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Charles K. Marshall 2, researched by Hale

Death, Beginnings, and Travels of Charles K. Marshall

Death, Beginnings, and Travels of Charles K. Marshall

A paper written by Robert E. Hale

"I’m all in favor of keeping dangerous weapons out of the hands of fools. Let’s start with typewriters." (1)


I began on the tenth, and final floor of Emory University’s Woodruff Library. The sun was casting my long shadow behind my red, hooded, sweatshirt, as I slowly shuffled through the material before me. Utterly uninterested, my thoughts strayed elsewhere. After some time, I placed the aged papers down on the wooden table and began to tune into our speaker. At this moment, I heard Naomi, who is head librarian at Emory’s MARBL special collections, say a sentence that was to become the beginning of my long journey. "And this Chinese man we believe fought for the Confederacy in our Civil War." The sentence was simple yes, but a profound in its possibilities.

In the following pages, I have put together a compilation of material I have found on this mystery man. The information came to me in the least likely of places, and was difficult to locate. My search for information took me across all of the Southeastern United States. I struggled to pull all the bits and pieces of information together, finding hints of his presence through an array of different sources. It was as if my character was a faint a blip on the radar of history. It is my hope that what follows will strengthen this man’s presence in history. I will do this by making presumptions about the character that can only make sense, given the time period, and the scenarios that he confronted. The locations of my character are factual; however, the feelings, thoughts, and desires have been deduced.


Standing over the bed, the ten year old would have looked down on his father’s pale face. His father must have been sick for some time, yet the two of them were still alone in the room as his three brothers and one other sister had not yet arrived, and, his mother had died when he was three.(2) One can imagine Dzau Tsz-zeh, with his small hands, holding tightly to his father’s cold index finger. His father, his mother, his schoolings were all slipping away from him. As Tsz-zeh looked into his fathers dark eyes they became motionless. Not even being a teenager, his feelings of despair after experiencing such loss cannot be fathomed. Still alone, as none of his siblings had arrived to their hometown of Kashing, China, Mr. Dzau had succumbed to death.(3)

Since Mr. Dzau was not a highly notable figure, no one would have been present. No nurse or doctor would come rushing in at this moment. It can be Chinese custom to mourn for years, as feelings of family are usually strong within Chinese tradition. Therefore, one could imagine Tse-zeh falling back into a near by seat, staying motionless for some time, until a doctor came in to tell him what he already knew. It was not until the rest of his family congregated that the funeral was set and their father was laid to rest.(4)

The rest of the family, having matters to attend to back at their respective homes, hurriedly divided up the family’s assets and went back to their daily lives.(5) After the mother had died, the family had dispersed, and now none of Tse-zeh’s brothers or sisters would take him in. "Why won’t my blood relatives take him into their homes?" Tse-zeh must have asked himself.

While pondering this question, Tse-zeh’s thoughts may have roamed to his father’s determination over the past years. Precious little time could be spared in Tse-zeh’s youth for anything other than work. Mr. Dzau had even sold Tse-zeh’s fourth older brother at the age four to keep his family together. The family, of now seven, was constantly working to get by.(6) Indeed, with nowhere to turn, a family friend took Tse-zeh in after his father’s death. However, the family was not his. After less than a year Tse-zeh decided to leave Kashing to begin his search for a new life.(7)

After a short period of time, where Tse-zeh roamed the nearby countryside looking for work, he came in contact with his second older brother. His brother said that their fourth older brother (who had, unbeknownst to Tse-zeh been sold by his father) named Joseph was reportedly living in Shanghai, only 60 miles away.(8) Asking if Tse-zeh wanted to search for Joseph, he eagerly nodded his head in approval. Their shadows raced to keep up with them as they headed towards Shanghai. As a loving brother, Tse-zeh’s must have searched hard for the first sight of his brother Joseph. Finally reaching Shanghai, they roamed her dirty streets in his search. Tse-zeh must have darted from sight to sight in the commotion of the city searching for his brother and absorbing this different world.

