International publications are a major recognition of the internationalisation of any discipline. We have mapped out more than 100 international tourism publications about Brazil written in English. The complete list is presented below.

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Edited books

Lohmann, G., & Dredge, D. (Eds.). (2012). Tourism in Brazil: environment, management and segments: contemporary geographies of leisure, tourism and mobility. Oxon (UK): Routledge.

Since the 1990s, tourism has become a major driver of economic activity and community development in Brazil. New policies and approaches, growing expertise and investment in tourism have brought significant transformation in tourism products, destination development and community involvement. In addition Brazil will be hosting two major sport events in the years ahead, i.e. the Soccer World Cup, in 2014, and the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, in 2016. Brazil offers many cultural and natural attractions but, similar to many other developing countries, it still struggles with issues such as infrastructure, accessibility, product development, service quality, market access and workforce training.
This book provides an in-depth examination of tourism in Brazil, critically reviewing its development and management. The social, economic, political and environmental contexts of this emerging global power provide an intriguing backdrop. The book considers important development issues such as the changing policy context, community benefit tourism and indigenous tourism. It explores the impacts of tourism on the environment, changing community attitudes towards tourism, transport infrastructure and sustainability issues in events. Particular segments are explored including backpacker tourism, sensual tourism, adventure tourism and ecotourism and the implications for tourism research and education are examined. The book draws from theoretical foundations and practical insights, and gives voice to Brazilian researchers who are actively engaged in researching tourism.
Drawing from cutting edge cross-cultural research, this original and timely book will be of interest to students, researchers and academics in the areas of Tourism, Geography and related disciplines.

Summary: 1. Introduction 2. Tourism Development, Policy and Planning in Brazil 3. Community Based Tourism: Sustainability as a Matter of Results Management 4. Tourism Transport Issues in Brazil 5. Sustainability Dilemmas for Brazil in Hosting Mega-Sport Events 6. Challenges and Opportunities for Small Businesses in and around Brazilian 7. Tourism Development and Distribution Channels in Brotas: Brazilian Adventure 8. Protecting Sea Turtles via Ecotourism: The Case of the TAMAR Project in Praia do Forte, Bahia 9. Backpacker Tourism in the Brazilian Amazon: Challenges and Opportunities 10. Sensual Tourism in Brazil: The Off-Season Carnival (Micareta) Experience 11. Staged Indigeneity and the Pataxó 12. Tourism Education and Research in Brazil 13. Conclusion.


Bar-El, R. (2008). Regional development and conflict management: a case for Brazil. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

This book is about the courageous decision taken by the Government of a Ceara, Brazil, to tackle the painful economic and social conflict caused by the enormous gap between rich and poor. Instead of confining their attempts to easy solutions like transfer payments, the Governor of the State, Tasso Ribeiro Jereissati, decided in 2001 to cut straight into the roots of the problem, aiming to develop a genuine understanding of the conflict between growth and distribution, and thereby provide real, long-term solutions to the state's problems. Pedro Sisnando Leite, then Secretary of Rural Development, led this effort together with other state secretaries, particularly Monica Clark Nunes Cavalcante, Carlos Matos Lima and Alex Araujo. The book presents the results of a unique harmonic integration between academic research, public policy elaboration, and concrete implementation of public measures. The policies devised, implemented and evaluated in this book are focused on potential solutions to this market failure, at both the regional level and the local level.Studied and endorsed by many academics and policy makers around the world, the model of Ceara provides a unique and exemplary solution to conflict and inequality.

Leal, S. (2010). Quality in Tourism Higher Education in Brazil: The Voices of Undergraduate Students. Cologne: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

This book was motivated by recent developments in the provision of tourism higher education in Brazil and by the author''s experience as a lecturer in that country. The existing models of quality management in tourism higher education are critiqued and a focus on the student voice on quality is advocated as an alternative. The main aim was to fill in a gap in the literature and to provide a critique of quality in tourism higher education in Brazil based on the voices of students, how lecturers respond to those voices and the existing literature and models. In order to do so, two phases of fieldwork were conducted, one with undergraduate students and the other with their lecturers. The results were linked back to the key concepts discussed on the literature review to produce a critique of quality in tourism higher education in Brazil.

Oliveira, J. A. P. (2008). Implementation of Environmental Policies in Developing Countries: A Case of Protected Areas and Tourism in Brazil. Albany (EUA): State University of New York Press.

Environmental policy implementation in developing countries faces a number of institutional obstacles. Using the case of protected areas and tourism development in the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, Jose Antonio Puppim de Oliveira explores how economic development interests tend to have a higher priority on most governments’ agendas in developing countries. Government agencies often fail to implement environmental protection policies mainly because they lack political support, have insufficient resources, have underdeveloped institutional capacity, and tend to overlook the importance of cooperation at the local level. Puppim de Oliveira explains how this trend may be reversed by decentralizing policy implementation into the hands of development-oriented agencies. To make the process work, central authorities should offer incentives to ensure increased attention to environmental protection objectives in the development process. At the same time, an independent body with oversight authority should be in place to prevent development agencies from neglecting environmental concerns.

Slob, B., & Wilde, J. (2006). Tourism and Sustainability in Brazil: The Tourism Value Chain in Porto de Galinhas, Northeast Brazil. Amsterdam: Somo - Center for Research in Multinational Corporations.

How can financial ‘leakages’ from tourism be limited in order to maximise the value for local economic development? This report maps the value chain of tourism in Brazil, and in a case study of Porto de Galinhas, a small village in Brazil’s northeast, to identify leakages and sustainability issues in the tourism industry. Topics covered include cultural impacts, economic sustainability, poverty alleviation and income inequality, as well as child labour and child prostitution and trafficking, sex tourism. The report also analyses sub-sectors of the tourism industry such as accommodation, transport, recreational services, and souvenirs. Recommendations are offered for how companies, local entrepreneurs, governments and tourists can act to ensure that tourism contributes to the sustainable development of local communities that is socially, culturally and ecologically sustainable. These include: an efficient and reliable information and hotel classification system should be developed; companies should invest in the human capital of their staff; companies in the value chain should promote local sourcing and hire local people. This report is part of a project to develop an innovative method for the analysis of value chains in the tourism sector. The project’s Brazilian partner organisation, CICLO, produced a research report on the case study with recommendations on how to make the value chain of tourism in Porto de Galinhas more sustainable and how to retain more value in the region.

Journal articles

Abdalla, M. M., Ribas, J. R., & Vieira, P. R. d. C. (2014). The antecedents of word of mouth intentions about a Brazilian tourist destination. Tourism and Management Studies, 10(1), 104-111.

The purpose of this research is to assess the constructs positive affection, negative affection, service quality, hedonic value, utilitarian value and satisfaction as antecedents considered by foreign tourists in their intention to recommend a Brazilian tourist destination. The analysis was supported by structural equation modeling of a cross-sectional sample of 203 foreign tourists. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire of 22 questions, adapted from the study by Babin, Lee, Kim & Griffin (2005). Regarding the objective of this study, the results suggest that only the latent variables satisfaction and hedonic value are directly related to the intention to recommend a Brazilian tourist destination by foreign tourists. Furthermore, the analysis confirms that tourist satisfaction positively influences intention to recommend the destination, which is consistent with the hypothesis signalized by previous studies.

Alberigi, S., Pecequilo, B. R. S., Lobo, H. A. S., & Campos, M. P. (2011). Assessment of effective doses from radon levels for tour guides at several galleries of Santana cave, Southern Brazil, with CR-39 detectors: preliminary results. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 145, 252-255.

Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in Santana cave, the most frequented cave of PETAR (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), situated southern of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The measurements were carried out with CR-39 detectors installed in four of the most frequently visited galleries. Preliminary results from November 2009 to June 2010 show radon concentrations varying from 1.9±0.1 to 8.4±0.6 kBq m−3. The total annual effective dose for all galleries was 3.32 mSv. The complete evaluation will be concluded by September 2010.

Alekseev, K. P. G., & Seixas, J. M. (2009). A multivariate neural forecasting modeling for air transport - preprocessed by decomposition: a Brazilian application. Journal of Air Transport Management, 15(5), 212-216.

An artificial neural forecasting model is developed for air transport passenger analysis. It uses a preprocessing method that decomposes information to reveal relevant features from the data. It is found that neural processing outperforms the traditional econometric approach and offers generalization on time series behavior, even where there are only small samples.

Almeida, M. V. (2011). The development of social tourism in Brazil. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(5), 483-489.

This article reflects on the origins and development of social tourism in Brazil, with particular reference to the socio-economic conditions in the country. It discusses the theoretical conceptualisation of social tourism and its implementations in the non-European context. The case study presented here is based on a secondary bibliographical research of existing definitions and an in-depth analysis of the political conditions that have framed its development. More particularly, this article will discuss public initiatives since the Labour Party gained power in Brazil in 2003. Apart from public sector involvement in social tourism, this article also examines the role of the third sector in provision. The example of Social Service of Commerce will be presented. This article will conclude by evaluating the phenomenon of social tourism in Brazil, highlighting where progress has been made and which are the key challenges that need to be overcome.

Altmark, S., Mordecki, G., Santiñaque, F., & Risso, W. A. (2013). Argentinian and Brazilian Demands for Tourism in Uruguay. Tourism Analysis, 18(2), 173-182.

Argentinian and Brazilian demands for tourism in Uruguay are analyzed separately. these countries represent 66.25% of the receptive tourism in Uruguay; however, they present different characteristics. two long-run relationships among tourism expenditures—income and real touristic exchange rate—are found by applying the co-integrating methodology. the income–demand elasticity is positive and larger than one in both cases, confirming the hypothesis that tourism is a luxury good. moreover, this elasticity is smaller in Argentina (1.899) than in the Brazilian case (2.679). the relatively larger inelasticity in the Argentinian case could be due to the important percentage of Argentinian with second homes in Uruguay. In addition, the real touristic exchange rate elasticity is positive and more inelastic in the Argentinian case (0.623) than in brazil (1.168).

