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Date: 6/13/00 11:07:09 AM Eastern Daylight Time
Dear Dr. Kwok, Just a note to let you know I have linked to your excellent work from my index of Confederacy related sites. You can find the link in the following link section of my site:

The Confederate Site Of America. Click on "1,001 Confederate Links." Click on "Confederates Of All Colors." Find "Asians in Gray." Click on "ACCSACW."
Dr. Gordon Kwok JD is in the process of producing a well researched and remarkable work regarding this long neglected subject. Like Mr. Foenander's work the primary focus is on Chinese serving the Union (the same inherent difficulties regarding CS records apply). Dr. Kwok has managed to unearth more than a few Chinese who served the Confederacy, however. That Dr. Kwok and Mr. Foenander occasionally collaborate is much to our benefit. A debt of gratitude is owed to both these gentlemen in showing that the Confederacy was not as monochrome as many may assume.
I do hope this link helps you out a bit and makes your remarkable work better known. Best Regards, Alan Williams, Webmaster. The Confederate Site Of America, http://members.aol.com/awill84810/csa.htm

Date: 6/10/00 2:06:50 PM Eastern Daylight Time
Hi Gordon: Great to hear from you! As you've heard, I will be commencing the film version of Chinese in the Civil War very shortly. I'd like to interview you and Terry for the project as well. Tom and Ed will also be interviewed. I really like your sight. Please take a look at our current film's website at

the Chinese American experience in WWII. It is about the Chinese American experience in WWII. Where do you and Terry live???? We'll be coming into Wash. DC. I'll talk to you shortly, take care, Monty Hom

Date: 5/24/00 6:18:57 PM Eastern Daylight Time
G'day Gents ! Monty Hom presented his largely reworked film about Chinese in WW II at State Dept as part of the Asian-American Month. I think this is a smooth and well done professional job. At any rate Monty says he is planning to start a film on Chinese in the Civil War. We had but a brief chat because he gets swamped after the show. The general plan is for Tom Lowry and me to discuss the people who served. Monty wants ship images to show as we chat. As you both know, tracking the sailors thru their various ships is a lot of work. However, we do have some ships so we can at least hit the USN photo files for what we have. I mentioned both your names (refering to Terry Foenander and me.) Monty says he is interested in making a good film so I assume he will contact you both. He is going to NYC but will be back in LA circa 6 June. There you have a heads up on a major project. Any comments or observations ? Keep well and enjoy ! Yer friend Uncle Ed

Date: 5/25/00 9:11:52 PM Eastern Daylight Time
G'day Gents ! My article on pay rates listed in Prize Money lists is not coming out for a time says the editor. However, I checked the USS Harvest Moon John Wylie was a steward drawing $30/ month. John Hazzard a black Canadian was also getting $30/ per. NB Hazzard was the only KIA when HM was sunk in 65. He had $90 in cash on his person at the time of his death. There was another Chinese in HM. I don't have his name but he drew whatever his rate drew. The army compiled service records may , or may not, show a monthly pay rate. However, except for the initial refusal to pay USCT at the white rate USA soldiers drew the same pay. Now if the guy did extra duty he got additional pay. But this was in addition to the regular pay. How the various ethnic groups were treated or viewed is as complex as the population. The Germans in the USA were abused and scorned. The 79th NY caught hell for wearing kilts. There were cross words for the Italians. Based on my personal experiences as a supervisor since 1952, I agree with Terry that haoles would much rather deal with Asians or Hispanics than blacks. I think that given the number of foreign born blacks in the CW that "African American" is pc but not too accurate. I would note that USN pay rates are hard to fix. As I noted, the size of the ship seems to have influenced the pay rates. Harvest Moon was the flagship for Adm. Dahgren. Some of the rates are higher than on "working ships". There is a lot of room for research on this subject. Good luck Lew ! Yours Uncle Ed

