, an Electrical Engineer detecting a DC voltage from a diode would immediately dismiss it as such.

3. Producing measurable DC voltages requires a diode array consisting of dozens of ultra high frequency diodes connected in-series-- over 100 diodes in series is recommended. Such a diode array consisting of common diodes would have incredibly high impedance at so-called thermal equilibrium, thus would be extremely difficult to detect the DC voltage. A typical diode may be 30 Mohms per diode at thermal equilibrium. At 156 diodes in-series, the resistance would be 30.0Mohms * 156 = 4.68Gohms. To bring the impedance down to 50Mohms would require 156 in-series and 94 in-parallel, for a total of nearly 15 thousand diodes-- an expensive project. According to present mathematics, diode arrays should be made of a certain type of diode commonly referred to as a Zero Bias Diode (ZBD). A ZBD has low resistance at thermal equilibrium, typically 1Kohm to 10Kohms per diode; e.g., the SMS7630.

## Replication

The following outlines how to replicate this research, a diode array that produces a continuous DC voltage and the electrometer to detect such DC voltage. There is a type of diode that the semiconductor industry refers to as a Zero Bias Diode (ZBD). A ZBD is a heavy doped diode, typically a Schottky diode such as the SMS7630 made by Skyworks Inc. According to the datasheet, the total capacitance for each SMS7630 diode is 0.3pF. According to Diode NATE, version 0.3, if each SMS7630 diode has 0.3pF, the diode would produce 0.5uV DC. Note, Diode NATE v0.3 has not been thoroughly tested for bugs. Furthermore, future versions of Diode NATE will take advantage of further details, thus improving the accuracy.

The researcher should place each diode in-series, not in parallel. Diode physics is very clear that the kTC noise across the junction is nearly cut in half for every four diodes in parallel. Each SMS7630 diode is soldered on top of each other to minimize the size of the entire diode array. Minimizing the diode array size reduces the amount of external RF noise/signals the diode array will pick up. My diode array wall consisting of 156 SMS7630 diodes in-series is less than 1" x 1". Such a diode array is so small that very little shielding is required, even within a large industrial city such as Los Angeles, CA. Due to the compact size of such diode arrays, it is now possible to conduct the research is rural areas.

The diode array should be placed inside a shield, Aluminum, such as made by Hammond-- the larger the better. Furthermore, it is recommended the Aluminum shield be inside a larger shield made of magnetic material such as iron or steel. A large microwave oven rotated such that the opening faces up will suffice.

A capacitor should be placed across the entire diode array, in parallel. The capacitor will help stabilize the diodes performance since it appears diodes at thermal equilibrium are highly sensitive to changes in DC current. Also, the capacitor will help short-out external RF noise across the diode array. A 4.7uF Mylar capacitor works fine.

To measure the DC voltage output from a diode array one should use an electrometer. Presently I using the INA116P electrometer op-amp. The INA116P is recommended over the INA116PA. Recently I purchased a few LMP7721MA electrometer op-amps, which are better than the INA116P, at least on paper-- less noise, less temperature drift, less Ib(max) bias current, operates on less DC voltage. Such electrometer op-amps produce insignificant bias current, typically 3fA (0.003pA or 3e-15 amps). To achieve minimum bias current the electrometer op-amp should be held up in the air by the wires. The wires that are solder to the electrometer op-amp hold the electrometer op-amp in the air. This is a common method to maintain minimum bias current.

The electrometer op-amp output goes to a voltage-to-current converter op-amp circuit to drive an LED. The LED shines through a small hole in shield. On the other side of the hole is a fiber optic cable, which connects to another chassis (chassis #2) through a small hole. On the other side of chassis #2 is a photodiode that picks up the light from the optic cable. The photodiode is connected to an appropriate op-amp circuit.

The electrometer circuit should be inside the chassis with the diode array and the diode arrays capacitor. I use a small mechanical DPST switch placed between the diode array output and the electrometer input. The switch, when toggled, will reverse the diode array relative to the electrometer input. This method allows the electrometer to detect the diode array DC voltage regardless of the op-amp temperature drift output. Another option, perhaps better, is to replace the small mechanical DPST switch with a small latching relay switch. A few recommendations are ASX21003, TXS2-L-3V, D3043. The first two latching relays require just 35mW to toggle. The toggle time is typically 3 ms. The latching relay requires no power after being toggled.