Alves, S., & Hilal, A. V. G. d. (2009). Tourism development: sustainable or sustained? Intercultural reflections on the case of Praia do Forte-Bahia, Brazil. Pasos: Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 7(3), 503-514.

This article adopts qualitative exploratory research, undertaken by means of a single-case study on Praia do Forte, a tourism destination located on the Brazilian coast. Use was made of secondary data and in-depth interviews with local residents, to answer the research question of how this destination could follow a path of tourism development in a way that differentiates it from similar ones; and, as secondary objective if the degree of current development can still be seen as sustainable. Based on a systematic perspective of tourism, we seek to extend the vision of development so as to include sociocultural and environmental dimensions of sustainability based on Sachs' (1986) model. The results indicate that three factors seem to answer the question.

Araujo, L. M., & Bramwell, B. (2002). Partnership and regional tourism in Brazil. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(4), 1138-1164.

Partnerships in planning for regional development can bring together stakeholders representing interests at national, regional, and local geographical scales. This paper examines a regional tourism development partnership in Northeast Brazil. It explores the effects of socioeconomic and political contexts on this collaborative arrangement, the processes of joint working, and how participation was extended to parties not attending the regular meetings. The partnership focused on coordination among government organizations at different spatial scales and with various functions, with participants largely confined to the public sector. Using this assessment, an analytical framework is presented to assist other researchers interested in this theme.

Araujo, L. M. d., & Bramwell, B. (1999). Stakeholder assessment and collaborative tourism planning: the case of Brazil's Costa Dourada Project. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(3-4), 356-378.

The paper reviews approaches to identifying the stakeholders who are affected by a tourism project and who might participate in collaborative tourism planning. Two such approaches are discussed and analysed based on research carried out on stakeholders affected by the Costa Dourada project, a regional tourism planning initiative in north-east Brazil. The first approach involves assessing the stakeholders who had participated in the project planning by attending local workshops or project meetings intended to promote collaborative planning. The second involves interviewing a sample of stakeholders affected by the project and also stakeholders directly involved in the project planning, asking them for their views on stakeholders they consider relevant to the project but who were not participants in the planning process. These two approaches are used to examine whether the range of stakeholders participating in the planning process was representative of the stakeholders affected by the project and was also likely to encourage consideration of the diverse issues of sustainable development. It is found that varied stakeholders had participated in the planning process, but there was only limited participation by the private sector and environmental NGOs.

Aspelin, P. L. (1977). The anthropological analysis of tourism: indirect tourism and political economy in the case of the mamainde of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(3), 135-160.

Tourists do not always directly descend upon a host culture but, in some cases, may only indirectly contact a people or an area. A particular example of this is presented as the type case of “Indirect tourism,” defined as a situation wherein indirect contact between tourists and host is maximized at the expense of direct contacts. Data for the Mamainde Indians (a dialect group of the Nambicuara of Mato Grosso, Brazil), studied in 1968–1971, illustrate that tourists could show they “visited the Indians” without directly bothering them at all, simply by purchasing Mamainde artefacts from Indian agencies located in the provincial capitals. This field data is analyzed in terms of cultural, economic, and political factors. Some models of cultural contact, provided by the Brazilian anthropologists Robert Cardoso de Oliveira and Darcy Ribeiro, are discussed and modified in the light of this field data, resulting in a generalized model of cultural contact now also suitable for the anthropological analysis of tourism. Tourism, as one form of cultural contact, is placed clearly within the general domain of political economy and the ethics of decision-making regarding the tourist industry are discussed for these types of cases.

Bandyopadhyay, R., & Nascimento, K. (2010). "Where fantasy becomes reality": how tourism forces made Brazil a sexual playground. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(8), 933-949.

This paper examines the political economy of tourism representations and destination imaging in Brazil and its effect on tourism impacts in the country. The central argument is that the way Brazil and its women are represented in tourist images has an important effect on how they are consumed. By investigating the representation of Brazil and its women during colonial times by Europeans, by the Brazilian Government and by the contemporary Western media, this study explores how these representations have made Brazil a sexual playground for tourists. The study contributes to the tourism literature by concluding that Brazil's image is not a direct outcome of tourism representations alone; rather its destination image is strongly connected with complex historical, political and cultural processes.

Bartholo, R., Delamaro, M., & Bursztyn, I. (2008). Tourism for Whom?: Different Paths to Development and Alternative Experiments in Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, 35(3), 103-119.

The tourism policies pursued by the Brazilian government since the 1990s have not produced the benefits that were expected from mass tourism. The example of two very successful cases of community-based tourism, stressing paths rooted in a development model that is fair and environmentally responsible, shows that tourism development can improve the quality of life in communities that receive an influx of tourists provided that the local community is taken into account and the planning and implementation of such development focus on creating opportunities and benefits for its members.

Bécherel, L. (2001). A framework for human resources development strategy at the macro-level: a situational analysis of tourism human resources in Bahia, Brazil. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1(3-4), 73-97.

This article focuses on human resources development (HRD) strategy for the tourism sector. It describes a framework based on the strategic planning process comprising a series of steps to examine the conditions of tourism employment and the labour market at a destination and to identify barriers to HRD. Experience shows that the success of a strategic plan relies on the involvement of all players in the tourism industry in its elaboration and implementation, and it is argued that an advisory body must be created to develop HRD strategy. A case study is presented illustrating one of the stages of the process-a situational analysis of tourism human resources and education provision in the northeastern Brazilian State of Bahia.

Belfort, M., Lang, H. R., & Teuscher, H. (1980). The importance of inland tourism for regional planning and development. With special reference to Minas Gerais, Brazil. Applied Geography and Development, 16, 92-104.

Beni, M. C. (1990). Higher level education and qualification in tourism: 21st century demands and needs.

Beni, M. C. (1990). Higher level education and qualification in tourism: 21st century demands and needs. Tourism Review, 45(4), 15-21.

Developing skilled manpower for the tourist industry is an extremely complex issue, and even today its total magnitude remains largely unknown. Because the problem is still so inadequately understood, some groups have been led to question college professional education in Tourism, and even propose the elimination of this career from university centers.

Bettini, H. F. A. J., & Oliveira, A. V. M. (2008). Airline capacity setting after re-regulation: the Brazilian case in the early 2000s. Journal of Air Transport Management, 14(6), 289-292.

The Brazilian airline industry is one of the few cases where there was temporary re-regulation of the market after years of economic liberalization. This was done on the basis of excess capacity and after systemic financial crises. Regulators reintroduced mechanisms for market intervention in 2003–2004, with airlines no longer allowed to expand frequencies and fleets at will. Additionally, a code-share agreement between the two biggest network carriers was encouraged to increase the overall profitability. This study looks at an extensive panel of routes to identify elements that affected the decisions Brazilian domestic scheduled passenger airlines made regarding capacity, the factor most affected by the re-regulation.

Blake, A., Arbache, J. S., Sinclair, M. T., & Teles, V. (2008). Tourism and poverty relief. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(1), 107-126.

This paper examines the issue of how tourism affects poverty in the context of its effects on an economy as a whole and on particular sectors within it. A framework for analyzing the channels through which tourism influences different households is developed, and a computable general equilibrium model of the Brazilian economy is used to examine the economic impact and distributional impacts of tourism in the country. It is shown that the effects on all income groups are positive. The lowest income households benefit but by less than some higher income groups. Policies that could redistribute greater shares of the revenue to the poor are considered.

Botterilla, D., Seixas, S. R. D. C., & Hoeffel, J. L. (2014). Tourism and transgression: resort development, crime and the drug economy. Tourism Planning & Development, 11(1), 27-41.

This article aspires to open a new line of conceptual analysis in the tourism development literature by exploring the relationships between resort development, violent crime and the drug economy. At the centre of our critical realist analysis is the relationship between tourism and transgression, a relationship that we argue deserves a more central place in researching tourism development. A case study of the north coast of Sao Paulo state is reported. Primary data from field observations and interviews are combined with the analysis of published data on crime and violence in the city and media reports of violence. We synthesise a range of academic literatures, published in both English and Portuguese, in the fields of criminology, real estate management, demography, health and tourism studies in order to make our arguments. Utilising retroduction, the mechanism “immunisation” is proposed as having explanatory power in understanding the relationship between tourism resort development, violent crime and the drug economy.

Boyen, M. H., & Ogasavara, M. H. (2014). Internationalization patterns of multinational lodging firms in Brazil. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(4), 181-200.

The service sector is emerging in importance in terms of economic development. Although the amount of research on the internationalization process of service industries is growing, investigations on the international lodging industry still lack sufficient research, particularly in relation to emerging economies. This paper aims to fill this gap by conducting an investigation into multinational lodging firms that have started operations in Brazil. It intends to determine whether multinational lodging firms follow any temporal, geographical, or entry mode patterns when investing in an emerging market. The findings show that lodging firms in Brazil have followed differing time patterns, but have followed a similar geographical scope. Non-equity involvement was the most favored form of involvement. Although similarities in the geographical and entry mode patterns were observed, the individual lodging firms followed different internationalization and expansion strategies in their entry into Brazil.

Brandão, P. M., Baldi, M., & Alban, M. (2014). De(Centralization) of Brazilian tourism public management: analysis of the involvement of private actors in the National Tourism Council. Tourism and Management Studies, 10

This study analyses the participation of private actors in the process of establishing tourism policy, through the discussions conducted during the National Tourism Council meetings from 2003 to 2008. The study was performed based on a cross sectional and longitudinal perspective, together with case study methodology, allowing the application of network theory and the social network analysis model in a qualitative approach. Throughout this research, it was found that the involvement of councillors in setting government agenda and in developing a National Tourism Policy takes place simultaneously, but not symmetrically. Councillors participate through their initiatives/discussions in meetings, as well as their possession of economic and organisational resources. In addition, although the process of establishing the National Tourism Plans has been the result of a complex network of public and private actors, the National Tourism Council is mostly functioning through the active participation of private actors.

Brida, J. G., Punzo, L. F., & Risso, W. A. (2011). Tourism as a factor of growth - the case of Brazil. Tourism Economics, 17(6), 1375-1386.