Date: 5/24/00 9:07:41 PM Eastern Daylight Time
(Also copy the webmaster) To Lew, Aloha yerself ! I assume you are a Butta head local boy. What high school ? As far as I can see there was no trouble for anybody to enlist in the USN. It was totally intigrated at least on the EM level from the get go. Pay rates were the same. However, the pay rate were not as we know them. Hey today all e-5s are paid the same unless special rates apply. Back then men on smaller vessels seem to have made less than men on larger vessels. I say this based on a lot of looking at the prize money lists. The capture of a prize led to payment of money. The CO of the vessel listed the crew by name with rate and monthly wage (except for those who got an annual rate; officers, pilots, Capts Clerks, Docs etc). I was interested in checking if there were mostly black,or non caucasian cooks & stewards. I could make no decision based on my slim sample. At any rate I found no indication that any ethnic group got screwed . I wrote a piece on pay in prize crew cases for the Company of Military Historians. I will ask ye editor when he proposes to publish. As an aside I would be pleased to sponsor you as a Company member if ya have an interest. I may have found one Japanese in the USN during the CW. Chinese, Flips, Sandwichers, Indians, South Sea Islanders are there in dozens. Nihonjins are absent. The USS Maine had lots of em as the casualty claim files show. There was a YMCA in Yokohama. It would be interesting to check if the Japanese who enlisted were Christian or not. I fear I have wandered a bit but so it goes. Dr Tom has no email and he has not looked in these files. If ya go to the DeRussy museum say aloha to Tom Fairfill an old friend. Keep well Ed Milligan (Uncle Ed)

Date: 5/24/00 10:35:08 PM Eastern Daylight Time
Gordon, (Answering Lew's email) Thanks for your messages, and the attachment from Lew. Perhaps he may be interested in the fact that there were quite a number of Sandwich Islanders (Hawaiians) who served in both the Union and Confederate Navies. The ones located so far are named on my sites

ASIANS IN THE CIVIL WAR I think the Asians were paid the usual sum paid for the ratings they held aboard ship. I don't know about the ones in the army, but one way to find out is to check out all their military papers at the National Archives, some of which I am sure would show payments made. There probably was a bit of prejudice to them during their service, as there is at least one account by an officer in the army which seems to show a certain amount of disgust at the service of the Chinese. I have the reference in my files somewhere, as I have the book from which it is taken in my library. However, I think in most cases, the Caucasians found it rather amusing when they saw an Asian in service. Unfortunately this amusement did not extend to the African Americans, who seemed to cop the major amount of prejudice. Over the years I have kept a number of references to the service of Asians in general and find that there is less prejudice than against the African Americans. Regards, Terry Foenander

Date: 5/22/00 4:11:00 AM Eastern Daylight Time
Aloha Mr. Kwok, My Name is Lewis, I'm writing in response to the ACCSACW information on what I believe is your webpage. Specifically, I'm attempting to gather data about what the salaries / wages were for Asians during the Civil War. Additionally, I've been unable to find data concerning the difficulties that Asians may have had when attempting to volunteer (similar to that of Black Americans)? Could you please provide me with some data or point me in the right direction? Thank you for your time. LEW, Chaminade University of Honolulu

Date: 5/17/00 1:50:01 AM Eastern Daylight Time
To: Gordonkwok@aol.com, The book has been mailed to you today. Your comments are welcome. In 1998, I saw the news that some scholars are editing a book of Encyclopedia of American Civil War. I contacted the editor and suggested to include an entry for "Chinese soldiers in Civil War". Although they have completed the entries, after seen the reason, they agreed to insert an entry and asked me to write the text. I wrote a 500 word piece for them and it was accepted. So, when the book come out, it will include a piece on the Chinese soldiers. King Zhang

Date: 5/8/00 3:11:17 AM Eastern Daylight Time
Dear Mr. Kwok: I just found that you have built a home page on the Chinese in the Civil War. I am very excited. I have not read everything in your page yet. But I would like to inform you that I am a Ph.D. in Chinese American History and have some information on this subject. In fact, I have a chapter on this subject in the book published in China. If you read Chinese, I can email you what I wrote on this subject. King Zhang, Ph.D.
(Webmaster's reply: I read, speak and write Chinese. Please email me.)