After weeks of fruitless searching, one must assume Tse-zeh sensed his brother’s impatience growing, as one morning Tse-zeh awoke, stretching his arms wide from his awkward sleep, to find himself alone.(9) His brother had left him. Finding infrequent work, Tse-zeh would have eaten when he could, and slept where he felt at the most at ease.


As Tse-zeh became tired, one day he found himself entering a temple on the edge of town. Upon sitting down on the smooth wood benches, dust pillowed upward, and this scenario would have unfolded as he surveyed his surroundings. A kind faced man would have looked back at the young boy and asked him if he could sit down next to him. Tse-zeh would shrug; the man taking this as a yes, then would have swept his left arm under his robe as to not wrinkle his clothing on the wooden seat. After a moment of silence, the man, as to not be too impolite, would have cast his eyes towards this stranger.

This elders name was Li, and as the two began talking they found out that Li had known Tse-zeh’s father some time ago.(10) After hearing of Tse-zeh’s situation, Li insisted Tse-zeh’s stay in the temple for the night. Tse-zeh acquiesced.(11)

The next morning, Tse-zeh awoke and in all likelihood ate with Li, grabbing at the food impolitely. Li told Tse-zeh of an American Methodist missionary named Rev. Lambuth who was looking for Chinese boys who would like to be educated in Western ways. "Methodism" he would probably have said "can be a most powerful teacher and a place of refuge for the mind." Asking Tse-zeh if he might be interested, Tze-zeh agreed to at least meet the Reverend.(12)

Li scheduled an appointment with Rev. Lambuth and they met a few days later. It was then that Rev. Lambuth took an interest in Tse-zeh. Like any preacher, he wanted the young boy to feel the way he felt about his teachings. One of Rev. Lambuth colleagues would later say of Rev. Lambuth that "like our Saviour [he] strove by every means ‘to seek and to save that which was lost.’"(13) Indeed, Rev. Lambuth’s must have been only too happy to take Tse-zeh in and give him the formal education he lacked. Rev. Lambuth asked Tse-zeh if he would stay with him in his Chapel and learn under his guidance, English, as well as advancing his learning of the Chinese language.(14) Tse-zeh obliged. Over the next year and a half, Tse-zeh’s eyes flipped from page to page of each book put in front of him.(15)

After about a year, Rev. Lambuth began asking friends down at the docks if there was a safe vessel coming to Shanghai. Not much time passed before he was able to secure a passage for the young lad as well as another one of his pupils. Their departure was set for America in early 1859.(16) As his last days in Shanghai came to a close, Tse-zeh must have felt the awkward wrenching of his heart as he was leaving his homeland to go to a strange place halfway around the world.


In all probability, Rev. Lambuth stood at the shore and watched as the ship left the horizon. At the age of thirteen, Tse-zeh left Rev. Lambuth with another Chinese boy who had also been under guidance. The two boys were also were accompanied by his wife Mary Lambuth; now Rev. Lambuth was letting go of more than two pupils.(17) The fact that Mary Lambuth accompanied Tse-zeh must have meant that he and Rev. Lambuth had grown rather close. Even still, one could presume Tse-zeh did not look back as the wind carried him towards the horizon; he only stared into the point where the blue sky and water melted together off in the distance pondering his destination.

We do not know the exact route the three unlikely travelers made; however, they must have been an odd trio. The styles of the time would have presented one with a picture like this: a prestigious women bonnet and all, without her husband on the high seas. Then below the pink patterns which outlined her soft shoulders there would be two Chinese boys dressed in grey robes that were fraying at their feet. In all this must have caused suspicion aboard this ship, as the stereotype of women aboard vessels was still seen by some as a sign of danger, especially if she was alone. However, as Rev. Lambuth was one of the head Missionaries for the China Mission, along with Young John Allen, he should have been able to afford to pay the passage for adequate accommodations on the ship. Their journey would have had many of the pleasantries that anyone of notable background in the 19th century would be accustomed to in making the passage around the Horn.