International tourism is recognized to contribute to long-run growth through a whole list of diverse channels. This belief that tourism can cause long-run growth is known in the literature as the 'tourism-led growth hypothesis'. This case study of Brazil can be taken as a specific test for such a hypothesis. In the paper, two different econometric methodologies are applied to two distinct data sets, showing that the results are independent of either data or methodology. On the one hand, annual data from 1965 to 2007 for Brazil as a whole are used for a co-integration analysis to look for the existence of a long-run relationship among variables of economic growth, international tourism earnings and the real exchange rate. On the other hand, high-quality data for the 27 Brazilian states, though for a shorter period (from 1990 to 2005), enable the use of the dynamic panel data model proposed by Arellano and Bond (1991). The authors show that the long-run elasticities between real per capita GDP with respect to tourism receipts and the real rate of exchange are 0.13 and 0.30, respectively. Finally, they compare their results with those of similar studies.

Burns, R., & Moreira, J. C. (2013). Visitor Management in Brazil s Protected Areas: Benchmarking for Best Practices in Resource Management. The George Wright Forum, 30(2), 163-170.

Campos, J. (2001). Lessons from railway reforms in Brazil and Mexico. Transport Policy, 8(2), 85-95.

This paper describes the rail restructuring processes in Brazil and Mexico during the 1990s. It first reviews the way in which the transfer of public railroads to private concessionaires was accomplished in these countries, and then focus on the major challenges faced by them just after the privatization. From this analysis, at least three core lessons are drawn: concessioning can be a viable mechanism for rail privatization in some developing countries; regulatory problems inevitably emerge during and after the concessioning process; and, therefore, to minimize them, contract design should be carefully addressed in previous stages of the process.

Carnicelli-Filho, S., Schwartz, G. M., & Tahara, A. K. (2010). Fear and adventure tourism in Brazil. Tourism Management, 31(6), 953-956.

The search for new non-routine emotions and sensations has become a decisive factor in taking part in adventure tourism. As Barros and Dines (2000) have pointed out, Brazil's natural resources are abundant and have been widely used to promote the nation's tourism. Empirical literature describes fear as one of the main emotions in adventure activities, and for this reason a questionnaire was designed to examine the presence of fear before and after three adventure activities (parachuting, white-water rafting, and rock-climbing). This study not only aimed to consolidate fear as a fundamental emotion in performing such activities but also to stimulate interest for further studies in this area.

Correia, A. R., & Wirasinghe, S. C. (2007). Development of level of service standards for airport facilities: application to São Paulo International Airport. Journal of Air Transport Management, 13(2), 97-103.

A methodology for developing level of service (LOS) standards at airport passenger terminals based on user perceptions is developed. The underlying concept is the derivation of quantitative values for passenger perceptions of service based on airport surveys. The check-in counter component is evaluated considering factors that have a bearing on the user perceptions of LOS: processing time, waiting time, and space available per person. The study uses data obtained from a passenger survey conducted at São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport, Brazil. The results indicate that we can derive quantitative perception scales from qualitative survey data. Finally, a multi-attribute analysis is done to obtain a composite evaluation of LOS at the check-in counter as a function of the waiting time, processing time, and space available.

Costa, C., Caçador, S., Carvalho, I., Breda, Z., & Costa, R. (2013). The Influence of Gender and Education-Related Variables on Career Development: The Case of Portuguese and Brazilian Tourism Graduates. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 13(2), 148-169.

This study examines the influence of higher education-related variables on the career paths of tourism graduates in Portugal and Brazil, while taking into account gender differences. It analyzes whether the geographical location of the educational institution, the educational subsystem, and the level of academic degree influence the graduate outcomes of Portuguese and Brazilian tourism graduates in terms of employment rates, salary levels, and entrepreneurial profile. Data provide empirical evidence that pursuing a tourism postgraduate degree provides access to better conditions in the labor market and attenuates gender inequalities. In addition, the geographical location and the educational subsystem are important factors to consider when selecting a Portuguese higher institution in the tourism field.

Costa, T. F. G., Lohmann, G., & Oliveira, A. V. M. (2010). A model to identify airport hubs and their importance to tourism in Brazil. Research in Transportation Economics, 6(1), 3-11.

Air transportation in Brazil has been recently liberalized and one of the consequences of this process is the concentration of flights in a few hubs. During the years 2006–2007 two fatal accidents created unprecedented chaos in both land and air sides of the system with harmful consequences to tourism in Brazil. The consequences were more airport congestion and many episodes of flight delays and cancellations that lasted for several months. We argue that, among other factors, this state of blackout was a result of the increase in the degree of concentration in few airports, particularly Congonhas (in São Paulo) and Brasília. Using data obtained from a survey with Brazilian experts, a comparison was made with two existing methods (the one used by the US Federal Aviation Administration and the usual Herfindahl–Hirschman method) in order to calculate the number of hubs in Brazil. Due to the huge discrepancy obtained between data from the survey and the other two methods considered, a new mathematical method based on the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index was proposed to identify the number of hubs in a given network. Drawing from the examples of what happened to tourist destinations during and after the air transport crisis in Brazil, the article concludes discussing the need for a more accurate tool to identify and to monitor the concentration of flights at the Brazilian air transportation network and its importance to tourism.

Dalonso, Y. d. S., Lourenço, J. M., Remoaldo, P. C., & Panosso Netto, A. (2012). Public policies for tourism in Brazil: an analysis of the national tourism plan for cities. Configurações, 10, 185-198.

Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir o Plano Nacional de Turismo do Brasil - PNT2007/2010, no que diz respeito às políticas públicas para o desenvolvimento turístico nas cidades. Os Macro Programas Nacionais de Infra-Estrutura, Equipamentos, Transporte, Informação e Difusão, bem como os programas do PNT são analisados e discutidos através de pesquisa documental. Esta discussão é baseada numa revisão de literatura internacional. Como resultado, observa-se que o Plano Nacional de Turismo prioriza diretrizes de desenvolvimento do turismo regional, através da adopção de programas nacionais de macro-estratégias que visam reforçar as regiões de turismo do Brasil. Conclui-se que, apesar dos avanços nas políticas nacionais, é importante considerar a necessidade de um maior diálogo entre os municípios e os governos dos Estados e do país. Isto pode ser alcançado através da implementação de mecanismos para monitorizar o processo de desenvolvimento do turismo nos centros de turismo, dado o papel importante das cidades na eficácia das políticas nacionais.

De Moya, M., & Jain, R. (2013). When tourists are your “friends”: Exploring the brand personality of Mexico and Brazil on Facebook. Public Relations Review, 39(1), 23-29.

Adopting Aaker's (1997) framework, this study explored how popular tourist destinations, Mexico and Brazil, communicate their brand personality through Facebook, and which personality traits their Facebook “friends” associate with them. Results of computer-aided content analysis indicated that both countries’ tourism promotion messages emphasize distinct brand personality traits. However, Mexico's public relations efforts were more successful than Brazil's in transferring projected brand personality to its Facebook “friends”.

Di Ciommo, R. C. (2007). Gender, Tourism and Participatory Appraisals at the Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve, Brazil. Human Ecology Review, 14(1), 56-67.

The Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve was created in a region of rich biodiversity, located in the South of Bahia State, Brazil, to meet the revindications of artisanal fishermen in a context of increasing predatory industrial fisheries. The aim of the Marine Extractive Reserve is to improve the sustainability of fisheries stocks and the economy of artisanal fishermen's families, protecting the local biodiversity for the locals' collective use. However, at Corumbau the natives are facing social problems that have increased due to tourism growth. The present research contributes to the Management Plan in sectors that are crucial to assess the aspirations and subjective aspects related to the natives' daily life at individual, familiar and communitary levels. The Participatory Appraisal with a Gender Equity Perspective (PAGP) was applied to five communities at RESEX Corumbau, showing, by gender, the greatest problems artisanal fisheries' families are facing. Tourism is growing in the area, reflecting the residents different and contradictory interests. It can develop commerce and jobs, but also intensify some social and environmental problems in this area.

Divino, J. A., & McAleer, M. (2009). Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental Modelling & Software, 24(12), 1411-1419.

The Amazon rainforest is one of the world's greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world's environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the upper Amazon) and Pará (the lower Amazon), which together account for around 73% of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and are the only states that are serviced by international airports in Brazil's north region. The purpose of this paper is to model and forecast sustainable international tourism demand for the states of Amazonas, Pará, and the aggregate of the two states. By sustainable tourism is meant a distinctive type of tourism that has relatively low environmental and cultural impacts. Economic progress brought about by illegal wood extraction and commercial agriculture has destroyed large areas of the Amazon rainforest. The sustainable tourism industry has the potential to contribute to the economic development of the Amazon region without destroying the rainforest. The paper presents unit root tests for monthly and annual data, estimates alternative time series models and conditional volatility models of the shocks to international tourist arrivals, and provides forecasts for 2006 and 2007.

Edmonds, A. (2011). “Almost Invisible Scars”: Medical Tourism to Brazil. Signs, 36(2), 297-302.

Along with a handful of other nations in the developing world, Brazil has emerged as a top destination for medical tourism. Drawing on the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in plastic surgery wards, this article examines diverse factors—some explicitly promoted in medical marketing and news sources, others less visible—contributing to Brazil’s international reputation for excellence in cosmetic plastic surgery. Brazil’s plastic surgery residency programs, some of which are housed within its public health system, attract overseas surgeons, provide ample opportunities for valuable training in cosmetic techniques, and create a clinical environment that favors experimentation with innovative techniques. Many graduates of these programs open private clinics that, in turn, attract overseas patients. High demand for Brazilian plastic surgery also reflects an expansive notion of female health that includes sexual realization, mental health, and cosmetic techniques that manage reproduction. Medical tourism is sometimes represented as being market‐driven: patients in wealthier nations travel to obtain quality services at lower prices. This article ends by reflecting on how more complex local and transnational dynamics also contribute to demand for elective medical procedures such as cosmetic surgery.

