REDUCTION COOKING TERM. COOKING TERM

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Reduction Cooking Term


reduction cooking term
    reduction cooking
  • In cooking, reduction is the process of thickening or intensifying the flavor of a liquid mixture such as a soup, sauce, wine, or juice by boiling.
    term
  • Give a descriptive name to; call by a specified name
  • a word or expression used for some particular thing; "he learned many medical terms"
  • name formally or designate with a term
  • a limited period of time; "a prison term"; "he left school before the end of term"

CASA GRANDE RUINS
CASA GRANDE RUINS
The significance of Casa Grande ruins lies in its prehistoric past when the builders and inhabitants achieved a sophisticated culture. Casa Grande fell within the heartland of an extensive prehistoric agricultural society. The Hohokam (a Pima Indian term meaning "those who have gone"), with their lengthy canal irrigation system, were masters of the desert.

The Hohokam culture did not suddenly appear. Its antecedents lay in a previous, local Archaic culture. These Archaic peoples, who appeared in the desert Southwest about 5500 BC, functioned as hunters and gatherers who depended upon wild plants and animals for their subsistence. Whether domesticated corn became available before 1000 BC or not, these people did not cultivate it because they had little need to invest their labor in such a crop when they could subsist by hunting and gathering. A growing population perhaps combined with some dry periods, however, began to outstrip the flora and fauna used for food. By 1000 BC, this situation forced the population to augment their ration by cultivating a small cob popcorn. By 500 BC regular corn appeared in the area and was crossed with the small cob popcorn. The prehistoric population in turn, crossed this hybrid with an eight-row flour corn several centuries later. About 350 BC, common beans (pinto, red, and navy) were introduced. The Archaic peoples' casual dry land cultivation, however, did not produce sufficient yields to supply the growing demand. To ensure crop yields in the Southwest required considerable attention. Such attention began to curb the mobility of these hunter/gatherer peoples. Decreased mobility only forced the people to place greater reliance on domesticated crops. This more sedentary life, in turn, depleted the wild resources in an area. Returning to a hunting and gathering way of life then became no longer viable. As a result, this Archaic culture began a slow transition into a hydraulic (water based) society which used irrigation to support its agriculture. By AD 300 this water-based culture appeared as the Hohokam. [1]

Archeologists have divided the Hohokam culture into the following approximate four periods. The four periods include: Pioneer, AD 300-750; Colonial, AD 750-950; Sedentary, AD 950-1175; and the Classic, AD 1175-1450. The Pioneer period found the Hohokam living as simple farmers in a series of small villages along the middle Gila River. Several factors determined the location of an early Hohokam village — good arable land, a suitable location from which the Gila could be tapped for irrigation water, and a shallow aquifer so that wells for domestic water need not be dug more than ten feet deep. Early Hohokam houses consisted of branches bent in a semi-circular fashion and covered with twigs, reeds, and mud. House locations had no consistency. Instead, they were placed in what has been called a rancheria style; that is, they were scattered randomly over an area of as much as a square kilometer. Irrigation canals at first were of simple construction which served only a small village and thereby did not require intervillage cooperation or a large, disciplined labor force to maintain them. Because of this uncomplicated situation, the early Hohokam lived a life in which all were equal without a central authority to direct them. [2]

Between AD 300 and 500 the Hohokam acquired a new group of cultivated plants from Mexico. These plants included first cotton and tepary beans followed by sieva and jack beans, green-striped cushaw squash, warty squash, and pigweed. The Hohokam also augmented their food with wild plants such as goosefoot seeds, saguaro fruit and seeds, carpetweed seeds, grass seeds, prickly pear cactus fruit and pads, mustard seeds, wild primrose roots, four-o'clock roots, cholla buds, cattail roots and catkins, cocklebur, and coyote melon. They hunted animals such as jackrabbits, cottontails, and mule deer. Some fish and clams from the Gila River and the canals varied their diet. [3]

In their everyday life, the early Hohokam used manos and metates to grind seeds into coarse meal for cooking. Cooking was accomplished in plain brown pottery. This same pottery supplied storage vessels and containers for the cremated remains of the dead. These Pioneer period people had ceremonies as attested by fired clay human and animal figures and the use of incense burners. Some basic regional trade occurred, especially to obtain shell from the Gulf of California which was used to fashion jewelry. [4]