What would have first caught Tse-zeh’s eyes would have been the white caps of the water sweeping past the side of the hull. The Mississippi was much more torrential than the quiet rivers he had seen in Shanghai. It was cold when the three of them arrived and indeed the frost must have lain shimmering on top of the grass in the distance. As they crept closer to the shoreline of Mary Lambuths’ the native state in late 1859 to early 1860, their ship would have tacked back and forth between the other boats and shoals surrounding the harbor.(18) Then, as the voices of the coastwise grew louder Tse-zeh would have felt the vessel come to a stop with a soft thud against the dock. Once down the gangplank, people would have stared as Tse-zeh’s made his way down the creaking dock, his clothes were so different as well as the squint of his eyes, and the smooth pressed shape of his dark hair. It is likely that Mary Lambuth would be one of the only people Tse-zeh would converse with, as his English was not perfect, and since people saw him as different; he wouldn’t have been invited to play with other boys. He had come to America to become civilized and learn. Gathering their belongings, the three of them made way for Vicksburg, Mississippi.(19)

After coming to the Lambuth family house, Tse-zeh soon took the next step in his Methodist teachings. Tse-zeh was finally baptized by a Bishop O.F. Andrew and, from then on, his schooling was centered on the Church’s teachings.(20) It was then that the Bishop bestowed Tse-zeh with his new Methodist name. "C.K. Marshall." The Bishop would have said, "go and do well with the teachings you have, and will learn in your life. Uphold the name of Methodism wherever you go." Tse-zeh’s’ new name held significant meaning as he was named after the well known, and very prominent, Rev. Charles K. Marshall of Vicksburg Mississippi.(21)

After settling into his new home, C.K. soon found employment. Independent by nature C.K. began working for both a local candy and tea store.(22) Still only thirteen the sweets of the candy store must have been a great delight, he was not accustomed to these luxuries. One can imagine how his hand shook with excitement as he bought a few pieces of peach flavored taffy with his extra money.

It was in Vicksburg that C.K. would have enjoyed his first few months in America. As the muddy paths of spring turned into the dusty roads of the summer, C.K. would learn not only about Methodism, but also about how to conduct himself in an American city. As the summer progressed C.K. had one obligation to Rev. Lambuth which was to attend the local Methodist Conference. Sometime in the summer of 1860, the two Chinese boys were brought to the 1860 Methodist Episcopal Church Mississippi Conference.(23) They were living testaments to Rev. Lambuth’s hard work and dedication during his years in China. Their excitement and determination must have resonated throughout the chamber as they glanced around. C.K. must have been amazed by the size of the culture that he had just entered. Methodism was not a small group of men working together in a Chapel in Shanghai, as he had observed with Rev. Lambuth, but it was a vast culture that existed throughout America.

As the summer rolled on fireworks would have crashed over their roof on the Fourth of July, and the fairs in August must have left C.K. watching with wide eyes. This place was so new, so different, with the women strolling down the streets, and the stagecoaches rambling down the cobblestone roads.

Yet, when the summer came to a close, for whatever reason, Mary Lambuth thought C.K. needed a new home to continue his teachings. It would be tricky to find C.K. a teacher who could relate to his Chinese culture. However, she sent a letter to a friend who lived in Lebanon, Tennessee.(24) This friends name was David Campbell Kelley who agreed to take C.K. under his wing. C.K. arrived on his doorstep in October.


Traveling towards the Appalachia Mountains by stagecoach, C.K. would have seen the land rise in front of him, and the trees, the endless trees roll past. The trip would most likely have only taken a few days (the distance between the two cities is approximately 500 miles. Estimating a speed of 15 miles per hour, and the average traveling time being 8 to 10 hours a day this would take 3.7 days), but the trip gave C.K. an idea of the expanse of this young country. The trio arrived there by mid-October.