Evangelho, F., Huse, C., & Linhares, A. (2005). Market entry of a low cost airline and impacts on the Brazilian business travelers. Journal of Air Transport Management, 11(2), 99-105.

The wave of airline deregulation has brought out a worldwide phenomenon: low-cost carriers. A recent case is that of Brazil where after 3 years of operation Gol has 20% of the domestic market. The paper investigates whether there is a significant distinction between the market segment of business travelers using the low-cost entrant and those using the full-service carriers, and also looks at the perception of these travelers regarding the key attributes of the services offered. The findings indicate that there is segmentation in the business travel market, suggesting that the preference for traditional airlines is largely a matter of culture of larger organizations, rather than reflecting any type of prejudice concerning the low-cost model. The results are compared to similar studies conducted with UK business travelers.

Ferreira, A. R. R., Lobo, H. A. S., & Perinotto, J. A. J. (2013). Geological Heritage in the Alto Ribeira State and Touristic Park (São Paulo State, Brazil): Inventory and Quantification of Geosites. Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 28, 125-128.

The geological and geomorphological context of The Alto Ribeira State and Touristic Park (PETAR) associated to its great landscape aesthetical value makes the one of most important speleological regions in Brazil. More than 400 caves have been registered (CNC/SBE) with a wide variety of speleothem forms, as well a variety of waterfalls, trails and traditional communities can be found within the Park. The region has a high potential for development of geotourism, therefore a geoconservation strategy should be outlined. The Geological heritage inventory and quantification are the first step to perform a geoconservation strategy, that also includes the classification, conservation, promotion and monitoring of geosites. The proposed methodology for inventory and quantification is based on a range of criteria that covers its scientific, didatic and touristic significance, and is being performed and tested in PETAR.

Filla, G. d. F., & Monteiro-Filho, E. L. d. A. (2009). Monitoring tourism schooners observing estuarine dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) in the Estuarine Complex of Cananéia, south-east Brazil. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 19(7), 772-778.

1.Surveys were carried out between December 2004 and March 2006 on board tourism schooners to detect possible impacts due to tourist activities on estuarine dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) in the Estuarine Complex of Cananéia. * 2.The estuarine dolphins exhibited different reactions according to the different periods of time that the boats remained close to them: the longer the period, the estuarine dolphins reacted less negatively, and for periods between 2 and 30 min, more positive reactions were observed. * 3.Estuarine dolphin reactions also varied according to the different procedures followed by the skippers. The approach methods considered ‘correct’ resulted in a positive reaction from 97% of the animals encountered and 100% of occasions where there were no apparent reactions. * 4.Direct approaches to within less than 50 m were responsible for a large number of negative reactions from the estuarine dolphins. Procedures classified as ‘chasing’ and ‘direct approach with no intention of stopping’ had a 100% negative reaction. If the skippers used a correct approach, estuarine dolphins reacted positively or did not show any reaction.

Flecha, A. C., Lott, W., Lee, T. J., Moital, M., & Edwards, J. (2010). Sustainability of Events in Urban Historic Centers: The Case of Ouro Preto, Brazil. Tourism & Hospitality: Planning & Development, 7(2), 131-143.

Promoters and planners of events must choose the most suitable venue by considering the creation and development of new venues or the use of previously established areas. The first option is feasible when established areas have a limited capacity. The second is attractive to most promoters, because the space already exists. If the space is, for example, an historic center, it has the potential to enhance the participants' experience. However, such spaces have inherent constraints, and their use may threaten local sustainability. This article examines the concept of sustainability as applied to urban historic centers and the creation and management of festivals and events. It investigates the need for strategic administration and key principles for the development of staging events in urban historic centers. This analysis is illustrated using the example of two events in the urban historic center of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, in Brazil.

Freire-Medeiros, B. (2009). The favela and its touristic transits. Geoforum, 40(4), 580-588.

The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction. Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, is the paradigmatic tourist favela, with tours taking place regularly since the early 1990s and with three thousand tourists visiting the site each month. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the so-called reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation in different tours. The article concludes with some thoughts on tourism activities in impoverished areas.

Frisch, T. (2012). Glimpses of another world: the favela as a tourist attraction. Tourism Geographies, 14(2), 320-338.

The paper explores how the favela turned from a social problem into a touristic attraction by analysing the favela on three spatial levels. The first level deals with its consolidation as a social and geographical space and its manifestation as an international sociological category. On a second level the representations of the favela in public discourse are condensed into two main positions – the problem-centred representation (favela) and the idealized representation (comunidade). On a third level the exploitation of the favela as a touristic space is analysed critically based on guided interviews with tour operators, guides and participating tourists. The results show that ‘favela tourism’ in Rio de Janeiro has reached mass tourism dimensions and is characterized by an almost exclusive dominance of external agencies but little participation of the local population as well as scarce interaction between locals and tourists, who are bonded by the search for the ‘authentic’ other.

Funari, P., Manzato, F., & Alfonso, L. (2013). Tourism and archaeology in Brazil: postmodern epistemology in two case studies. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 17(2), 261-274.

This article discusses the relationship between archaeology and tourism in Brazil. After providing a diachronic perspective of the interaction between both two case studies in which we have been involved are examined: the Palmares maroon (Alagoas) and the Erasmos plantation (São Paulo). They exemplify how since the end of the last dictatorial period archaeology and tourism have been increasingly concerned with the social dimensions of both disciplines.

Gaffney, C. (2010). Mega-events and socio-spatial dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, 1919-2016. Journal of Latin American Geography, 9(1), 1-29.

This article examines the ways in which discourses of urban development and socio-spatial discipline are wrapped around infrastructure development projects associated with recent, future, and proposed international mega-events in Rio de Janeiro. In the past few years the city and state governments of Rio de Janeiro invested billions of dollars in sporting, tourist, transportation and security infrastructures for the 2007 Pan American Games and hundreds of millions of dollars preparing for the 2014 World Cup and bidding (twice) for the 2016 Olympics. By looking at the historical trajectory of mega-events in Rio de Janeiro, I argue that there has been a discernable shift in the ideologies that drive the production of mega-events in the city. These logics have discursively and materially shifted from more localized expressions of notions of social inclusion and industrial democracy in the mid-20th century to reflect the socio-spatial exigencies of capital in a period of accelerated globalization. I suggest that mega-events impose a neo-liberal "shock doctrine", installing temporary regimes of extra-legal governance that permanently transform socio-space in Rio de Janeiro.

Green, C., & Green, A. (2009). Global service learning through green mapping tourism development in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 21(4), 43-54.

Paraty Green Map is a global social responsibility service learning project that promotes sustainable tourism development in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. This project is based on the development of public-private partnerships including universities, the businesses, citizens, and local governments in the United States and Brazil and the United Nations. Paraty Green Map is a project which incorporates “high technology” in the form of web based information sharing and collaboration and “high touch” involving person to person interviews and collaborations within the local community in Paraty, Brazil. The purpose of this project is to reorient tourism activity to those locations that support the local community, maintain ecological integrity, and develop cultural heritage. Students and faculty developed a Green Map Survey instrument; interviewed citizens to learn of the cultural and ecological history; documented sustainable local businesses; and collaboratively designed web pages and an interactive map on the World Wide Web featuring those locations meeting the criteria of being sustainable. Students were able to increase their understanding of international sustainability issues and the challenges and opportunities of working in international partnerships. The outcomes of this project are: 1) student learning through active service in the community and 2) use of technology for the promotion of sustainable tourism practices in Paraty, Brazil.

Greenfield, G. (2010). Reveillon in Rio de Janeiro. Event Management, 14(4), 301-308.

Brazil's extensive Atlantic coastline has profoundly influenced the nation's history, serving as the initial locus for colonial settlement, and, subsequently, the site for almost all its major cities. Rio de Janeiro has long been the nation's dominant international tourist destination. While Carnival remains the city's most popular event, Reveillon, the New Years Eve celebration on Copacabana beach in honor of the sea goddess, Iemanjá, has become a major tourist draw. A familiar personage in Brazilian popular culture, Iemanjá is a major deity in African-Brazilian religions. African and African-Brazilian beliefs, historically associated with lower class and mixed race peoples, were long scorned by Brazilian elites as the superstitious practices of ignorant people. The majority of practitioners of African-Brazilian religions in contemporary Brazil are lower class and visibly of mixed race. The Reveillon evokes and commodifies Brazil's preferred national image as a multicultural, multiracial democracy free of the Western stain of racism. As such, the celebration serves as a confirming ritual for Brazilians while, at the same time, packaging and presenting that image to tourists.

Grünewald, R. A. (2002). Tourism and cultural revival. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(4), 1004-1021.

Cultural change is a recurrent concern in tourism anthropology studies. Host societies frequently remodel their culture following the creation of a tourist resort. But, that does not necessarily imply an acculturating process, since what actually takes place is pragmatic cultural production work in response to the touristic demands that offer consolidated economic alternatives and livelihood. As for the Pataxó Indians of Porto Seguro of Brazil, they have sponsored a “cultural revival” process. In other words, they have generated the traditions that start being exhibited commercially in arenas where the prospect of emergent ethnic tourism is perceived.

Haddad, E. A., Porsee, A. A., & Rabahy, W. A. (2013). Domestic tourism and regional inequality in Brazil. Tourism Economics, 19(1), 173-186.

This paper analyses the consumption patterns of tourists from different domestic origins and choosing different domestic destinations in Brazil in terms of their expenditure level and composition. The authors also look at the various alternatives for financing tourist expenditures and their implications for the net multipliers in an integrated framework. The paper uses survey data for domestic tourism in Brazil to consolidate an interregional matrix of expenditures by tourists and then employs an interregional input–output system for Brazil to compute the tourism multiplier effects based on alternative hypotheses for the sources of financing of tourist expenditures. The results are analysed and their implications for regional inequality in the country are discussed.

Hedegard, D. (2013). Blackness and experience in omnivorous cultural consumption: Evidence from the tourism of capoeira in Salvador, Brazil. Poetics, 41(1), 1-26.

