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This is some information found by my aunt online that shows a connection of maternal hypothyroidism to the childs ACC:

This is some information found by my mother online. It's about how music helps with brain communication. From this we've found that music helps the brain find many neural pathways. Which would explain the normalcy of many with ACC later in life. Myself included in this since I grew up around music from before birthday pretty much. Read this it's REALLY interesting and might be helpful to several parents who have questions:

It’s the MUSIC!


The Influence of Music on Neurons


Listening to music helps to create and strengthen more neural connections because nerves that deal with the auditory system of the brain are being activated in order to hear the music (1). Music is a stimulus that needs to be processed by the brain because we have receptors for sensing and reacting to music. The act of processing this stimulus influences the neural connections in the brain and therefore affects other neural connections which in turn affect the outputs of the body. The Mozart effect is a phenomenon that states when an individual listens to short bursts of music, their intellectual and motor abilities increase and become more efficient (2). It has a profound effect on young children because their minds are still developing at a rapid rate and their neural pathways are easily influenced. The music composed by Mozart has a 60 beat per minute pattern that is repeated throughout his pieces. This pattern activates the action potentials in the right and left hemispheres of the brain and it strengthens the connections between the neurons that connect the two halves. Strengthening of the neural connections leads to more efficient information processing because the brain must concentrate on comprehending multiple stimuli and it therefore becomes capable of multitasking.  The ductility of an infant’s brain must be utilized to its fullest potential, because unused nerves are rendered useless.


As a musician, I wonder whether or not learning to read music affects the outputs of my nervous system. Learning to read music is like learning a new language. The syntax and semantics must be mastered in order to attain fluency. In order to learn read music, new neural pathways must be formed for the brain to comprehend what it is reading. These new pathways would affect the pre-existing connections and therefore many other outputs of the nervous system would be affected. Reading music increases creativity and the plasticity of neural connections because an individual must think in another mindset to understand what is presented. The plasticity is affected because not only do new neural connections need to be formed based on new experiences and stimuli, but the old pathways need to be remembered as well.

The brain has the ability to sense the happiness and sadness of music. When the tone and tempo of music is altered, different portions of the brain are stimulated which have neural connections that detect the happiness or sadness of the song (3). The effect of music on the neural connections varies from person to person but certain areas of the brain do become active when different types of music are played. Processing different rhythms, tones, melodies, requires multiple areas of the brain to be active. To understand music, its components must be broken down and processed by different areas of the brain (4). The process of breaking down a piece of music utilizes many neural pathways which results in one large output of the nervous system.

WWW sources

1) ; Your baby needs music

2) ; Music and the Brain

3) ; Brain regions involved in the recognition of happiness and sadness in music.

4) ; Music and Neurology


The pre-frontal cortex is responsible for music perception. That same part of the brain is responsible for your different emotions.

Music Strengthens Neural Pathways in Brain


Parents have a new reason to plant their kids on a piano bench after school. A new study conducted by researchers at Harvard Medical School indicates that children who diligently practice music can strengthen connections between the two hemispheres of their brains. According to a report in Science:

In 1995, a study led by neurologist and neuroscientist Gottfried Schlaug found that professional musicians who started playing before the age of 7 have an unusually thick corpus callosum, the bundle of axons that serves as an information superhighway between the left and right sides of the brain.


The researchers collected detailed magnetic resonance images of the children’s brains at age 6 and again at 9. Of the original group, six children faithfully practiced at least 2.5 hours a week in the time between the scans. In these budding musicians, a region of the corpus callosum that connects movement-planning regions on the two sides of the brain grew about 25% relative to the overall size of the brain. Children who averaged only an hour or two of weekly practice and those who dropped their instruments entirely showed no such growth.

But what can happen to a child whose corpus callosum is partly or completely missing? A recent episode of CURIOUS called “Mind Brain Machine” follows the story of Tony Grobmeier, who is missing his corpus callosum–a condition called agenesis of the corpus callosum. You can watch a video about Tony and read about his physician, Dr. Lynn Paul, who is trying to find out how Tony’s brain functions.

Watch the full episode of Curious: Mind Brain Machine online.

To see a visual representation of brain anatomy, take a 3-D tour of the brain at Secret Life of The Brain.

