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Reader's comment 4

Date: 1/31/01 8:08:45 AM Eastern Standard Time
Gordon: Berlin is about two towns over from Plainville where I live. If you find it easy to get to Berlin, could we plan to get together on a weekend for lunch with our families. I could then take you to see where Pierce is buried, along with the General Mansfield House and grave in Middletown? Perhaps, in April/May when the weather is more conducive for outdoor sightseeing? This Saturday look for a Paul Parvis, who is the president of the 14th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, Inc., the group I will reenact with. MOLLUS made a large contribution to the 14th's fund raising to replace a plaque on the Mansfield Monument at Antietam. Paul might attend. We will have the opportunity to meet each other soon and I am looking forward to the day. God blessings on you and your family, Irving

Date: 1/30/01 8:01:14 AM Eastern Standard Time
Mr. Kwok: As you read it, you will see that my research on Joseph Pierce was a labor of love just as I see that your interest in the Civil War and the participation of the Chinese as become your labor of love in developing your web-site. I must tell you that I am going into the reenacting more to take part in the living history and classroom presentations so that I can educate others about the Chinese's role in American History, the Civil War Era and Abraham Lincoln. My educational background is that I have a A.B., M.Arch. (Architecture) and a M.A. in guidance and counseling. My passion with the Civil War was because of my admiration for Abraham Lincoln and reading the work of James McPherson, especially, his books mentioned in my paper. So you can see I am as much an amateur historian as you claim to be, but I am confident that you have more of a knowledge in your particular field of interest than just a handful of historians. I thank you for accepting my work and paying me the honor of placing it on your web-site. Perhaps, one day I will have the honor of meeting you to thank you in person. Best regards, Irving Moy

Subj: Chinese serving in US Civil War
Date: 2/4/01 1:20:10 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Mr. Kwok--I have just been reading about this fascinating subject and was especially interested in the Bunker war connection. I knew at a glance that these names must be connected to the famous Eng and Chang Bunker! I know that it must be a sense of pride for these Chinese families to know that their ancestors have had such an involvement in the new country's history. I wondered if you had any new updates on Confederate Chinese soldiers? I wish I had some input for you--I have many Chinese friends in the Birmingham, AL area but I am afraid that all of them are new arrivals to this country but I will be cognizant of this in future research. Thanks, Tom Turner

Date: 1/25/01 7:57:09 AM Eastern Standard Time
Mr. Kwok: In May 1995 I completed a paper entitled, "Joseph Pierce, A Chinese Yankee Soldier," tracing his life and that of his family. If you would send me your address, I will send you a copy of this paper. Thank you for your work in prouding pride in the contributions of the Chinese. They were more than "coolies" and contributed to making this country the "great melting pot of the world" and as Lincoln said, "the last best hope of earth." Happy Chinese New Year, Irving Moy


Date: 1/7/01 8:27:02 PM Eastern Standard Time
G'day Gordon ! I find the best part is that the info is getting out, thanks to Terry and you. I do admire the both of you. I count it a real honor that I am in your site and that I have had a hand in getting the message out. I will keep an eye out for info and pass the word to you. Terry says he has given you the mantle for continuing the Chinese research. I think it is in good hands. Certainly you have done a fantastic job on your site. I think it is good that the Chinese site is run by a Chinese. Yer friend Uncle Ed

{Webmaster's reply: Hi Ed., You have done quite a lot for Terry, and you are one of the main contributors. Actually I feel honored to have you on board. As I have said in the introduction of my website, many people have contributed to the site, and it is certainly not one person's work. I salute to them all. Thanks a lot for your contribution. Your friend, Gordon.}

Subj: Re: Hello
Date: 12/30/00 7:26:27 PM Eastern Standard Time
Hi Gordon, Thanks a lot for the heads up on the expansion of your site. It makes my decision to link it seem all the better. You have an outstanding site and are to be congratulated. I hope my link helped. Most of the webmasters of the sites I have linked tell me that about 25% of their site hits are coming from my site. I hope yours is at least that much. Again congrats. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, Dick (a.k.a. Shotgun) http://www.civilwarhome.com

Subj: Re: I received the photo of Hong Neok Woo at last
Date: 12/30/00 5:36:06 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Gordon, I'm glad it {the photo of Hong Neok Woo} arrived safely. The Christmas mail no doubt delayed it. Of course you can post it on your web site, and the attribution sounds fine. And thank you for your suggestions on Chinese etiquette. In our brief visit to China, I do not wish to be a "foreign barbarian." And thank you for "vetting" the Chinese characters for Chinense soldiers... Best wishes for the (Western) New Year. Tom Lowry