This paper shows how blackness and experience are important aspects of cosmopolitan omnivorous consumption with a case study of capoeira—a Brazilian martial art and popular tourist attraction in Brazil. Participant observation data reveal how interactions between foreign tourists and Brazilian producers associated capoeira objects with symbols of blackness recognizable to Westerners as authentic—specifically Africa, slavery, and the black male body. Meanings preferred by cultural omnivores—namely non-commercial, authentic, and experiential consumption—crystallized around these symbols of blackness. Interactions ascribed this network of symbols and meanings to dark skin-toned Brazilian bodies, excluding lighter skin-toned Brazilians. Tourists consumed these meanings through physical interaction with these bodies. Findings contribute to understanding of cosmopolitan omnivorous consumption, experiential consumption, the social construction of blackness, and mechanisms through which marginalized symbols become valorized.

Hernandez-Ramdwar, C. (2013). African traditional religions in the Caribbean and Brazil: models of religious tourism and impacts of commodification. African traditional religions in the Caribbean and Brazil: models of religious tourism and impacts of commodification, 8(1), 81-88.

African traditional religions (ATRs) in the Caribbean and Brazil are currently undergoing processes of transformation and commodification due to the influx of religious tourism. This research note reflects preliminary findings on the marketing of ATRs in four locales: Santería (Cuba), Candomblé (Brazil), Vodou (Haiti), and Orisha (Trinidad). Methods employed include participant observation, data collection, and textual analysis. This research can assist in assessing the overall impact tourism has on ATRs, potentially influencing public policy on tourism development in the region, as well assisting religious communities to define how and why they engage in tourism, and what forms their tourism product will take. Further research is necessary to track ongoing trends and new developments, particularly where areas of cultural resistance are evident, and more ethical ways of marketing the sacred are being adopted.

Hoeffel, J. L., Fadini, A. A. B., & Suarez, C. F. S. (2009). “The Nature We All Want”—Influences of Sao Paulo Metropolis on Tourism Development in the Bragantina Region, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Tourism & Hospitality: Planning & Development, 6(3), 191-205.

The metropolis of São Paulo comprises the largest urban conglomerate and the most important industrial park in the southern hemisphere and its urban expansion has taken place without any significant concern for its cultural, historical or natural patrimony and tourist potential, leading to a gradual homogenization and depersonalization of the urban area. The Bragantina region, located in the north of the São Paulo metropolis, is nowadays its last urban frontier. Due to difficult access, this region underwent a slow urbanization process that allowed the conservation of an historical and cultural patrimony dating back to the colonial period and of significant remnants of Atlantic forest, one of the tropical forests most threatened with extinction in the world. The doubling of the regional highways that took place in the last 15 years has brought profound changes to the Bragantina region. Nowadays this region is intensively used as a tourist destination for weekend homeowners, events and environmental tourism. Visitors come mainly to explore its natural and cultural aspects, that are sold by real-estate agents and tourism agents, mainly through the use of images in advertisements and folders, as a piece of “wild nature” still preserved on the borders of São Paulo. This approach creates a perspective, described as a simulacrum, a false reality, that is reflected in the ideas of nature held by different tourists and other social actors, but that doesn't express the regional reality. Because intensification of land use has not been accompanied by effective conservation, public policies or involvement of local communities in regional planning, the historical, cultural and environmental patrimony is suffering a range of impacts. In this study we analyse the problems generated by tourism and urbanization in the Bragantina region that have resulted from the expansion of the São Paulo metropolis and characterize ideas of nature that are expressed by different social actors, including tourists, that seem to relate to and to perceive the Bragantina region as an unspoiled and preserved natural area where “nature” can still be found, and where natural resources are saved from environmental degradation, in spite of the actual environmental and cultural changes.

Jesus, V. L. R. D. (2009). Developing sustainable tourism in the Amazon rainforest of Brazil – premises, actions, challenges. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 2(2), 144-152.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a number of premises to develop sustainable tourism in the Amazon region of Brazil and to identify a series of actions implemented by the Government of Brazil in the last five years for the effective development of this activity in the Amazon rainforest. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the global picture of tourism and then focuses on the development of tourism at the national level over the last decade, paying particular attention to some of the strategies needed to pursue sustainable tourism development. This is followed by a discussion of the initiatives adopted by one of the principal players in the region – the Programme for Ecotourism Development in Amazonia of the Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper explores some of the main challenges that both the public and private sectors will face in the coming years as they attempt to accelerate the development of sustainable tourism in the Amazon region. Findings: The paper demonstrates that while significant challenges beset the development of sustainable tourism, the Government of Brazil is committed to the pursuit of the policies and strategies that would maximize the economic benefits of tourism in the Amazon while maintaining and even strengthening the integrity of its environment and its constituent cultural forms. Practical implications: Any paper that examines policy prescriptions, especially with regard to protection of the rainforest, has immediate relevance to various layers of authorities and practitioners. This paper would be of interest to planners at both the federal and state levels in Brazil as well as the non-government organizations and private sector entities concerned in the development and operation of sustainable tourism. Originality/value: This paper lays a solid basis for cross-sectoral research that examines the contribution of specific industrial sectors to the protection of the rainforest in the Amazon of Brazil.

Kim, H., Borges, M. C., & Chon, J. (2006). Impacts of environmental values on tourism motivation: the case of FICA, Brazil. Tourism Management, 27(5), 957-967.

The city of Goias, Brazil, recently launched the International Festival of Environmental Film and Video (FICA) in an attempt to increase tourism revenue and foster an awareness of environmental issues. As an initiative to help develop more effective marketing strategies, this study examined the festival attendees’ sociodemographic/travel characteristics and psychological constructs (motivations and environmental values) using an on-site intercept survey. Specifically, this research examined festival attendees’ motivational differences based on the level of their pro-environmental values, which were measured by the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale. The results indicate that there are some significant motivational differences among the environmental concern groups: Low NEP group, Middle NEP group, and High NEP group. Social marketing approach is recommended for the development of environmentally friendly tourism events.

Knowles, T., Teixeira, R. M., & Egan, D. (2003). Tourism and hospitality education in Brazil and the UK: a comparison. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 15(1), 45-51.

Makes a comparative analysis between undergraduate level courses in tourism/hospitality in Brazil and those in the UK, building on work by Teixeira et al. Analyses courses structure, reason for creation and focus. In Brazil, according to Rejowski, undergraduate university level courses in tourism/hospitality are relatively recent, beginning in the 1970s. The first hospitality course was created by the Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 1978. According to data gathered by the Ministry of Education, there has been an impressive growth in the number of tourism/hospitality undergraduate courses in Brazil. Data provided by the Ministry state that the total number of courses registered is 284; 225 in tourism and 59 in hospitality/hospitality management. First, presents a brief theoretical review about tourism/hospitality education; after that, a description of the methodological approach adopted in this study with a description of type, method, tools, and data collection procedures used in the research. Analyses the results of the project along with comparisons in the UK. Finally, presents a conclusion to this study.

Koo, T. T. R., & Lohmann, G. (2013). The spatial effects of domestic aviation deregulation: a comparative study of Australian and Brazilian seat capacity, 1986–2010. Journal of Transport Geography, 29, 52-62.

The aim of this paper is to examine the link between the volatility of aviation policy and the spatial evolution of air transport supply. We focus on the domestic aviation sector of two comparative cases – Australia and Brazil – each of which represents a large continental country with contrasting levels of policy volatility. We apply generalized entropy indices to measure the changing spatiality of air transport seat capacity over a 25-year period (1986–2010). We find evidence of a correlation between air transport policy volatility and spatiality. Using the generalized entropy indices, the study finds that the spatial evolution of Brazilian air transport capacity is governed by variations among very large airports, which are often subject to policy and regulatory intervention. In contrast, the distributional pattern of Australian airports was relatively stable and characterized by gradual and consolidative changes.

Korstanje, M. E., Tzanelli, R., & Clayton, A. (2014). Brazilian World Cup 2014: terrorism, tourism, and social conflict. Event Management, 18(4), 487-491.

The World cup transcends the interests of culture and nations worldwide. Every 4 years, delegations from the four corners of the world compete for a month. The mass tourist demand an event of this caliber generates prompts policy makers and tourism scholars to devote considerable time in planning in detail the infrastructure and service industry for the benefit of incomers. Unfortunately, in areas of the world plagued by political instability, some groups may use the media events to communicate radical messages to the state. For similar reasons many specialists have studied terrorist attack prevention in the context of event management. This present article is based on the FIFA World Cup in Brazil 2014 to illustrate that terrorism and tourism have been historically intertwined.

Lew, A. A., Beltz, J. B., & Combrink, T. (2005). Management, Interpretation and Visitor Perception in Remote National Parks: Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, Brazil. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 3(1), 1-18.'0301'

Interpretation, the education of visitors and local residents about a park, has the potential to be a major tool to address the management needs of sensitive ecosystems. A review of the park management plan for Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros (PNCV) in Brazil suggests that while interpretation is given some discussion, there are no concrete plans to implement its use for management purposes. Visitors to PNCV felt very positive about their guided experience, but their knowledge of the management issues in PNCV was mixed due to the uncoordinated nature of the information they received. For sustainable development to be successful in the fragile ecosystems found in most national parks, managers need to more aware of the role of interpretation and make use of it to preserve and protect their lands.

Lima, I. B., & d'Hauteserre, A.-M. (2011). Community capitals and ecotourism for enhancing Amazonian forest livelihoods. Anatolia, 22(2), 184-203.

This article examines ‘whether’ and ‘how’ ecotourism functions to strengthen Amazonian livelihoods in remote areas and community capitals as well helping to protect the environment in rural planning and development. It focuses on the role of ecotourism as a possible enhancer of human, social and natural capitals in the Maripá community. Capitals are believed to be the mainstay for group-oriented practices, harmony, dissemination of knowledge, and maintenance of a healthy and sustainable environment. The decision of making ecotourism an avenue for regional planning and development can work better if communities make ecotourism a collective enterprise, producing collective socio-economic and environmental advantages. As a conceptual follow-up to ‘community capitals’, the authors introduce and discuss a hypothetical cycle of anxiety and elation situation in (eco)tourism development. The article is qualitatively oriented, based on participant observations and open interviews that occurred during a three-month field trip in 2005. Updates were done until November 2010. The analysis is centered on Central Amazonia, particularly on the Puxirum ecotourism project in the Arapiuns-Tapajós region.