Date: 5/7/00 1:01:19 PM Eastern Daylight Time
To:gordonkwok@aol.com; Interesting article! Enjoyed reading it. My great-great grandfather served in the Illinois Infantry in the civil war. His father had emigrated to the states from Scotland. He kept a diary of people who were in the civil war with him separated by what ethnic group they were from. I didn't see Chinese. I remember Irish, German, and Scottish. My great-great grandfather's father was the 3rd president of the St. Andrew's Society in Chicago, Illinois (a Scottish cultural organization still in existence today) - so culture and ethnicity were important to him. Thanks for sharing your research. Sincerely, Tawnya Kumarakulasingam
(Webmaster showed her the link to Terry Foenander's webpage on Asian in the ACW where there are 5 people in Celon {today's Sri Lanka} serving in the ACW. She has a Celonese last name.)

Date: 4/5/00 10:18:58 PM Eastern Daylight Time
Gordon, Unfortunatley I live in Maryland and only do East Coast Events. I have done Civil War Reenacting with my Husband for the last three years. As I said I want to do a first person impression of some women who actually lived in Norfolk, VA where I know there was a Chinese Community during that time. I know i could make one up but it is better if I fine out about a women who actually lived at that time. There are many impressions that the women do such as Laundress, Cook, Seamstress, School Teacher, etc. Lately I have been doing a refugee impression. I have made up a person by the name of Soo Kin who is actually my mother's name who came over from Canton, China with her missionary husband who taught her english and is able to communicate. My character has to indure extreme prejudice much like the slaves did. I recently lost my Husband who died from dysentery and I am forced to leave home and roam the country side foraging for food and shelter along with other refugees. I carry with me all my worldly pocessions to include a quilt, wook blanklet, and carpet bag with a boiler pot, plate, knife and fork, soap, towel, rope, string, matches and a picture of my late departed husband and some jewlery that is well hidden from the soldiers. I sleep out under the stars with a made up shebang with my blanklet. I think that this story is not a wild story but one that could actually have happened to a Chinese Women. What do you think of the story?? Do you think that it was possible to happen to a women?? It is a very interesting hobby and I'm sure if you ever get a chance to see one, Please go to see one as it is truly an experience. Thank you for your help and keep me informed of any other information, Best Regards, Beverly Wong Heath

Date: 4/2/00 8:30:04 PM Eastern Daylight Time
Subj: Chinese Civilians during the Civil War
Gordon, I am interested in finding out about the Chinese Civilians during the Civil War. I am an Chinese Asian American who is involved in Civil War Reenacting. I am trying to develop a first person impression of an Chinese Women back during the period. Can you lead me to some sources so that I may research the Chinese Civilians. I thank You for your help. Beverly Wong Heath

Date: 3/16/00 7:45 PM Eastern Standard Time
(An announcement at the Olde Colony Civil War Round Table {CWRT} meeting {located at Dedham, Mass.}:) It is about time that Secretary Gordon Kwok gets some recognition in his research on the Chinese serving in the Civil War. Mike Musick, the Civil War section Chief of the National Archives at Washington, D.C., recognized Gordon's work and spoke kind words of encouragement. Furthermore, Jon Olson, the Web master of the Capital District Civil War Round Table (Albany, NY) commented on Gordon's compilation of the 100+ CWRT Web sites, and said that Gordon is to be congratulated for taking on this daunting task. Olson has had people written to him asking if there was such a Web site and now he can finally answer affirmatively. On top of that, Gordon also writes CW articles for our Monthly Newsletter. Gordon, please stand up and let us give Gordon a round of applause. (Announced by Dave Kenney. Dave Kenney is the President of the

Old Colony Civil War Round Table )

Date: 3/15/00 3:56:00 PM Eastern Standard Time
Gordon: Just discovered your website and it is great! You have done a GREAT DEAL of work and research. With your permission, I have added your Civil War information to the "History" section of the Asian American Artistry website located at http://www.AsianAmericanArtistry.com with links to your websites. You have done a LOT OF WORK and I compliment you on your research and dedication. If you have any more information, please let me know. Your thoroughness in your work is to be highly commended and lauded! J.Lee (Asian American Artistry)