Important: Once the diode array (at least 100 diodes in-series) is soldered, and the 4.7uF Mylar capacitor has been soldered across the entire diode array, it is highly recommended that the diode array is placed inside a shield (both electrical and thermal) undisturbed for at least two to three weeks. The exact procedure is still unknown, and under investigation as to what exactly causes the diode array to suddenly drop in DC voltage. I've seen my 156 in-series SMS7630 diode array producing a relatively high DC voltage for several weeks non-stop, and within a half hour the DC voltage dropped by 1/5th when the outer second layer shield was placed in direct Sunlight to heat up the diode array. Obviously such temperature gradients will cause a DC voltage, but the diode array DC voltage kept dropping by a small amount each day. After the third day, the DC voltage began to reach it's bottom, which was ~ 10.5uV. From there, the DC voltage began to slowly increase. As far as I'm aware, such thermal equilibrium diode effects are the opposite of all known electrochemical effects, which rise in DC voltage with an increase in temperature. I've conducted various electrochemical effect experiments ranging from strong to weak batteries. Such diode array effects have not been observed in the electrochemical tests. One possibility that could explain the thermal equilibrium diode effect, TEDE, is by means of flicker noise
. The main cause of flicker noise in semiconductors is the trapping and de-trapping of the carriers. A rapid change in temperature could release such trapped carriers. The measured flicker noise increases with increased sampling time, hence the 1/f spectrum. Such an effect is observed in the diode array, where the DC voltage appears to have a minumum level, which is explained by Johnson noise, but the DC voltage slowly increases each day.

## Mathematics of Modeling Diodes

Semiconductor physics is well established and is used to model real diodes, not just ideal diodes. Low signal diode modeling equations are used for signals far below the thermal voltage, which is 25mV at 295K (22C, 71F). Such low signal diode equations have been used for micro and nano volt signals. The thermal voltage equation is

Vt = kb * T / q

where kb is the Boltzmann constant (1.3806503E-23 J/K), T is temperature in Kelvin, and q is the elementary charge (1.602176487E−19 C).

According to low signal diode modeling, the DC voltage produce by a diode ,due to the rectification of AC signals, is relative to the square of the AC voltage. This is known as the Diode Square Law, which is used for Diode Square Law detectors. It is know in conventional physics that if the weak AC signal placed on a diode is decreased by half of the AC voltage ,then the DC voltage produced by the diode due to rectification will decrease by roughly one fourth. The Diode Square Law is appreciably linear for signals below the thermal voltage (~ 25mV at room temperature), and becomes increasingly linear at weaker signals. For example, if the AC signal is 1mV rms, and the produced DC voltage is 10uV DC (due to rectification), and lets say the AC signal suddenly drops to 1uV rms, then the DC voltage will drop to roughly [ 10uV DC * (1uV rms / 1mV rms)^2 ] = 10pV DC.

An outline of diode modeling mathematics is found at Diode modelling

## Mathematics of Modeling Thermal Noise

The noise voltage produced by electrical resistance is

Vn = Sqrt(kb * T * R * B)

where kb is the Boltzmann constant (1.3806503E-23 J/K), T is temperature in Kelvin, R is resistance in ohms, and B is bandwidth in Hz. All electrical resistance has parallel capacitance, and therefore in order to correctly model Thermal noise one must consider the parallel capacitance, which is known as kTC noise. The kTC noise voltage equation is

Vn = Sqrt(kb * T / C)

where C is the parallel capacitance across the electrical resistance in farads. The kTC equation provides the noise voltage across the diodes junction. Knowing the kTC noise is insufficient to know the DC voltage produced by the diode. Due to the Diode Square Law, we must know the noise distribution. As far as I am aware the noise distribution for kTC noise is Gaussian. Gaussian distribution mathematics is found at Gaussian distribution

## Physics of Semiconductors

When metal comes in contact with a semiconductor, a Schottky barriers is created. This forms a depletion region. Nearly 100% of the diodes resistance is caused by the depletion region. The effective depletion depth for a Schottky barrier is

W = sqrt(Vbi * 2 * eS / (q * N))

where Vbi is the built-in voltage in the Schottky contact, eS is the permittivity of the semiconductor (1.05e-10 F/m for Silicon) in F/m, q is elementary charge (1.602176462E-19 C) in Coulombs, N is the semiconductor dopant density in dopant atoms per m^3.