To learn more about split-brain research and to play the Split Brain Experiments game, visit the Nobel Prize Web site at

Dr. Paul, As a parent of a learning disabled 25 year old, I very much appreciate your wonderful work. I was especially moved by the young man from California that you are working with. His desire to learn how to live on his own was very much like that of my daughters. Currently she is attending the Minnesota Life College. It is a small school near Minneapolis with 30 young adults. The mission of the school is to teach learning disabled young people how to live and work on their own. They have a very successful 3 year program and work with young adults with varying degrees of disability. I would encourage your patient and his parents to visit their website.
I hope that this information may help him in some way. Thanks again. Eugene Gallo, Lisbon, Ohio

Thank you all for your comments. The range of capabilities in AgCC is broad and this show only demonstrates a segment of it. If you or a family member has a corpus callosum disorder, please go to for more information. And please post your story in the “Our Stories” section. The more people who join and post their stories on, the better understanding we will have of this range of conditions. Blessings to all! Thank you for watching. Lynn

Music And The Brain by STEVE GILLMAN

The research shows that music actually trains the brain for higher forms of thinking. Listening to, and participating in music also creates new neural pathways in your brain that stimulate creativity. An article in a Newsweek (2/19/96) reported on a study from the University of California.

In the study, researchers followed the progress of three-year-olds, split into two groups. The first group had no particular training in, or exposure to music. The second group studied piano and sang daily in chorus. After eight months the musical three-year-olds were much better at solving puzzles, and when tested, scored 80% higher in spatial intelligence than the non-musical group.

If you listen to music containing beats at a frequency of 10 Hz (in the Alpha range) it will feel very relaxing. This is because your brain will begin to follow this frequency and reproduce the rhythm in the music. You'll generate more brain waves at a 10 Hz frequency and enter a relaxed Alpha mental state. This is the idea behind brain wave entrainment.

This may be why some types of music have certain effects, but not all brain wave entrainment CDs use music. Some use the raw "binaural beats" as they are sometimes called, embedded in white noise, or in sounds of nature. (I have used these products and find them to be pretty powerful, especially the ones for relaxation.)

Whether you use "binaural beats," or just pop a Mozart CD into the player, you can increase your brain power easily. Try it today. It is doubtful that Mozart will harm you, so why wait for more research to be done on music and the brain?

Music meditation creates neural pathways in your brain that stimulate creativity. Studies show that music trains the brain for higher forms of thinking. It is a technique or practice that allows you to deconcentrate and relax.

Music on the Mind

The most controversial finding about the musical mind is that learning music can help children do better at math. When a researcher at the recent conference in New York brought up these studies, he got an auditorium full of laughs. Yet the link, reported in 1997 by Gordon Shaw of the University of California, Irvine, and Frances Rauscher at the University of Wisconsin, has held up.

Whatever music does to the brain, scientists figured you would have to actually do music to get the effects. Well, maybe not. Researchers led by Dr. Alvaro Pascual-Leone of Beth Israel taught nonmusicians a simple five-finger piano exercise. The volunteers practiced in the lab two hours a day for five days. Not surprisingly, the amount of territory the brain devotes to moving the fingers expanded. But then the scientists had another group think only about practicing--that is, the volunteers mentally rehearsed the five-finger sequence, also for two hours at a time. "This changed the cortical map just the way practicing physically did," says Pascual-Leone. "They make fewer mistakes when they played, just as few mistakes as people actually practicing for five days. Mental and physical practice improves performance more than physical practice alone, something we can now explain physiologically." "Mental imagery may activate the same regions of the brain as actual practice, and produce the same changes in synapses," says Josef Rauschecker of Georgetown University. Advice to parents trying to get children to practice: keep this to yourself.


CC Band


The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of commissural nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. When severed or absent the halves of the brain can only communicate with each other through external sources. A person with a commissurotomy might identify an object with her left hand, but be unable to speak the name of it, then just as easily write the name with her left hand, but not know what she has written without first having seen it with her eyes, or felt the object with her right hand. In all other respects, this person is perfectly functional, unidentifiable as abnormal.

The corpus callosum was once thought to be the site of the human soul. cor.pus cal.lo.sum (kor' pes kelo' sem), Mod. L., lit., callous body.


For Increased Brain Growth, Just Add Music?

"Should my kids even bother with music education?"

 In fact the answer to this question is still a resounding yes, since numerous research studies do prove that studying music contributes unequivocally to the positive development of the human brain. Other researchers have since replicated the original 1993 finding that listening to Mozart improves spatial reasoning. And further research by Rauscher and her colleagues in 1994 showed that after eight months of keyboard lessons, preschoolers demonstrated a 46% boost in their spatial reasoning IQ, a skill important for certain types of mathematical reasoning.