The people of Lebanon, witnessing the arrival of this group, must have whispered to each other, "What are the Chinese really like?" Some had heard remarks of the Chinese as being a "pagan and otherwise incongruous race," while other newspapers were publishing a range of editorial comments such as "can you imagine anything good coming from such a place," to "‘the Chinese may be welcomed as assistants in colonization; they need not be feared as the dominant race of the future.’"(27) It is obvious that people had not yet made up their mind on exactly what to think of these foreigners; especially since most of the Chinese population resided in the west. Indeed the Immigration Commission, issued in 1911, stated that a mere 42 Chinese came to America in 1853 most of which were going to the west coast.(28) The arrival of C.K. and his Chinese counterpart would create much interest and the two young boys would feel it as their stagecoach bounced along the streets of Lebanon.

A few days later on Oct. 18th, 1860 in a letter to her daughter, Kathryn Campbell to her daughter Kathryn mentions the welcoming of these new visitors:

Tell your David that I am truly glad to hear from him, he has taken the yoke up in this youth. To be firm and fear no danger. They have had a received at your Uncle Kelley’s the two China boys and Mary [Lambuth] no illes have professed religion, it appears like the young are prepping in more rapid than the old. While their hearts are tender their impression is easier made, may God pressure them and keep them from all temptation is my earnest prayer.(29)

This officially signifies the arrival of C.K. into the home of D.C. Kelley. But why did Mary bring these two Chinese boys to D.C. Kelley?


David Campbell Kelley’s background answers most of this question. D.C., as he was called, was born in Tennessee on Christmas day in 1833. As if his date of birth was to foreshadow his future, D.C. Kelley was to have an intensely religious life. In 1839, at the age of six, he joined the Methodist Church. After working hard for them for thirteen years, he was admitted to the Tennessee Conference in 1852 and was promptly sent to China as a missionary.(30) Once there, he immersed himself in Chinese life. In a letter written by D.C. while in he was in China to a Dr. McFerrin in 1854 states, "we are now on the field, and at the only work of which we are capable – the study of language."(31) He obviously had a strong passion the Chinese culture.

Adding to this D.C. Kelley "did not wet a finger and hold it up to see how the wind was blowing before he spoke. His rugged, independent, fearless nature made him both lasting friends and enemies."(32) One of the most surprising examples of the truth of this quote this can be seen in his stance on the issue of slavery. Going completely against the ideals of his fellow southern compatriots, D.C. was an Abolitionist and a Unionist.(33) With this background, he was the perfect Southerner to teach C.K. of the more tolerant ways of Methodism. Versed in Chinese, and of intellectually independent mind, D.C. Kelley was the kind of man the Rev. Lambuth could trust to help mold this young man into a model Methodist Episcopalian.


Although D.C. Kelley was a Unionist of mind, he was still a Southerner in body. Many sources have reported C.K. as a Confederate Civil War veteran and since he was living with D.C. at this time it makes sense that C.K. joined the Confederate Army with D.C. (For more confirmation please see my previous paper on topic).(34) By July of 1861, D.C. Kelley and C.K. found themselves on-top of horses, riding the plains and mountains of the frontier of the Civil War; they were now in the Tennessee Cavalry.(35) It would be likely that C.K. knew little of the true ambitions of many Confederates, as most of his only meaningful encounters with Southerners would in all probability have only been through two very open minded people, Mary Lambuth and D.C. Kelley

It was through D.C. Kelley that C.K. would soon witness, and most likely on some level participate in, a remarkable time in American history. To illustrate this, we will follow their travels and encounters of D.C. Kelley. While in the Tennessee Calvary, D.C. Kelley met and worked closely with one of the most notable Southern figures, both in and out of the Civil War, Nathan Bedford Forrest.(36) Nathan Bedford Forrest was one of the greatest military strategists of the Civil War, only losing one battle, which was one of the last before the Confederacy surrendered in the spring of 1865.(37) In addition to his military record, Nathan Bedford Forrest was in later years a founder of the KKK, as well as an advocate for the use of Chinese sharecroppers.(38) It must have been uncomfortable for C.K. to travel across a foreign country on horseback, learning about Methodism, and in close quarters with one of the most famous white supremacists. Indeed, this scenario would have taken place from 1861 until July of the following year when the three went their separate ways.(39)