The diodes effective depletion plate capacitance is

Cjo = eS * A / W

where A is the plate area.

Lets find the capacitance of a heavy doped Schottky diode where Vbi = 0.34 volts, N = 5e+24 dopant atoms per m^3, and a plate area is 100nm x 100nm. First we need to find the depletion width,

W = sqrt(0.34 * 2 * 1e-10 / (q * 5e+24)) = 9.2nm

The junction capacitance is,

Cjo = 1e-10 * 100nm * 100nm / 9.2nm = 0.1fF.

The diode has 0.1fF capacitance, with a depletion width of 9.2nm. Solving the DC voltage produced by the above diode is solvable
only by means of numerical analysis. By using the kTC noise equation, along with Gaussian distribution equations (see "Mathematics of Modeling Thermal Noise" above), diode modeling equations (see "Mathematics of Modeling Diodes" above), and the above diode parameters, we can predict the DC voltage. A computer program I wrote, Diode NATE, uses all of such mathematics in a numerical analysis to predict the DC voltage a diode will produce. Using a common emission coefficient of 1.05, according to Diode NATE, the aforementioned diode would produce 1.4mV DC per diode.

## The Smoking Gun

Present research indicates that diodes are a "free energy" device. Albeit, most diodes are useless in terms of producing usable power. Producing usable amounts of power would require billions of microscopic heavy doped Schottky diodes. Such a diode array chip, when mass produced, would be affordable. Manufacturing semiconductor chips is similar in nature to developing a photograph. Each layer of the chip is produce simultaneously by deposition. So there's no microscopic machine that creates each diode at a time. In the case of diode arrays, the design is minimized since there are a few layers-- just one type of component, a diode. This process is outlined at

Photolithography - Wikipedia

The entire process of fabricating semiconductor chips is outlined at

Semiconductor fabrication - Wikipedia

Creating a diode array chip consisting of a trillion microscopic diodes could be affordable, given mass production. One example mentioned in this page details a diode array that could produce 36 watts per square foot. Such a diode device would direct the flow of ambient thermal energy to the appliance. The appliance would eventually convert most of such energy to heat, thereby heating the surrounding air. The heated air would flow to the cold device, thus forming a relatively closed loop. Eventually such a device would reach thermal equilibrium, in which case the temperature of the device would remain relatively constant. Energy would flow in a circular loop from the device, to the appliance, to the air, and back to the device.

## NATE (Natural Ambient Thermal Energy)

I refer to NATE (Natural Ambient Thermal Energy) as the total internal energy contained in matter at room temperature-- Reference: Internal energy. All matter contains vast amounts thermal energy. Such thermal energy is sustained by our Sun.

## 2LoT (2nd Law of Thermodynamics)

2LoT (2nd Law of Thermodynamics) is interpreted as meaning there is no usable energy in a closed system in equilibrium. Fortunately for humanity it is impossible for any system to be in perfect equilibrium, as such a system would require infinite insulation in a real world. At room temperatures atoms and subatomic particles are always in random motion, as one atom may be at standstill while its neighbor may be traveling at 5000 m/s. In the year 2006 I spent considerable time analyzing natural ambient temperature fluctuations on a macro scale by means of two thermistors and an appropriate amplifier. Each thermistors was ~ 1mm in length. Regardless of how well the system was insulated there were always thermal fluctuations. A simpler method of analyzing macro scale thermal energy is by means of a magnifying glass with at least 10X power. By sprinkling a light fine powder such as fine powdered cumin (a common herb used for cooking) on the surface of water one can see Brownian motion. You will need some patience using a 10X hand held magnifying glass since the degree of motion is a Gaussian distribution. With an inexpensive \$40 child's microscope you will instantly see Brownian motion. Such motion is governed by macro scale mechanics. On a nanoscopic scale NATE is a violent world where particles are in rapid random motion. Regardless of sample duration, temperature in any closed system will vary over time. One interesting universal effect is 1/f noise (also referred to as flicker noise or Pink noise, see Occurrences) where the 1/f noise (in this case temperature fluctuations) is relative to the reciprocal of frequency. It appears the Universe will not allow anything to be 100% consistent, as 1/f noise alone prevents consistent measurements regardless of sample duration. The Universe has not reached equilibrium, but then such a question becomes meaningless when asked at what point in time would the Universe be at 100.0...0% perfect equilibrium. Beyond the fact that there is no such thing as equilibrium in the real world, the laws of thermodynamics is an imperfect theory at the microscopic scale. Quote from the conventional science community at WikiPedia, "Thermodynamics is a theory of macroscopic systems at equilibrium and therefore the second law applies only to macroscopic systems with well-defined temperatures. On scales of a few atoms, the second law does not apply; for example, in a system of two molecules, it is possible for the slower-moving ("cold") molecule to transfer energy to the faster-moving ("hot") molecule. Such tiny systems are outside the domain of classical thermodynamics, but they can be investigated in quantum thermodynamics by using statistical mechanics. For any isolated system with a mass of more than a few picograms, the second law is true to within a few parts in a million-- Reference: Landau, L.D.; Lifshitz, E.M. (1996). Statistical Physics Part 1. Butterworth Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3372-7."