Lima, M. G. S. (2014). The Brazilian World Cup statute: three aspects on consumer law and the effect on travel and tourism. IFTTA Law Review, 4(2), 10-14.

Lobo, H. A. S. (2015). Tourist carrying capacity of Santana cave (PETAR-SP, Brazil): a new method based on a critical atmospheric parameter. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 67-75.

This article presents a method used to identify thresholds to tourist carrying capacity of Santana cave (CCSC), in Brazil, and their results. The method comprised three steps: the delimitation of the tourist path; the projection of tourist scenarios; and the verification of the scenarios based on a critical atmospheric parameter: the air temperature. The impacts from visitation were up to 1.1 °C and stabilized in 264.1 min, in average. The results were related to the recovery of the critical factor and were compared to the projected scenarios, which were considered as acceptable. Thus, the suggested CCSC was based in groups of 24 visitors with an entrance interval of 30 min in working days and 18 visitors within 20 min in weekends and holidays. The conclusion reinforces the need to understand the tourist carrying capacity as a dynamic tool, not just to limit, but also to improve the tourist visitation.

Lobo, H. A. S., & Moretti, E. V. (2009). Tourism in caves and the conservation of the speleological heritage: the case of Serra da Bodoquena (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil). Acta Carsologica, 38(2-3).

The Serra da Bodoquena is the region in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil in which the municipality of Bonito is located. This municipality is the primary calling card for tourism in the state and is one of the most developed areas of ecotourism and speleotourism in the country. The tourism there is entitled ecotourism, and is designed to be sustainable. The present case study focuses on the ecologically sustainable aspects of the speleotourism practiced there, especially the proposals for tourist carrying capacity adopted. The results and discussion provide suggestions for the adoption of a different formulation of carrying capacity focusing on both operational and quantitative aspects. Ecologically sustainable speleotourism in the Serra da Bodoquena should be possible as long as new proposals limiting visitation are adopted which conform to technical environmental management procedures and consider the interests of local stakeholders.

Lobo, H. A. S., Trajano, E., Marinho, M. d. A., Bichuette, M. E., Scaleante, J. A. B., Scaleante, O. A. F., Rocha, B. N., & Laterza, F. V. (2013). Projection of tourist scenarios onto fragility maps: framework for determination of provisional tourist carrying capacity in a Brazilian show cave. Tourism Management, 35, 234-243.

Traditionally, the concept of tourist carrying capacity has been understood as a tool for planning tourism in natural areas. As such it has focused on quantifying impacts that are consistent with maintaining a specific environment. In this article tourist carrying capacity is considered from a different viewpoint in a case study of a Brazilian show cave, the Diabo cave, near Eldorado city, São Paulo state. In this instance decisions concerning tourism had been based primarily on the advantages that tourism could provide in maintaining economic-administrative sustainability and community support. More recently, other factors based on natural limitations have been considered in a process of participative discussion among stakeholders seeking to preserve the caves and their sustainable usage. This process led to the conclusion that the carrying capacity of the caves should be flexible, conditioned by protocols of environmental monitoring with reference to levels of demand. Such monitoring, it is hoped, will permit the adjustment of the initial cave limits as a function of changes in the patterns of consumption, local realities, and the identification of unanticipated yet unacceptable environmental impacts.

Mariutti, F. G., Giraldi, J. D. M. E., & Costa, A. L. (2013). Brazil's Image Abroad: How Can the Public and Private Sector Partnership Improve Marketing Strategies? Tourism Planning & Development, 10(1), 110-119.

Brazil needs both theoretical and empirical studies to help strengthen its image through complementary business strategies by the public and private sectors. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the image of Brazil and its culture and to suggest marketing communication strategies for appropriate promotional efforts abroad. This is a conceptual paper based on the analysis of relevant literature and available data on the tourism market. The suggestions are made based on five categories of Brazil's image: paradise Brazil, the fragile sex of Brazil, the Brazil of the Brazilian, the country of carnival, and exotic and mystical place. Using the combined work of the public and private sectors along with a communication plan for tourist destinations, negative associations can be re-assessed and improved. By reflecting on and analysing the past, future academic studies can focus on ways to improve tourism, while tourism companies and public policies that will attract international tourism to Brazil can be developed.

Martins, R. S., Labegalini, L., Lobo, D. S., & Carrieri, A. P. (2008). Logistics Managers' Stated Preferences for Supply Management Attributes for the Case of Inns in Brazil. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Research, 19(2), 323-339.

The general aim of this research was to identify the needs and expectations of the inns' managers about service suppliers involved with the tourist industry along “Royal Highway” (in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), as regards the most appropriate strategy for supply logistics for inns, the typical tourism establishment in the region. The features investigated were: Speed of Service, Number of Suppliers, Size of Lots, Supply Operations and Method of Ordering. The Multivariate Stated Preference Technique was used for the statistical treatment of the responses. The results indicate that the respondents' preferred supply scenario has the following characteristics: supplies should be furnished in a responsive manner, within 24 hours, by one or a limited number of suppliers, in small lots delivered to the companies and ordered by telephone. The article concludes that, in order for a strategy to have strong impact on this economic activity in the regions where this research was carried out, it should consider a policy of reducing the supplier base.

Meurer, R. (2010). International travel: the relationship between exchange rate, world GDP, revenues and the number of travellers to Brazil. Tourism Economics, 16(4), 1065-1072.

This paper analyses the behaviour of foreign travellers to Brazil and the revenues thus generated in the balance of payments, using annual data from 1970 to 2007 and quarterly data from 1989 to 2007. The author concludes that the number of travellers is quite sensitive to world income and less sensitive to the exchange rate. Revenues do not react to the exchange rate. Exchange rate has an influence on revenues with a lag of four quarters. These results may mean that the expenditures of foreign travellers are not influenced by their costs measured in the currency of the country of origin.

Miles, A. K., & Sledge, S. (2009). Satisfaction, service, and culture: cross-cultural reflections from the hotel industry. Tourism Culture & Communication, 9(3), 165-179.

Job satisfaction is a desirable outcome for employees and firms, yet factors associated with job satisfaction remain abstract. Motivation is often considered a precursor to job satisfaction. However, the factors that motivate employees are divergent and are likely influenced by culture. Although research has focused on employee motivation and employee job satisfaction, little has concentrated on the differences between South American, North American, and European businesses qualitatively. This study evaluates the applicability of Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation to employees in the hotel industry in Brazil, Mexico, and Spain. The results lend some support to Herzberg's theory. Additionally, cross-cultural insights related to Hofstede's dimensions of culture are also given.

Mitchell, G. (2011). TurboConsumers™ in paradise: Tourism, civil rights, and Brazil's gay sex industry. American Ethnologist, 38(4), 666-682.

In this article, I examine the contradictory ideals and practices of North American gay sex tourists in Brazil. Even as gay travel can be an edifying search for broader community, gay tourists I met also argued that their travel and spending encourage local communities to become more tolerant of gay subjectivities. Gay tourists were attracted by 'exotic' and 'different' local models for same-sex desire, but they simultaneously promoted the universality of 'gay identity' to sex workers as a matter of modernity and gay rights, thereby attempting to delegitimize the very sexual difference that initially attracted them. Moreover, tourists' efforts to link consumer capability to sexual identification and civil rights reflect a larger and even more dangerous tendency to cede ethically grounded claims for equal rights to market-based ones.

Montanari, M. G., Giraldi, J. d. M. E., & Campello, C. A. G. B. (2014). Competitive Analysis of Tourism Sector in Brazil and Switzerland. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(6), 20-29.

This study analysed the relation between the competitiveness in the touristic sector of Brazil and Switzerland and the development of both countries, comparing them using a multi-criterion analysis technique calledTOPSIS. The performance of the countries was assessed based on the similarity with an ideal solution, according to the pillars of competitiveness in tourism criteria, extracted from the accredited World Index ofCompetitiveness in Tourism of 2009. Results give a general and simplified view of these two countries with regard to their competitiveness in tourism, facilitating a direct comparison and showing the superiority ofSwitzerland in relation to Brazil. This superiority was shown in terms of countries scores and in the differences in their ranking positions, considering different applications of the TOPSIS technique. The information generated in this study can be used by the tourism sector and by governments of both countries in order to develop actions and researches in this field.

Moreira, J. C. (2012). Interpretative Panels About the Geological Heritage - a Case Study at the Iguassu Falls National Park (Brazil). Geoheritage, 4(1-2), 127-137.

The Iguassu Falls National Park, located in southern Brazil, has one of the most impressive waterfalls in the world and is one of the biggest natural attractions of Brazil. This region has the potential to join the Global Geoparks Network and to provide geotourism activities. Despite the great potential in terms of its geodiversity, the park lacks informative and interpretative material about the Geological Heritage. To reverse this situation, the Minerais do Paraná (MINEROPAR, i.e., the Geological Survey of the State of Parana) has been placing interpretative panels on protected areas and sites that have geological interest. The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of three interpretative panels implemented by MINEROPAR in the park and, especially to ascertain whether or not they are meeting the expectations of visitors, 300 questionnaires were distributed to the park’s visitors. The methodology also encompassed field trips, consulting the available literature and contact with the managements of the park and the concessionaires. The paper addresses aspects of environmental interpretation, interpretative resources (specifically on interpretative panels), about the Iguassu Falls National Park and finally the results are presented, based on the questionnaires. It was found that most visitors did not read the panel, but these who did so appreciated its content. In conclusion, considerations were made to improve the interpretation of the environment made with the help of interpretative panels.

Nicholls, L. L. (1982). Project Turis - coastal tourism development in Southern Brazil. Tourism Management, 3(3), 196-199.

Dr Nicholls undertook field research at a number of the Brazilian Atlantic Ocean tourist destinations in December 1981–January 1982. The main focus of the research was on the development of coastal tourism within Project Turis—a major state-funded tourism development project. This article reports on the progress of the project, and was prepared for delivery at the annual meeting of the Travel and Tourism Research Association in Miami, FL, USA, 13–16 June 1982.