It is obvious that D.C. Kelley did not always agree with the Confederacy, yet for some time he stayed with his feet strapped into his stirrups and his back arched looking over his men that dotted the patterned fields and forests that were before him. Up and down, a thud and then a moment of silence, his soul was torn and eventually felt the need to leave this war, but despite his feelings his horse took him onward. As the war progressed, C.K.’s understanding of freedom and the issues that Americans faced would have become clearer. He would have heard repeatedly the words, freedom, country and home. Each time said with quickened whispers; as if the wind could blow away their very being if spoken too loudly.

Despite their ideological differences, D.C. Kelley and Forrest had many encounters with each other. In addition both being high ranking officers, strong willed, and vigilant it would not be a stretch of the imagination to say they were friends. Their military minds would be put to test as C.K. and D.C. Kelley found themselves in their first real battle. On the morning of 11th of November 1861 as the sky began to brighten, C.K’s breathe would have gone into the air with short and heavy motions. It did not take long for the fighting to ensue. The Tennessee Cavalry unit encountered Union forces by the shores of the Cumberland River. D.C. Kelley, with his commanding voice, urged his men to stay fast as many were weary of their first military encounter. Firing on the Union gunboat Conestoga they drove the Union forces backwards.(40) To be sure, C.K. Marshall must have been scared and amazed by this battle; watching men riding on horseback and firing at a ship with guns, all must have seemed rather foreign to him.

No sooner were the Union forces pushed back than D.C. Kelley was informed that he would have to press forward. More Union forces were spotted in nearby Sacramento, Kentucky.(41) He pressed onward and after a brilliant and dashing affair, they were able to force the Union into retreat.(42) During the fighting, D.C. Kelley and Forrest acted with authority and strength that must have been an incredible to witness.

In the vigilant and wary advance, the skillful disposition of the slender forces to the best advantage, the timing of simulated retreat in the front and surprise attack upon the flanks, and at the last, the thunderbolt charge with everything hurled into a never-let-up, never-slow-down, driving fight, Forrest’s men saw him demonstrate and instinctive mastery of military principles.(43)

As the long day in Sacramento ended, C.K., like many soldiers feel after reflecting on their first real military encounter, must have felt that he changed. He had not only encountered his first, but his second battle in rapid succession. Nothing he could have learned would have prepared him for this.

As 1862 progressed, D.C. Kelley and C.K. fought alongside each other in many battles.(44) However, in February they encountered something unlike their previous battles. It was then that they reached wooden walls of Fort Henry. In this battle, D.C. Kelley’s men were told to support Forrest’s Cavalry unit by scouting the fort ahead. The fort had recently been captured by the soon to be Unionist hero, and man who would later become President of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant.(45) In D.C. Kelley’s scouting of the roads leading from Fort Henry to Fort Donelson, a bitter fight ensued; Forrest shouted excitedly to D.C. Kelley "Parson! For God’s sake, pray; nothing but God Almighty can save that fort!"(46) Time and time again D.C. Kelley preformed brilliantly and returned to C.K. to tell him about his experiences.

After this engagement, D.C. Kelley rode back to camp and he and Forrest met with some of the other commanders of the area. It was in this exchange that Forrest was informed that some of his superiors were considering surrendering this area. Their superior officers did not believe they had enough of an upper hand to win this battle, seeing that there were more battles to be fought elsewhere. Enraged, Forrests’ voice must have boomed through the camp. This was a different, more frightening sound than the guns that C.K. had been hearing for almost a year. Forrest took action. Taking whoever would go with him to fight he left for Fort Donelson. D.C. Kelley and C.K. did not accompany Forrest, as Forrest had put D.C. Kelley in charge of the retreat of the rest of the men.(47)

Forrest and D.C. Kelley were to reunite later that year and continue to fight alongside each other in many bloody battles, both with new promotions on their chest; however, C.K. would not be present.(48)