Subj: Re: photo of Hong Neok Woo
Date: 12/30/00 5:38:25 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Gordon, I received the description of Hong Neok Woo's many names. Thank you very much. It gives me great respect for how much I do not know. Sincerely, Tom

Subj: Re: Queue
Date: 12/21/00 1:32:19 PM Eastern Standard Time
To: Gordonkwok@aol.com. Re queues, I understand the law etc., but Chinese who were as westernized as Joseph Pierce, who married white women, and were committed to lives in the USA usually cut off their queues, so Joseph was VERY unusual. Ruthanne

{Webmaster's reply: Hi Ruthanne, We know Edward Day Cohota wore no queue. Antonio Dardelle's old age picture had no queue. Two of Joseph L. Pierce's known pictures had queue, and it seemed that was when he was still single. I speculate after he married his white wife, he probably subsequently cut off his queue afterwards. (I have no document to support this theory.) I suppose his queue is his identity related to his tie to his homeland. Therefore, before he finally decided he would stay in U.S. permanently, he was reluctant to cut off his queue, his tie to his original root.}

Subj: Re: Good News
Date: 12/20/00 8:31:24 PM Eastern Standard Time
To: Gordonkwok@aol.com, Congratulations!!! That's a terrific picture. I was pointing out to Monty what I believe is Joseph Pierce's queue in that picture, coiled around the top of his head. What do you think? It seems strange that he came so young, yet continued to wear a queue. Have you ever wondered why? Have you come up with any possibilities? Enjoy the holidays, Ruthanne

Date: 12/20/00 9:36:01 AM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Mr. Kwok: There is no problem in using the portrait {of Joseph L. Pierce} so long as I am credited. I assume you are scanning it from the cover? I will look forward to visiting the website again. Sincerely, Mike McAfee. Museum of the United States Military Academy.

Subj: photo of Hong Neok Woo
Date: 12/20/00 2:34:29 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Gordon: A 5 by 7 inch glossy photo of Hong Neok Woo went to you today, Wednesday. I also sent a list of my books and articles -- much detail in Amazon.com. I read more of your website. Wonderful! Extensive! A work of art! Hours of dedication! Really terrific! Best, Tom Lowry

Subj: Your Web Site
Date: 12/11/00 5:17:38 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Gordon, I had a good look at your website. Very thorough. Very complete. Congratulations! It was good to meet you at last. Best regards, Tom Lowry
{Tom is a retired physician and he had written several Civil War books: "The Story the Soldiers Wouldn't Tell --- Sex in the Civil War", "Civil War Bawdy Houses of Washington, DC", "Tarnished Eagles --- The Court-Martials of Fifty Union Colonels", "Don't Shoot that Boy! --- Lincoln and Military Justice" and "Tarnished Scalpels --- The Court-Martials of Fifty Union Surgeons." Tom is also the co-author of the article on Chinese in the Civil War, printed in the North and South Magazine, April, 1999.}

Date: 12/8/00 10:04:10 PM Eastern Standard Time
Thanks Gordon! The info. you found for me sounds like it might be the man....Terry Foenander's site gives the info: Page 10 Asians in the Civil War: Limmon Dunn, born Japan; previous occupation, laborer; enlisted at New York City, for 3 years in Co. D, 100th NY Vols. Muster Roll. Please keep in touch, I will continue the search for Japanese in the Civil War. Thanks again, Richard Imon

Date: 12/8/00 9:07:38 PM Eastern Standard Time
Hello Gordon, It's good to hear from you, I am still trying to locate Limmon Dunn the Japanese man who is suppose to have joined the 100 NY Vol. Inf. There is a person in Gettysburg who does tracing for these soldiers but they said that they cannot find a Limmon Dunn in any of the muster sheets/roles of the period. Terry Foenanders site gives name and unit....he must have found an original muster sheet on Limmon Dunn. Respectfully, Richard Imon

{Webmaster's reply: Hi Richard, I look up the database. Start with the initial L, I found
L. C. Dunn from MN; L. W. Dunn Jr from PA; L. W. Dunn Sr from PA.
Next, I look at names with similar sound: Lyman Dunn from PA; Lyman C Dunn from IN.
But I could not find Limmon Dunn of 100 NY Vol. Inf.
Don't get discouraged. It may only mean that the archive list may not be complete, and therefore, the name could not be found. I look further at 100 NY Vol. Inf., there is a
Simon Dunn (Closest to Limmon Dunn, and if you considered the less than perfect handwriting and transcription, this may be your man. But I don't have place of birth confirmation information that he is from Japan.) Also served in 158 NY inf, Company "E", and later tranferred to 100 NY, Company D, in 6/29/65 , and mustered out in 8/28/65 in Richmond, VA. Sources: New York: Report of the Adjutant-General}