In the Colonial period (AD 750-950) the population increased. Some villages grew larger as a more refined social system developed. Social ranking began to play a role, as later noted, because some graves had more ornate items associated with them. At the larger settlements, ball courts came into existence. Although these large, oval-shaped depressions varied in size, they served as a focal point for games and ceremonies. In daily life a distinctive red-on-buff p
Chhath Puja The Spirit of Bihar In Amchi Mumbai
Chhath Puja The Spirit of Bihar In Amchi Mumbai
209,543 items / 1,729,677 views For those who dont know me I am a Shia Muslim from Mumbai who shoots Hinduism as Hope Hindutva message of peace Humanity .. and promotes living in peace as Indians beyond caste culture or creed .. Hinduism is my cultural inheritance and I call myself a Hindu Shia a person who promotes Inter Faith .. I have no other agenda , I am a amateur photographer and a passionate hobbyist blogger , you might not like my world but it exists and it has to be seen , you might not like the rites rituals but they exist too as tradition heritage ancestry of faith and mankind.. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Chhath (Hindi: ??, also called Dala Chhath) is an ancient Hindu festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya, also known as Surya Shashti.[1] The Chhath Puja is performed in order to thank Surya for sustaining life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes. The Sun, considered the god of energy and of the life-force, is worshiped during the Chhath fesival to promote well-being, prosperity and progress. In Hinduism, Sun worship is believed to help cure a variety of diseases, including leprosy, and helps ensure the longevity and prosperity of family members, friends, and elders. The rituals of the festival are rigorous and are observed over a period of four days. They include holy bathing, fasting and abstaining from drinking water (Vratta), standing in water for long periods of time, and offering prashad (prayer offerings) and aragh to the setting and rising sun. Although it is observed most elaborately in Bihar, Jharkhand and the Terai regions of Nepal in modern times, and is more prevalent in areas where migrants from those areas have a presence, it is celebrated in all regions and major urban centers in India. The festival is celebrated in the regions including but not exclusive to the northeast region of India, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Chandigarh, Gujarat,[2] Delhi,[3] Mumbai[4] and Mauritius.[5] Contents [hide] Chhath puja is performed on kartika Shukala Shashti, which is the sixth day of the month of Kartika in the Hindu Calendar. This falls typically in the month of October or November in the Gregorian Calendar. It is also celebrated in the summer (March–April), on Chaitra Shashti, some days after Holi; this event is called Chaiti Chhath.[6] The former is more popular because winter is the usual festive season in North India, and Chhath, being an arduous observance, requiring the worshipers to fast without water for around 36 hours continuously, is easier to undertake in the Indian winters. [edit] Etymology The word chhath denotes the number 6 in Hindi[7] and the festival is celebrated on the sixth day of the Hindu lunar month of KARTIKA. The word is a Prakrit derivation from the Sanskrit sasthi, meaning sixth. [edit] History It is believed that the Maga Purohits (modern days known as Shakya Dwipi Brahmins) were invited by local kings for their expertise in Sun worshiping. They started the tradition of Chhat Puja. Today Chhat Puja is celebrated specially in those places where Shakya Dwipi Brahmins are found. It is believed that the ritual of Chhath puja may even predate the ancient Vedas texts, as the Rigveda contains hymns worshiping the Sun god and describes similar rituals. The rituals also find reference in the Sanskrit epic poem Mahabharata in which Draupadi is depicted as observing similar rites. In the poem, Draupadi and the Pandavas, rulers of Hastinapur (modern Delhi), performed the Chhath ritual on the advice of noble sage Dhaumya. Through her worship of the Sun God, Draupadi was not only able to solve her immediate problems, but also helped the Pandavas later regain their lost kingdom. It is also believed that Chhath was started by Karna, the son of Surya Putra Karna who ruled over the Anga Desh (present day Munger district of Bihar) during the Mahabharat Age. He was a great warrior and fought against the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War. Its yogic/scientific history dates back to the Vedic times. The rishis of yore used this method to remain without any external intake of food as they were able to obtain energy directly from the sun's rays. This was done through the Chhath method.[8]The chhat puja is very popular in Dehri-On-Sone(Rohtas),Patna, Dev & Gaya. Now a days it is celebrated in approximately all parts of India. [edit] Chhathi Maiya It is also said that the Goddess that is worshipped during the famous Chhath Puja is known as Chhathi Maiya. Chhathi Maiya is known as Usha in the Vedas. She is believed to be the consort of Surya, the sun god. Some scholars are of the view that she is only the beloved of Surya and some suggest that She is Surya’s wife. Usha is the term used to refer to dawn – The first light of day. But in the Rig Veda she has more symbolic meaning. Symbolically Usha is the dawn of divine consciousness in the individual aspirant. During the Chhath Puja, Chhathi Maiya is invoked to bless

reduction cooking term
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