## Spice Simulations

Spice simulations predict that diodes should rectify thermal energy. Spice was first created by the University of California-Berkeley in the early 1980s. Over the decades physicists and engineers around the world have improved Spice. Modern Spice mathematical equations are a reflection of modern quantum physics. The creator of LTspice, Mike Engelhardt, acknowledges that Spice predicts diodes will rectify Thermal noise.

## Standard Gaussian Thermal Noise Equation

Standard Gaussian thermal noise equation used in modern nonlinear physics violates the laws of thermodynamics. Reference: (large pdf file: 9MB) Thermodynamically valid noise models for nonlinear devices. Mathematics offers no interpretation, but is merely a tool. People interpret mathematics, and therein often lies the problem.

## Mathematical Approximations

Mathematical approximations governs physics. Every equation, from depletion width to flicker noise to 2LoT is an approximation. Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS by Kent H. Lundberg, 2002, wrote "No entirely satisfactory physical explanation has been developed, and in fact, available evidence seems to suggest that the origins of flicker noise in different devices may be quite different.  Kent H. Lundberg, "Two competing models have appeared in the literature to explain flicker noise: the McWhorter number fluctuation theory and the Hooge mobility fluctuation theory."

## Software News

Recently I wrote a Microsoft Windows application that simulates a trapdoor between two chambers, both containing gaseous atoms. The simulation shows more atoms migrating to the left chamber. There are two chambers, left and right, both are separated with a dividing wall. In the middle of the dividing wall is a trapdoor  to allow atoms from the right chamber enter the left chamber while preventing the opposite. The trapdoor is also made of atoms and can flex, but such atoms are bonded. During the simulation, every so often an energetic atom in the left chamber will cause the trapdoor to flip to the other side such that the trapdoor will begin rectifying in the opposite direction. The natural thermal energy from the atoms in the right side chamber, and blackbody radiation photons eventually flips the trapdoor back to its original position. Regardless, over time more atoms end up in the left chamber on average. On average there's more pressure in the left chamber.

## Diode Battery

In 2007 I predicted the possibility of mixing the proper chemicals (e.g., semiconductors, conductors, insulators) followed by a heating process while contained within an electric field (thousands of volts) could form natural microscopic and nanoscopic diodes with a net junction orientation aligned in one direction. The heated material within the electric field would cause a percentage of such natural diode junctions to form in one orientation. This would form what I call a Diode Battery. Countless microscopic diodes would rectify NATE (natural ambient thermal energy).

## Photos

### Early to Mid 2007

Most of the research was spent on diode Spice simulations. Using the best modern conventional semiconductor physics to model low signal diodes the conclusion was that diodes rectify Thermal noise. Various methods of easily and inexpensively producing massive amounts of microscopic diodes in alignment to produce usable amounts of power were thought out such as mixing various elements/chemicals (semiconductors, etc.) together with sufficient heat within an intense electrical field. The electric field would influence a percentage of the elements to form microscopic diodes in the correct alignment.