Subj: Membership
Date: 12/8/00 8:19:28 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Dr. Kwok, I had to change my e-mail over the last few months. Sorry I have'nt been in touch but I have been very busy. The site and the new information is magnificent! Please keep me as a member and let me know of any upcoming events or dues that I may owe. Thank You. Respectfully, Richard Imon

Subj: Great site!
Date: 12/8/00 12:51:52 AM Eastern Standard Time
To: Gordonkwok Being of Chinese descent and a veteran I am very interested in the contributions made by Chinese Americans in all the wars America has fought. I was also amused by the unexpected trouble researchers ran into when trying to research by "common" Chinese names and unexpectedly finding many Chinese with European names. Being adopted myself I can relate to this. My last name is Italian in origin and anyone checking U.S. Navy (the branch I served in) records for Chinese Americans would probably have no clue. Steve Mazzotta

Subj: Re: Interesting site
Date: 12/5/00 2:25:02 AM Eastern Standard Time
Hi Gordon, One question though: were there any Chinese fighting for the Union during the Indian wars of the late 1870s and 80s? How about during the Spanish-American war during the turn of the 19th century? Best regards Daniel Lim, Singapore

{Webmaster's reply: Hi Daniel, Chinese serving in the ACW is a little known history, and that is why I put in the internet and spread the knowledge, being proud that our pioneers had contributed in fighting for freedom. Edward Day Cohota (a Chinese, named after the ship, Cohota, which brought the 4 year old to America by a sea captain whose last name was Day) served at Fort Randall, Dakota Territory, after serving the ACW. It was not known whether he got involved in active combat with the Native Americans or not. But it was known that he did guard Chief Sitting Bull when Cohota served as a prison guard. One of my friends, Dr. Qingsong Zhang, had discovered that there were Chinese serving in the Spanish-American War.}

Subj: Interesting site
Date: 12/4/00 10:29:38 AM Eastern Standard Time
To: Gordonkwok@aol.com Good evening, I'm an armchair historian of the military, south-east-asian and overseas chinese genres. While searching for info on Chinese-American war veterans, I stumbled upon your's. Honestly, I'm amazed by the wealth of existing info even though it may not be overly comprehensive. Still, it's remarkable stuff, which the Chinese population of Singapore, where I live, should know about. I already knew that Chinese, or people of Chinese descent served in both World Wars, Korea, Vietnam and Desert Storm, but the Civil War! Based on stuff which you gathered, it seems to suggest that the ACW was not only a Caucasian and African-American fight. Adventurers and other sorts from all over seemed to be involved as well. Hope to read more. Daniel Lim, Singapore

Subj: Re: Re-visit "The Celestial Warriors"
Date: 11/23/00 1:36:19 AM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Gordon -- You are indeed a scholar and a gentleman to go to such great lengths to try to answer my innocent inquiry. I wish I had more information to provide you, but this all started with an anecdotal question asked of me by a new acquaintance in Washington DC 16 years ago. Thank you again for your efforts, and you've provided me with an interesting insight into the Civil War history that I'd never heard before. Happy Thanksgiving! Warm regards, Joe Chan

{Webmaster --- Subj: Re-visit "The Celestial Warriors"
Date: 11/23/00 12:54:27 AM Eastern Standard Time
Hello, Mr. Joseph Chan, I did some more research and digging, mixing some Facts and Legends, and explored the possibility (not probabilty) that such situation could happen, under the optimal circumstances. First, I know the 7th NY regiment had marched through NY City. The regiment had fought in Gettysburg, but I could find only 2 possible Chinese names. Second, I group all the known soldiers with Chinese last names from NY state together, but I could not confirm they are, in deed, Chinese. Only a portion of them joined in 1861, a lot joined later. (So they could not all be there in 1861 when the parade took place.) I counted only about 6 or 7 Chinese soldiers, enlisted in New York City, in the Spring/Summer of 1861, who would have been possible to participate in the 1861 New York City parade. Thirdly, they were from different units, and not likely to march together. But It could be possible that just after the formal parade, they grouped together and marched together for a short while. And this was the moment that a reporter recorded such observation. Again, this scenario is part fact, part Legend, part conjecture, part puffing. But the names of soldiers, units, time served, are real, taken from various historical records.
The following are what I had found.
Celestrial Warriors? 7th NY infantry regiment. 1,310 soldiers. Organized in New York City, NY, on 4/23/61. Mustered out 5/8/63. "Steuben Rangers". The 7th NY paraded through New York City. On 4/25/63, the original two years' members were mustered out at New York City and the three years men were transferred to the 52nd NY. They stationed in Fortress Monroe, Newport News, Peninsula campaign, Seven days' battles, Antietam, Fredericksburg. The 7th was active in the Chancellorsville campaign and at Gettysburg, after which the remnant of the 52nd and the 7th was consolidated with the 7th NY veteran infantry.