By mid 1862, D.C. Kelley could no longer focus on his men. He must have felt a tug away from the war, a constant nag that his horse had lead him astray. Most likely his opinions of Southern attitudes, as he was an Abolitionist and Unionist at heart, had overcome his loyalty to the South. Sometime on August 18th, 1862 D.C. began to scrawl on a piece of paper laid out before him. It was on this day that he sent in his resignation from the Confederate Army.(49) Most likely, D.C. Kelley would have confided in C.K. some of his rational for this choice, and tried to teach C.K. a lesson of when it is acceptable to give up on a cause.(50) While there is no record that his resignation was accepted, he must have been granted a leave of absence, as there is no reference to him for many months in any military records.(51)

D.C. Kelley and C.K. Marshall must have made their way through the dandelion filled fields to Lebanon, where they could evade the horrors of war. Here C.K. would be able to focus more on his Methodist teaching. As they made their way home with their guns dragging behind they would have made soft impressions in the grass behind them. On September 25th, 1862, D.C. Kelley’s mother noted in her diary "with gratitude we record the coming of our own loved David this afternoon. God has brought him back in safety."(52) However, even here C.K. could not escape from the war torn country. On November 5th, Mrs. Kelley wrote in her diary "the roar of cannon from the direction of Nashville is heard – how dreadful is the sound that is for the destruction of the lives of our countrymen."(53) D.C. Kelley knew he would be returning to war soon, and did not wish to put C.K. back into a battle in which he no longer believed.

Therefore, later that year, when D.C. Kelley was called back to join the Confederate army, he made arrangements with Mary Lambuth to take C.K. with her when she traveled to New York City to visit her family.(54) New York City had a vibrant Chinese culture at this time, and C.K. soon found work in hotels and tea shops to earn his living.(55)

C.K. spent approximately six years in New York City, where he presumably spent time getting a higher education and learning more about Methodism. After ten years, of his twenty-two years on this earth, C.K. realized he wanted to head home. In the warming months of May, 1869, C.K. began search for a ship that would set sail for Shanghai. Finally, he walked up the gangplank and left America on June 19th, 1869.(56)


After his long voyage, C.K. would most likely have found himself alone again in Shanghai, having left no friends behind, and having lost ties with his family since they had left him after his father’s death. However, C.K. would begin preaching and working for the Methodist Mission in China. The Methodist ministers of the area were so impressed by C.K.’s work that he was ordained on December 22nd, 1876, becoming the first native Chinese born minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church.(57) After this, C.K. began to specialize in Medicine and eventually became the superintendent of the Soochow Hospital at the Methodist Episcopal Mission, in Soochow, China.(58) Surely D.C. Kelley, once hearing all of this news, must have been as proud as any father.

When C.K. worked on his patients, in an oddly unfamiliar China, they would most likely only be able stare into his pitch black eyes and wonder what they had seen, the stories of a foreign land, and the courage it took to grow up in such a different place. After all his hard work C.K. became known as the "Educator, Doctor, and Preacher;"(59) he is the much-loved Dzau Tse-zeh, the man of my imagination.


It was on a cold Massachusetts night in March that I bounded into the house of a great friend and advisor in my life, Mr. Matthew Stackpole. He is the current head of the Martha’s Vineyard Historical Society, and a man rich in character. I sat down in one of the reading chairs next to Matthew and I eagerly began to tell him about C.K.’s courage. We laughed about the trouble this paper was giving me and how I could approach the life of C.K. Marshall. It was in this long conversation, which ranged from talk of the battle of Trafalgar to University of Connecticut basketball, one of his most beloved intrigues, that he said something that struck me and made me understand the life of C.K. I realized how C.K. had not been afforded the time to grow up. He was thrust into a turbulent world, time and time again. He was not granted a childhood, at every turn he would associate with his elders, living through them, and with them. How different his childhood was from mine. Yet, C.K. never gave up on himself, he found a religion that gave him purpose and he thrived in the world in which he was given. C.K. Marshall embodies what we have to learn from history. He is a gives us a bold figure that aspires to continue and press on.