### Late 2007

Early ZBM (Zero Bias Meter) designs were built to measure the DC voltage produced by passive diodes. These early ZBM's, which had low input resistance, used a small passive mechanical switch to allow the diode array to charge passive Mylar capacitors. Initially 10 (in parallel) * 4.7uF (total of 47uF) Mylar capacitors were used. When the diode array charged the Mylar capacitor the mechanical switch was turned on, which caused a current pulse across the ZBM input. Extreme care was taken in turning on the small mechanical switch. A thin non-conductive string was connected to switch was used. The string went through a thin hole in all of the shields. All components from the diode array to the ZBM were contained inside an electrical shield. Measurements were conducted at various locations from urban and rural. These early measurements, consisting of a rigid consistent routine, showed a consistent DC voltage from the diode array. Back then I noticed how the DC voltage would start out high, around 15 to 20uV DC, and with each successive measurement the DC voltage would decrease, by a decreasing amount each time. Eventually, the DC voltage remained near a consistent ~ 1.5uV DC. I thought it was merely the ZBM warming up, but looking back now at such early measurements it makes sense. It appears diodes at thermal equilibrium are sensitive to change.

### Early 2008

Various other ZBM's designs were built. Measurements were conducted at various rural desert areas throughout southern California, USA. Also a Microsoft Windows trapdoor simulation application was written to verify that NATE (Natural Ambient Thermal Energy) could be rectified. The simulation consisted of two chambers, each filled with gas particles, separated by a trapdoor. The trapdoor was also made of particles, bonded particles. The trapdoor could bend. The simulation included blackbody radiation. Regardless of how long the simulation was allowed to run, the results showed that a trapdoor rectified NATE (natural ambient thermal energy). On average the left chamber contained more pressure than the right chamber.

### Mid 2008

A new type of ZBM was built using an electrometer op-amp that has femto bias current. One femto is 1E-15. The on/off input mechanical switch was replaced with a switch that reverses the diode array across the electrometer input. A major breakthrough occurred with a new type of diode array referred to as a "Diode Cube" or "Diode Wall." The first Diode Wall consisting of 156 in-series SMS7630 diodes, which are considered zero bias diodes. What was unique about the Diode Wall was the number of diodes per unit area. So far I have built four diode arrays, where the last two were Diode Walls. My first two diodes arrays were built on PCB's and were relatively large compared to the Diode Walls. Each diode in the Diode Wall was soldered directly on top of the next diode. No PCB's were used, so the Diode Wall is nothing but a solid wall of diodes. The small Diode Wall picks up considerably less exterior RF signals such as from radio stations due to it's small size. In fact the 156 in-series Diode Wall is so compact that it is now possible to conduct the research within the city of Los Angles, CA, USA rather than rural areas. The Diode Walls are so compact that there is no difference in DC voltage output even with the complete removal of both shield lids while in the city of Los Angeles. This was a major breakthrough in that it not only allowed the reseaerch to be conducted in the lab without having to travel far out to the rural desert areas, but it is required in order to demonstrate the diode array when such a day arrives; i.e., I'm unaware of any reputible scientist that would spend weeks in the Califronia desert to analyze a contraversial device. The new Diode Walls and soon to come Diode Cubes will allow me to plop the entire setup on the scientists desk for verification and analysis.  Another helpful addition was to place the diode array inside a mineral oil bath during measurements. A mineral oil bath is a common practice by Electrical Engineers to help eliminate thermoelectric effects.

### October to November 2008

Sometime in October, possibly September, I built a fourth diode array consisting of 52 SMS7630 diodes in-series. So far it is producing ~ 1/3 the DC voltage as the 156 SMS7630 diodes in-series. So far all of my diode arrays have produced a DC voltage.

## Releasing All Data

Such proper research should consist of data collection by means of data loggers. Such documentation should be thorough, covering every relevant area. When certain effects regarding the diode arrays are fully understood, then I will begin the phase of data logging, followed by a scientific paper. Presently there are some unanswered questions such as why the diode arrays DC voltage is appreciably sensitive to changes. Other areas of research include testing for electrochemical reactions. So far it appears the DC voltage is not due to electrochemical reactions.

Every detail regarding this research will be released when such unanswered questions are answered, after the data logging phase, and a research paper is written.

Rectification analysis