Niefer, I. A. (2005). Profile of visitors to the island of Superagui, South Brazil. Tourism in Marine Environments, 1(2), 105-119.

This study presents the results of research that was conducted on the island of Superagüi, part of the National Park of Superagüi, state of Paraná, Brazil. A questionnaire with 37 qualitative and quantitative questions was applied. The questionnaire contained aspects of sociodemographic characteristics, trip characteristics, environmental awareness, favorite activities, motivation, and perception of the destination. From the period of December 1998 to May 2000, 327 questionnaires were completed through personal interviews. Benefit segmentation identified five clusters among the visitors: 1) indifferent ones; 2) non-sociable adventurers; 3) sociable adventurers; 4) enthusiasts; and 5) non-sociable naturalists.

Niefer, I. A., Silva, J. C. G. L. D., & Amend, M. (2002). Analysis of the Visitors of Superagüi National Park, Brazil. Current Issues in Tourism, 5(3-4), 208-221.

The present work consists of the analysis of the visitors' profile of the Superagüi National Park, located on the north coast of the State of Paraná, Brazil. During the season 1998/1999 94 interviews were analysed. It was verified that most of the visitors can be considered as 'ecotourists', because their profile fits the one commonly proposed in literature. Visitors' preferences related to activities and infrastructure and critics are valuable indicators for the park's future management.

Nobre, E. A. C. (2002). Urban regeneration experiences in Brazil: Historical preservation, tourism development and gentrification in Salvador da Bahia. Urban Design International, 7(2), 109-124.

Brazil has little experience in balanced urban regeneration and historical preservation projects when compared to more mature countries such as the Europeans. However the recent experience of Salvador da Bahia seems to be worth studying. The Pelourinho historic district is a distinguished example of Portuguese Renaissance urban development, hosting colonial architecture typologies from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Since the late 19th century the area has undergone a remarkable decay process being progressively abandoned by economic activities and population. After the area was considered World Heritage by UNESCO in 1985 both municipal and state governments have taken actions to promote its regeneration. This paper analyses this process considering its implications within the urban design framework. The first part analyses the area morphology as a result of Portugal Colonial policies. The second part assesses degradation as a result of the birth and rise of modern urban planning in Brazil and Bahia. In the next parts the actions of municipal and state authorities are considered as well as their implications considering the economic activities and existing population involved. The conclusion remarks the importance of Salvador experience, establishing its pros and cons.

Oliveira, J. A. P. (2003). Governmental responses to tourism development: three Brazilian case studies. Tourism Management, 24(1), 97-110.

This article examines how and why governments responded to actual or potential investments in tourism development in terms of strategies for environmental management. Three case studies were selected in the Brazilian Northeast to examine how development in the tourism sector created change in environmental policy and management at local level. Government strategies were managed by different jurisdictions of government and had diverse interactions with civil society and external actors. From the case studies, the most typical responses of local and regional governments could be divided into four groups: (a) building institutional capacity, (b) investing in environmental projects, (c) controlling development and tourist flow, and (d) creating protected areas. The article analyzes under what conditions governments tend to adopt each of the different strategies.

Oliveira, J. A. P. (2005). Tourism as a force for establishing protected areas: the case of Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 13(1), 24-49.

Tourism development and environmental protection are intertwined processes. Protected areas have been established to both promote nature-based tourism as well as control the environmental impacts of tourism development. Therefore, tourism has been a force to motivate the creation of protected areas in several developing countries. This article examines the roles of governments, and local and external actors in the policymaking process of establishing protected areas, using as a case study the establishment of environmentally protected areas in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

Oliveira, J. A. P. d. (2002). Implementing Environmental Policies in Developing Countries Through Decentralization: The Case of Protected Areas in Bahia, Brazil. World Development, 30(10), 1713-1736.

Governments have two apparently conflicting roles to play: promoter of economic development and protector of environmental quality. Economic development interests tend to have priority on the agenda of most developing country governments, creating obstacles to the implementation of environmental protection policies. This trend can be reversed by introducing environmental protection concerns into the mainstream development agenda by decentralizing environmental policy implementation to development-oriented agencies. In the case of the government of the Brazilian State of Bahia, the decentralized creation and administration of protected areas among several agencies at the state level primarily accounted for the ability of the state to establish a large number of protected areas.

Pacheco, R. R., & Fernandes, E. (2003). Managerial efficiency of Brazilian airports. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 37(8), 667-680.

The efficiency of 35 Brazilian domestic airports was discussed with a view to identifying avenues to improvement in two dimensions. The first of these is improved management, which shows in the airport’s ability to generate financial returns. The second is the physical dimension, which shows the level of utilization of airport infrastructure. The data envelopment analysis methodology was used to measure distance from the airport efficient frontier and to enable avenues to managerial improvement to be identified.

Pacheco, R. R., Fernandes, E., & Santos, M. P. S. (2006). Management style and airport performance in Brazil. Journal of Air Transport Management, 12(6), 324-330.

The intention to privatize Brazilian public enterprises dates from 1990. As with other enterprises, a board was appointed at the Brazilian Airport Infrastructure Enterprise to prepare it for privatization. Although the enterprise remains public, there are clear signs of substantial changes in the airports it manages. This study uses data envelopment analysis techniques to investigate the impacts of changes in managerial style on airport performance between 1998 and 2001. Despite a decline in operational performance, financial performance improved.

Parizzi, M. G., Velasquez, L. N. M., Uhlein, A., Aranha, P. R. A., & Gonçalves, J. M. (2001). Environment, tourism and land use planning - Riachinho Basin, Brazil. Environmental Management and Health, 12(1), 57-66.

Santana do Riacho County, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is located in an area known for its natural beauty. The growth of tourism has been the main economic activity of this area. In order to achieve organized land occupation and self-sustained development, thematic maps of the physical environment were elaborated. Analysis of the water sources supply and recreation have been completed. The risk of water contamination has increased, caused by the increase of tourism activities in this area, added to by local authorities policy. The analysis of all the thematic maps and of the quality of the water sources supply of the area, lead us to develop proposals for land use planning and zoning, adequate for the local conditions and the vulnerability of the underground water contamination. These issues are important concerning the local development and also land use, caused by the tourism activities.

Pegas, F. d. V., & Castley, J. G. (2014). Ecotourism as a conservation tool and its adoption by private protected areas in Brazil. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(4), 604-625.

Ecotourism in private reserves combines the establishment of protected areas with an incentive mechanism to conserve biodiversity. Brazil's private reserve system is well-established but little is known about its links to tourism. This study puts the global private protected area into context and quantifies the extent to which ecotourism has been adopted as a sustainable land-use practice on private reserves in Brazil. Our findings demonstrate that small reserves do contribute to conservation and are used for ecotourism. The belief that large reserves are necessary for ecotourism and conservation is challenged. Only 4% (n = 45) of the 1182 reserves are engaged in ecotourism, mainly those within the Atlantic Forest biome and these are generally small in size (<50 ha). Reserves provide modest to basic accommodation as well as education and economic opportunities that include adjacent communities. Hiking and bird watching are the most popular activities but many reserves are threatened by poaching and invasive species. The low adoption of ecotourism appears due to a combination of factors, including lack of landowner interest, constraints imposed by regulations, logistics and anthropogenic threats. Nonetheless, there is potential to expand ecotourism within private reserves as 143 further private reserves are located near those already engaged in ecotourism.

Pegas, F., Coghlan, A., & Rocha, V. (2012). An exploration of a mini-guide programme: Training local children in sea turtle conservation and ecotourism in Brazil. Journal of Ecotourism, 11(1), 48-55.

This study explores the mini-guide programme delivered by the Brazilian Sea Turtle Conservation Program (Tartarugas Marinhas or TAMAR) in the fishing community of Praia do Forte, Bahia, Brazil. Established in 1995, this programme lasts 1 year, training local children, aged 10–14 years, in guiding skills and learning about sea turtles and marine ecosystems. The children also receive a monthly stipend. In-depth semi-structured interviews with 77 local community members were conducted during 9 months of ethnographic research to assess perceptions about the programme. The interviews also included seven former students who provided an evaluation of the programme from their perspective. The results indicate community-wide support for the programme, with locals focussing not only on greater environmental awareness of the children (or Tamarzinhos, as they are called), but also on the personal development as a result of participation. Former Tamarzinhos themselves agree with this assessment and demonstrate knowledge gain and positive behaviour about conservation of marine species, new aspirations towards higher education, greater training and skill acquisition. As such, long-term environmental programmes such as the mini-guide programme at TAMAR can promote socio-economic and environmental changes that last throughout the youth and adult lives of the children.

Pegas, F. D., & Stronza, A. (2010). Ecotourism and sea turtle harvesting in a fishing village of Bahia, Brazil. Conservation and Society, 8(1), 15-25.

Many environmentalists believe ecotourism has the potential to generate net benefits for people and nature. For more than two decades, the Brazilian Sea Turtle Conservation Program (TAMAR) has provided jobs and income through ecotourism in Praia do Forte, Brazil, in exchange for reduced harvesting of sea turtles. In this article we evaluate the relationships between ecotourism at TAMAR and local support for sea turtle conservation. Nine months of ethnographic research (2006-2008) suggest that ecotourism-related employment and income have been somewhat stable and reliable. The average income of respondents who worked with TAMAR was lower than that reported by people not working with TAMAR. Workers noted other non-economic benefits. Though the majority supported sea turtle conservation, it is unclear how feelings will waver with new mass tourism developments in the region. As the cost of living increases, residents may increasingly be inclined to look for work outside TAMAR. Development also attracts new immigrants, making it difficult for locals to control sea turtle harvesting. These trends challenge the notion that economic incentives for locals alone will ensure conservation. Further research is needed to understand the conditions under which ecotourism may foster long-term conservation in the face of larger developments surrounding community ecotourism projects.