Asian American Artistry / US Asians

Date: 3/3/00 4:39:07 PM Eastern Standard Time
G'day Gents ! (Gordon Kwok and Terry Foenander) Mike Musick the CW guru stopped me in the passage at the Archives today. He wanted to say that he had seen my name on your Chinese memorial site Gordon. He commented that both of you were obviously putting a lot of time and effort into your CW sites. He says kind words and hopes that all of us continue to find info and then get it posted on the web. It is nice hear such positive words from THE guru. I figured you guys who are doing the hard work should bask in some good words. It is nice to work with such good folk. Keep well, and thank you for your work on the Chinese homepage. You are pushing a subject that wants more study! Keep well and enjoy ! Yer friend Uncle Ed (Edward S Milligan)
(Note: Mike Musick is the section chief in charge of the Civil War Research in the National Archives, Washington, D.C. Terry Foenander is the Australian researcher specializing in Chinese and Asians in the Civil War. Edward S Milligan, co-author with Thomas Lowry, did research and published an article on Chinese in the Civil War.)

Date: 3/1/00 10:03:43 PM Eastern Standard Time
Hi Gordon, Good hearing from you. You have done a tremendous honor for our heritage. The work you have put in to have it in cyberspace is quite awesome...It would be really cool if somehow we were able to get all these links in one place...wonder if the Chinese Historical Society is doing it? Regards, Benjamin Lee

Date: 2/23/00 12:36:29 AM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Mr. Kwok: I am glad that you are delving into this little explored sector of Civil War lore. Books on Chinese American history will now have to be revised based on the excellent work and research done by you and your colleagues. Him Mark Lai (Him Mark Lai is a well-known Scholar specializing on the History of Chinese in North America. He has written numerous books and articles {printed in Journals} on the subjects. His colleagues call him "the dean of Chinese-American studies." He is passionate about his work, and long recognized by the staff as an eminence who quietly does his thing. He has received two lifetime-achievement awards from the Association for Asian American Studies. He is also the editor of the Journal, Chinese America: History and Perspectives, published by

The Chinese Historical Society of America, http://www.chsa.org )

Date: 2/22/00 8:46:09 PM Eastern Standard Time
Hi Gordon, I linked your site from mine on this page. (http://www.civilwarhome.com/cwsites.htm) What an interesting website! I have to believe that this is something that has never been looked at in this detail before. I found it very interesting and I'm sure others will also. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, Dick Weeks (a.k.a. Shotgun)

Shotgun's Home of the American Civil War, http://www.civilwarhome.com

Date: 2/12/00 5:57:05 PM Eastern Standard Time
This site offers little in the way of graphic excitement, but it does contain an array of interesting essays dealing with Chinese soldiers in the war.
Michael J. Swogger (http://www.suite101.com) Editor

American Civil War, Suite101

Date: 2/6/00 8:49:21 PM Eastern Standard Time
SUPER INFO!!! Gordon, this is a wonderful work!!! We must have this more exposure... I'm going to circulate on my end... Gordon, My wife & I are very grateful that you have undertaken this task. She is the Coordinator of Diversity Education for a small school district here. We have already started to spread your website around. Especially for the folks that are teaching US History and often kids of Chinese descent have zero connection except about the slavery thing. Now we have something to be proud of that for what ever reason, our people participated in the American Civil War. I think we need to teach our students of Chinese descent the breadth of our people as they immigrated to the US in different times and different ways helps them understand the struggles that the previous generations went through; and how much the earlier generations allowed us that came later "to stand on their shoulders". Thanks Ben Lee

Date: 1/29/00 12:00:25 AM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Mr. Kwok, By chance I stumbled onto you wonderful site today. What I had suspected was finally laid to rest after years of wondering. I am an Asian American of Japanese ancestry and a student of the Civil War. When I was a boy in grade school I often wondered about the possibility of Asians in the Civil War. I knew our peoples were in the U.S. more specifically, in Spanish held Louisiana in the 1550's. This fact was made known on a popular kids program called "Pacific Bridges" on the West Coast. A program that I enjoyed as a youth many years ago.

As a boy growing up in Southern California, I brought my questions to my history teacher regarding Asians in the Civil war. I was told that there was no such thing, and that only Caucasians and African-Americans were involved. Although the statement came from a teacher, I did not buy into it and put it out of my mind for a while. Another program in youth was the series called "Kung Fu" with David Carradine. You might recall this 70's series that did an injustice to Chinese culture. It was in this series however, that a reference to Chinese veterans of the Civil War was made. The character was called "Captain Chang"? played by the actor Robert Ito of "Quincy". It showed Ito and his band of renegade Union soldiers looting and stealing throughout the country only to be stopped by the famous "Kwai Chiang Cain".