As I sat in this felt embroidered chair and reflected on my conversation with Matthew, I realized what must have occurred in 1902. Here, C.K.’s eldest son must have stood by with the rest of his family watching as even more family and friends waited outside.(60) This man of greatness was nearing his end. C.K.’s son must have held his father’s cold index finger and he too now watched his father’s eyes become motionless. Yet here, back in China, where in his youth he had felt the loneliest he had ever felt in his life, he finally found a purpose, and passion. He had found the family which had evaded him in his childhood.(61)


I would like to make a final note and acknowledge the support and help of two historians who I came in contact with throughout my research, Mr. Oey and Mr. Gordon Kwok. Both of these men gave me information that is used throughout this paper, most importantly of D.C. Kelley’s war year experiences. Without their aid and support I would not have been able to finish my paper, or come to the conclusions I have presented in the previous pages. My heartfelt gratitude goes out to them both for all the research and help they gave me.

(1) Solomon Short, quoteland
(2) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(3) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(4) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(5) Golden Jubilee, pg69
(6) Golden Jubilee, pg69
(7) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(8) Golden Jubilee, pg69
(9) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(10) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(11) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(12) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(13) In Memoriam, pg45
(14) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(15) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(16) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(17) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(18) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(19) Cohen, pg64
(20) Golden Jubilee, pg77
(21) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(22) Golden Jubilee, pg69
(23) Cohen, pg64
(24) Duke University Special Collections, Campbell family collection
(25) Duke University Special Collections, Campbell family collection
(26) Cohen, pg63
(27) Miller, pg172
(28) Kung, pg65
(29) Duke University Special Collections, Campbell family collection
(30) Journal of the Tennessee Conference, pg55
(31) Old Jerusalem Conference, pg125
(32) Old Jerusalem Conference, pg125
(33) Old Jerusalem Conference, pg125
(34) Chicago Tribune
(35) Dr. Oey, Gordon Kwok
(36) Henry, pg39
(37) Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Government Printing Office
(38) Naomi Nelson, MARBI
(39) Dr. Oey, Gordon Kwok
(40) Dr. Oey, Gordon Kwok
(41) Jordon and Pryor, pg53
(42) Jordon and Pryor, pg53
(43) Henry, pg46
(44) Jordon and Pryor, pg53
(45) Wills, pg57
(46) Wills, pg60
(47) Henry, pg60
(48) Tennesseans in the Civil War
(49) Tennesseans in the Civil War
(50) Tennesseans in the Civil War
(51) Tennesseans in the Civil War
(52) UGA Manuscripts, Kelley family manuscripts, Lavina Kelley
(53) UGA Manuscripts, Kelley family manuscripts, Lavina Kelley
(54) Naomi Nelson, MARBI
(55) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(56) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(57) Cannon, pg106
(58) Soochow Hospital Extra, pg120
(59) Soochow Hospital Extra, pg120
(60) Golden Jubilee, pg70
(61) Duke University Special Collections, Campbell family collection