Date: 10/31/00 12:11:28 AM Eastern Standard Time
Hi Gordon -- Thank you for your responses to my inquiry ... I'm impressed by your interest and the depth of your research. Unfortunately, I have nothing to add to my original anecdotal meeting some years ago with the fellow who asked me if I had ever heard of the Celestial Warriors. (Unfortunately, I can't even recall his name ... he was a Chinese American civilian working for the Department of the Army in the Pentagon.) Although I've pursued the subject periodically since then, I've never heard any more. Warm regards, Joe Chan

Subj: Re: The Celestial Warriors
Date: 10/31/00 12:04:13 PM Eastern Standard Time
To: Gordonkwok@aol.com, Very intriguing, but no, I haven't heard of them. I agree with your thinking. Let me know what you come up with. Ruthanne

Subj: NY
Date: 10/29/00 5:00:24 PM Eastern Standard Time
G'day Gordon! I admit that I have never heard of Celestial Warriors in connection with any US unit. I have sent your message to several Brits and other Oz who are into CW research. I will also ask Mike Musick when next I see him. But he knows about the Chinese project and has made no reference to them nor has Dr Tom. I had a chat with Tom. Hope you are enjoying things. Keep well! Yer friend, Uncle Ed

Subj: Re: Have you heard of "The Celestial Warriors" ?
Date: 10/28/00 4:44:34 PM Eastern Daylight Time
Dear Gordon, Thanks for your message of Saturday, and the e-mail detailing information on the CELESTIAL WARRIORS. I had never heard the term before or any such reference elsewhere. On receipt of your e-mail I checked my CD ROM copy of the Army Official Records, but there is no reference to that term or unit. Perhaps if there were a number of recruits with Chinese sounding names who enlisted in one particular unit, it would pay to check out the regimental history of that unit for any clues. The only other way to find out is to go through, page by page one of the major New York newspapers of the period for some reference to them. However, I myself have already scanned numerous New York newspapers and the only references to Asians are what I have sent you copies of. There is the possibility that I may have missed something, but I feel that I have been thorough enough to have picked out all items of interest. Its a pity that people often refer to books or newspaper articles relating to an interesting subject but are unable to give an exact reference that will lead a researcher directly to the source. It would be best to approach such claims cautiously until you can find absolute proof that such a group or unit did indeed exist. Regards, Terry.

Date: 10/25/00 9:32:26 PM Eastern Daylight Time
Dear Mr Kwok, I discovered your ACCSACW website and enjoyed reading about this little-known facet of US history. More than 15 years ago, I met a fellow Chinese-American in Washington DC who told me a fascinating story. He claimed that allegedly there was an American history book that had a Civil War-era drawing or picture that portrayed a Union Army unit named "The Celestial Warriors" showing Chinese soldiers marching in a New York City parade; this unit allegedly fought at the battle of Gettysburg. On a subsequent trip to Gettysburg, I asked every park ranger and bookstore owner I met about this, but no one had ever heard of anything like it. Sporadically over the years, I've pursued the subject without any success until I found your website. I'm interested in US military history ... I have uncles who served with the US Army in WW I, WW II, and the Korean War, and I served in the US Air Force during the Vietnam War. Keep up your good work! Warm regards, Joe Chan

(Webmaster's reply {10/25/00}: Dear Mr. Chan, I will tell you what I know. The Chinese who fought in the American Civil War were scattered in different Army and Navy units, North and South. I am not aware of any one single Chinese soldiers unit, or, a unit having a substantial numbers of Chinese. There were a few Chinese fighting at Gettysburg, each from different units. Some Chinese had served their full term before the end of the CW. Some were injured, and might be a few participated in the Grand March at Washington, D.C. I have not heard of a Union Army unit named "The Celestial Warriors" showing Chinese soldiers marching in a New York City parade {at the beginning of the war?}. If you find out any concrete information, please kindly inform me. Wishing you be successful. Thanks for the email. Warm regards, Gordon Kwok)

Date: 10/26/00 1:27:06 PM Eastern Daylight Time
Congratulations on the award!!!!! Ruthanne Lum McCunn

Webmaster Gordon Kwok (

December 15, 2000

Revised and uploaded on February 2, 2009