After seeing this episode of Kung Fu, I was more determined than ever to go on thinking that there were Asians in the American Civil war. Your website has given me a gift of great joy and satisfaction and I feel as if I had made a great discovery. I appreciate all your work and that of the other people mentioned and I would like very much to become a member of the ACCSACW. I have felt so out of place at Civil War shows but now I have a stronger sense of pride knowing that there was at least one Japanese in the 100th N.Y. and a host of brave Chinese who fought for both Union and Confederacy. Please let me know how to join your organization and again, your website was magnificent. FSamNomi

Date: 1/25/00 8:51:04 PM Eastern Standard Time
G'day Gordon! Terry Foenander sent your URL and email. So I will send a note. I like your site. I found that John Wylie was entitled to "Prize Money" while serving on Harvest Moon. I suspect several of the Chinese sailors earned Prize Money. Wylie was on the Harvest Moon when it was sunk in 1865. There is a Harvest Moon URL as well. Keep doing the good work. Yours Aye Ed Milligan (Edward S milligan did research on Chinese in the Navy during the CW.)

Date: 1/25/00 4:36:51 PM Eastern Standard Time
Good morning Gordon and congratulations on the great page. I'm a friend of Terry Foenander's and a fellow researcher with the American Civil War Round Table of Australia. We are very proud of the work that Terry is doing and salute you for your efforts. Best wishes from Melbourne. Barry Crompton (Barry is an officer of

The American Civil War Round Table in Australia, http://users.bigpond.com/bcrompton/homepage.html )

Date: 1/15/00 3:23:35 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Mr. Kwok, Thank you so much for your excellent site and links on the service Chinese and Chinese Americans performed during the Civil War. I have long been interested Chinese culture, history, the economic development of the Canton/Hong Kong area, and immigration from the Canton area of China to the US. I found it very interesting to see that Chinese men were in the US as soldiers in the early 1860s- I had no idea. This information adds an important chapter to the history books and shows again what a wonderfully distinctive and unique nation we have. Sincerely, Karl Granat

Date: 1/18/00 11:12:57 PM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Gordon, It is really a neat site. One thing, I have no idea that there were already Chinese serving the American Civil War. It's a worth while project to pursue especially for the new generation who are born here. It will give them a sense of pride. I totally support what you have done and happy to see an old friend's accomplishment. Keep it up. You had done all Chinese American a great favor. I know there is a Chinese Historical Association here in the San Francisco Bay area. I am not sure whether they might have information that aid your research. Vincent Szeto (Vincent is an old friend of mine since High School.)

Date: August 7, 1998
Dear Mr. Kwok, Keith Poulter of N&S magazine sent your letter on to me. We also find the subject of Chinese in the CW fascinating. We have found almost fifty such and we think you will be pleased with our article. Sincerely, Thomas P. Lowry. (P.S. I have been in touch with Terry Foenander since 1997.)

Date: August 12, 1998
Dear Mr. Kwok, Thank you for your nice note. Since I go to the Archives every week, it is easy for me to check out things. I went to the original records and found a few things that may save you some time in your research. I am busy with this article about Chinese in the war and two books. I think the forthcoming N&S article will tell you everything I know. Best wishes, Tom Lowry (Tom is retired physician writing CW books and articles.)

Date: 1/20/00 4:21:09 AM Eastern Standard Time
Dear Gordon, I have checked out your site and I am quite honored that you have linked to my site on Asians in the CW. Thank you for crediting me with some of the details. I have indeed been researching the subject of Chinese and later, Asians in the Civil War since the early nineties. Please continue the research, as it is an important subject that needs wider exposure. Regards, Terry Foenander (Terry is an Australian CW researcher since 1960s. He corresponds with me numerous times by e-mail discussing our research on Chinese in the Civil War. Terry has a web site on

Asians In the Civil War)

Posted by Webmaster Gordon Kwok
email address: gordoncwrt@gmail.com
February 1, 2000

Revised and uploaded on February 2, 2009