1) Cohen, Lucy M.; Chinese in the Post- Civil War South. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge and London; 1984.
2) Carter Cullen T.; Methodist Leaders in the Old Jerusalem Conference 1812 – 1962; The Parthenon Press, Nashville, Tennessee, 1961.
3) Cannon III, James; History of Southern Methodist Missions; Cokesbury Press, Nashville, Tennessee, 1926.
4) Golden Jubilee. MARBL collection, Emory University; Call number BV2550 M48G6. Annual Methodist Report.
5) Kung, S.W.; Chinese in American Life; University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, 1962.
6) Miller, Stuart C.; The Unwelcome Immigrant; University of California Press, Berkley and Los Angeles, California, 1969.
7) Lai, Him Mark; Chang, Gordon H.; Yung, Judy; Chinese American Voices; University of California Press, Berkley, Los Angeles, London, 2006.
8) The Independent. Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economics. May 15, 1890. APS Online, page 16.
9) Chicago Daily Tribune. Personals May 1, 1890. ProQuest Historical Newspapers, page 4.
10) Kelley family letters from University of Georgia, Lavina Kelley. Accession No.: 2885(M)
11) Campbell family papers from Duke University, David Campbell Kelley
12) McCain, Charles J. Jr.; The Chinese Struggle for Civil Rights in Nineteenth Century America: The First Phase, 1850-1870; California Law Review, 1984.
13) Fritz, Christian G.; A Nineteenth Century "Habeas Corpus Mill": The Chinese before the Federal Courts in California; The American Journal of Legal History, 1988.
14) Soochow Hospital extras; with an appeal for a larger hospital in honor of Dr. Park’s 60th birthday. Shanghai, China, 1917. Pitts Theology library, Emory University, call number: BV3425 .S6 S6
15) www.tngenweb.org/civilwar/csacav/index.html
16) hometown.aol.com/gordonkwok/accsacw.html
17) Wyeth, John Allan; That Devil Forrest, Life of General Nathan Bedford Forrest; Harper and Brothers, Louisiana, 1959
18) Henry, Robert Selph; First with the Most; William S. Konecky Associates, Inc. New York, 1992.
19) Jordan, Thomas and Pryor, J.P.; The Campaigns of General Nathan Bedford Forrest and of Forrest’s Cavalry; First Da Capo edition, 1996
20) Lytle, Andrew Nelson; Bedford Forrest and His Critter Company; J.S. Sanders and Company, Nashville, 1992.
21) Wills, Brain Steel; A battle form the Start, The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest; Harper Collins Publishers, 1992
22) Journal of the Tennessee Conference, 1909, Pitts Theology Library, Emory University
23) In Memoriam, Pitts Theology Library, Emory University, Microfilm BX8241 .A1 Reel 21, section 8.
24) Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Government Printing Office
25) Manuscript of notes from Major Kelley, Jordon and Pryor.
26) Tennesseans in the Civil War, Vol. 1, Civil War Centennial Commission of Tennessee, 1964.
27) www.quoteland.com
28) Gordon Kwok and Dr. Oey, advisement on general themes and points which pertained to Chinese fighting in the Civil War, and D.C. Kelley.

Written by Robert E. Hale

The author, Robert Hale gave permission to the webmaster to post his paper in the Internet.
Dated July 19, 2007.


Copyright 2007 Robert Hale
All Rights reserved

Webmaster's note 1: The essay is based on Historical Research and Historical fact. When writing the narrative, the author used some poetic license to make the paper more lively and interesting. For example: on stagecoach. Marshall could ride a horse, or horse-and-carriage, or a stagecoach. The author picked stagecoach. Second example, before the Civil War, Kelley and Marshall might or might not be riding horses together in the plains and mountains of the frontier in Tennessee. It is the author's logical deduction. All these little creative writing would not alter or affect the basic Historical facts.

Webmaster's note 2: After Robert Hale's essay was published, a friend of Margarita Park Sherertz Messersmith, the great grand daughter of Rev. and Mrs. James William Lambuth, read this essay and informed Ms. Messersmith about this essay, mentioning her great grand parents. Ms. Messersmith read the essay, and then contacted the webmaster. The webmaster introduced Robert Hale to her, and we all exchanged emails. After several discussions, Ms. Messersmith sent us the unpublished writing of her great grand father, Rev. James William Lambuth, called "Kate in a Heathen Land"

The document indicated Charles K. Marshall (Dsau Sier Whoa) accompanied the Lambuth from Mississippi to Tennessee, in the Spring of 1864. Sier Whoa decided to stay in Tennessee to continue his education, and worked part time to support himself, while the Lambuth continued their journey to Cambridge, New York, visiting Mrs. Lambuth's father and family, and continued to New York City to board a ship for China. We got this document after the essay was written.
Note 2 was written on May 2, 2008 by the webmaster.

Webmaster : Gordon Kwok
Email address:
July 19, 2007
Revised and uploaded on January 30, 2009