In particular, it is early music training that appears to most strengthen the connections between brain neurons and perhaps even leads to the establishment of new pathways. But research shows music training has more than a casual relationship to the long-term development of specific parts of the brain too.

According to Shlaug, music study also promotes growth of the corpus callosum, a sort of bridge between the two hemispheres of the brain. He found that among musicians who started their training before the age of seven, the corpus callosum is 10-15% thicker than in non-musicians.

Since then, a study by Dartmouth music psychologist Petr Janata published by Science in 2002, has confirmed that music prompts greater connectivity between the brains left and right hemisphere and between the areas responsible for emotion and memory, than does almost any other stimulus.

The scientists concluded that compared to non-musicians, the brains of pianists are more efficient at making skilled movements. Irregardless of the hype surrounding the Mozart Effect, the overall academic evidence for music study as a tool to aid brain development, is compelling.

At the University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco, Dr. Frank Wilson says his research shows instrumental practice enhances coordination, concentration and memory and also brings about the improvement of eyesight and hearing. His studies have shown that involvement in music connects and develops the motor systems of the brain, refining the entire neurological system in ways that cannot be done by any other activity. Dr. Wilson goes so far as to say he believes music instruction is actually 'necessary' for the total development of the brain.

Test your corpus callosum:

I've just discovered a wonderfully simple finger touch procedure that can test the function of your corpus callosum, a key brain structure that connects the two cortical hemispheres.

It is called the 'cross lateralization of fingertips test' and was used in a 1991 study by Kazuo Satomi and colleagues.

It relies on the fact that different hemispheres are responsible for the movements and sensations from each hand.

In other words, each hand is connected to a different side of the brain, and, to allow you to co-ordinate both hands, the brain passes information between the two sides by using the corpus callosum.

The corpus callosum is the largest structure in the brain and works like a huge bundle of white matter 'cables', connecting different areas.

If this structure gets damaged, a patient might have trouble with coordinating their hands, preventing them from matching sensations on one hand with movement on the other, because the information doesn't get to where it's needed.

The test works like this: you need to ask someone to close their eyes and put their hands face up.

You then touch one of their fingertips with a pencil, and with the opposite hand the participant needs to touch the corresponding finger with thumb of the same hand.

For example, if you touched their right ring finger, they would need to touch their left ring finger with their left thumb, as shown in the diagram above.

You need to do this on both hands, with them always touching the corresponding finger on the opposite hand.

It's important that the person keeps their eyes closed, because as soon as they look, they get information from the eyes, which goes to both hemispheres.

Patients who have damage to the corpus callosum (either because of acquired damage or because it just hasn't developed) usually can't do this test, because of the disruption in communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.

Of course, just to be sure its not a problem with movement or sensation in one hand only, the patient is also asked to do another quick test where they're asked touch the exact finger you just touched.

For this part, the sensation and movement happen in the same hand, so information doesn't need to cross the corpus callosum.



By Prof. Dr. Lars Heslet

Clinical supervisor of Rigshospitalet’s intensive care section 4131.


What is new is that, in a number of clinically reliable studies, science has demonstrated that music influences our hormone system, the involuntary nervous system which controls breathing and heart rate, the body’s hormone regulation in stress situations, and also has an effect on the immune system. Furthermore, music alleviates anxiety and improves sleep quality. These effects

have been reported for both awake and anaesthetized patients. The sense of hearing is the only sense which is not blocked out when a person sleeps, and even under deep anesthetic, the ear registers sound.


Stress is often linked to an over activation of these Beta waves, corresponding to

an inadequate ability to relax. Relaxation appears to be directly linked to the extent to which brainwaves move from a Beta pattern to the lower frequency Alpha wave pattern.  The Alpha pattern can be effectively disrupted by sensory stimulation, reasoning, and strong emotions. Alpha waves are most easily triggered by preventing sensory stimulation, for example, with the eyes closed. Dreams, day dreams and states of meditation produce alpha waves, especially in connection with internal images, for example, induced by music.

Music has an effect on chronic stress, judged by measuring cortisol levels in saliva. A stressful situation produced a significant rise in cortisol levels in saliva within 15 minutes. Listening to music led to a significant reduction in the cortisol concentration in saliva, which after just one hour was back down to the normal level (3). Television is not able to provide such deep relaxation, it simply creates more confusion.

It seems that there exists a correlation between early musical training and how strong the connection is between neurons in the brain; and even development of new routes. Studies have shown that there is a strong relationship between music training and long-term development in certain areas of the brain.


As we find more information to help the readers we will certainly post it! Hope you found this as helpful as I have! Blessings~