Pegas, F. D. V., Coghlan, A., Stronza, A., & Rocha, V. (2013). For love or for money? Investigating the impact of an ecotourism programme on local residents' assigned values towards sea turtles. Journal of Ecotourism , 12(2), 90-106.

This study adopts an ‘assigned values’ conceptual model to explain the formation of values and behaviours related to sea turtles at an ecotourism project in Brazil. For over 25 years, the Brazilian Sea Turtle Conservation Programme (TAMAR) has used ecotourism to protect sea turtles in the fishing village of Praia do Forte. The village beaches are prime nesting sites for endangered marine turtles, traditionally harvested on a regular basis, despite federal bans. Seventy-seven residents, including 25 TAMAR workers, were interviewed. Results indicate an overall support for TAMAR, turtle conservation, and implementation of ecotourism initiatives. Both TAMAR workers and non-workers were equally likely to support turtle conservation for the economic role that turtles play in the local economy, with variations in perceptions about their intrinsic or ecological values. Changes in use and values are positive indicators that education and economic benefits from ecotourism can generate support for conservation. However, such outcomes are not necessarily a result of greater stewardship but rather of changes in the social, cultural, and economic dynamics of the village. A better understanding of the factors that drive people to support conservation initiatives, both in terms of values and behaviours, are essential if conservation efforts are to succeed.

Pereira, E. (2005). How do Tourist Guides Add Value to an Ecotour? Interpreting Interpretation in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. FIU Hospitality Review, 23(2), 40756.

In Ecotourism, interpretation by a guide creates or shapes the experience for the tourist, differentiating one episode from another. As such, the guide S interpretation adds value to the tourism product and contributes to the visitor S experience. This paper discussed the role of interpretation by guides in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, finding in them patterns from which lessons may be drawn. Given the intangibility of the Ecotourism product, this paper argues that it is the guide who defines the quality of the product. The guide may draw the tourist toward or away from sustainable practices, and significantly contributes to the success or failure of the escotouristic venture. The State of Amazonas in Brazil already has guides, but this study questions their education and training in interpretive skills as well as their professional organization and working conditions.

Pereira, E. M., & Mykletun, R. J. (2012). Guides as contributors to sustainable tourism? A case study from the Amazon. Guides as Contributors to Sustainable Tourism? A Case Study from the Amazon, 12(1), 74-94.

The overall aim of this case study was to further the understanding of tour guides' contribution to sustainable tourism. First, it expands on Cohen's (1985) and Weiler and Davis' (1993) schematic representation of guides' roles by adding an “economy sphere” to encompass sustainable principles. Second, it examines the congruence between guides' roles and the study's established sustainable tourism criteria by operationalizing the framework with empirical data. Third, it analyzes the guides' population and their organization to identify possible explanations for the ways they conduct their roles. Data for this study were collected in the Municipality of Manaus in the Brazilian Amazon. Questionnaires, interviews and participant observation were applied to a sample of 36 guides, and archival data were studied to determine public sector involvement. The study concludes that guides' contribution to sustainable tourism development is low. They are mainly “pathfinders”, bringing visitors to sites and local communities, without interpretation that includes the relevance of the Amazon rainforest at local and global levels, and thereby do not address sustainability issues. The shortcomings are attributed to lack of competence in interpretative skills and lack of knowledge about sustainability. Moreover, a suboptimal work organization counteracts professional skills development. Given the potential that guides have to contribute to any destination's sustainability, the paper argues that the research has relevance to other world destinations.

Pinho, P. S. (2008). African-American roots tourism in Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, 35(3), 31594.

The novelty of African-American roots tourism to Brazil is that to some extent it defies the secondary position occupied by Brazil in the African diaspora, a context marked by the hegemony of U.S.-centric conceptions of blackness. At the same time, roots tourism entails three kinds of inequalities: the disparity between those who have access to travel and those who do not, the belief of many African-American tourists that they can exchange what they view as their “modernity” for the “traditions” of the local black communities with whom they interact during their travels, and the much greater access of African-Americans to the means by which Africa and the diaspora can be represented. Blacks located in the North and the South of the American continent have unequal access to global currents of power. Thus, at the same time that it offers the possibility of challenging traditional North-South flows of cultural exchange, African-American roots tourism confirms the existing hierarchy within the black Atlantic.

Reis, A., & Hayward, P. (2013). Pronounced Particularity: A Comparison of Governance Structures on Lord Howe Island and Fernando de Noronha. Island Studies Journal, 8(2), 285-298.

This paper compares and contrasts the management systems and governance structures of two island sites with national and international World Heritage recognition: Lord Howe Island (off the mid-east coast of Australia) and Fernando de Noronha (off the north-east coast of Brazil). Using historical and contemporary references, the paper explores the manner in which two distinct approaches to governance are implicated in the daily living of community members, and considers their socioeconomic activities. We use the case of tourism and World Heritage management as examples of the complexities involved in the different forms of governance structures adopted by these two small oceanic islands: similar in nature and official status, but significantly different when the outcomes of their governance practices are analysed. In the final part of the paper, we suggest mechanisms and approaches that can promote sustainable local engagement with island issues.

Rezende-Parker, A. M., Morrison, A. M., & Ismail, J. A. (2003). Dazed and confused? An exploratory study of the image of Brazil as a travel destination. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 23(9), 243-259.

The tourism industry in Brazil has been growing sharply in the past few years. Among its visitors, US citizens are one of the most important and attractive markets for the Brazilian tourism industry. It is believed, however, that most Americans still know little about Brazil and what it has to offer. This study had three objectives: determine the images that American citizens interested in travel and tourism have of Brazil as a travel destination, determine if they differentiate Brazil from neighbouring Hispanic countries and group them according to similar images of Brazil. Online discussion groups on travel and tourism were used to obtain a sample of this population. The results indicated that ‘natural attractions/interest’ and ‘vacation atmosphere/exoticness’ were the two most important images of Brazil among the respondents. The results also indicated that respondents were unable to differentiate Brazil from Hispanic countries.

Ribeiro, L. C. d. S., & Andrade, J. R. d. L. (2014). Characterization of tourism clusters in Brazil. Tourism Economics, Online First

The objective of this paper is to portray the features of touristic services in Brazil, looking to identify similarities and differences among the regions of the country. To do so, two complementary techniques are applied: cluster analysis and shift-share. The main results indicate the existence of five tourism clusters in the country, the best of them (clusters 1 and 2) predominantly comprising touristic services located in the meso-regions of the South and Southeast of Brazil, notably the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the meso-regions of the North of Ceará, the Agreste of Pernambuco, the North of Rio de Janeiro state, metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, central Rio de Janeiro state, Assis, Araraquara, Araçatuba and Distrito Federal have offered competitive and specialized touristic services, and all of them are part of clusters 1 and 2, which show the best results.

Rolfes, M. (2010). Poverty tourism: theoretical reflections and empirical findings regarding an extraordinary form of tourism. GeoJournal, 75(5), 421-442.

During the mid-1990s, a new form of tourism was established in metropolises of several developing countries or emerging nations. This type of tourism consists in visits to the most disadvantaged parts of the respective city. Poverty tours or slum tours are offered on a relatively large scale in the South African cities of Johannesburg and Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, as well as in Indian metropolises, to name some important examples. The target group of these tours consists primarily of international tourists. It is estimated that 40,000 such tourists visit favelas in Rio de Janeiro each year, around 300,000 the townships in Cape Town. This contribution refers to and comments on these developments and insights regarding poverty tourism or slumming, based on empirical research and experiences in South Africa, Brazil, and India. It will be shed light on the phenomenon from an observational-theoretical perspective. It is aimed to open a discussion on the ways poverty tours or slumming observes and simultaneously programmatically charges poverty. And, it will be considered in which way poverty tourism is observed.

Ros-Tonen, M. A. F., & Werneck, A. F. (2009). Small-scale tourism development in Brazilian Amazonia: the creation of a 'tourist bubble'. European Review of Latin American & Caribbean Studies, 86, 59-79.

The article focuses on the development of small-scale tourism in Brazil. Accordingly, the main purpose of promoting tourism industry in the country is to generate tax revenues, investments and employment. Moreover, the country's tourism has expanded particularly in the municipality of Santarem in the state of Para, where the village of Alter do Chao is the main destination while the Amazon region is basically marketed as a green destination. The authors give an emphasis on the significance of considering what is beyond the tourist bubble, which has served as economic opportunities for the local people, in order to understand thoroughly the complexity and dynamics of cultural and economic transformations following the development of tourism.

Ruschmann, D. V. D. M. (1992). Ecological tourism in Brazil. Tourism Management, 13(1), 125-128.

The growth of interest at world level in conservation and intimacy with nature signals a promising future for ecological tourism in Brazil. In this paper we describe the ecological lodging, the characteristics of the tourist in the Amazon region and the principal ‘ecological paradises’ of the country. We also emphasize the necessity of monitoring the installation of ecological tourism infrastructure so as to provide adequate profitability and support socioeconomic development without harming the natural environment.

Ruschmann, D. V. D. M., & Sagi, L. C. (2010). Sustainability control and management of Porto Belo island, Santa Catarina State, Brazil: 14 years of experience. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 2(4), 441-454.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the structure and results of a project between university and enterprise aimed at managing and controlling sustainable and competitive tourism in a fragile area: an island. The project started in 1996 and was completed in 2009. It helped the island to preserve its environment and to structure equipment and services adequate to market needs – with quality and responsibility. It also helped young professionals to develop their skills toward market needs, creating not only standards of highly professional behaviour, but also ethical values of respect, comprehension and hospitality. Design/methodology/approach: To understand the market needs, the use of equipment and services of the island by visitors and the visitors' profiles, personal interviews were conducted. The approach to visitors happened when leaving the island as it was agreed that only when visitors have had the experience were they able to comment. In addition to this paper, an observation of visitors was also developed, in order to check if their behaviour was compatible with their answers in formal interviews. The sustainability of the island was analyzed and evaluated through specific reports that defined indicators and qualitative criteria for the evaluation process. Findings: The results presented are favourable since it is clear that the negative impacts on the environment were minimized, the island became a good business, the local community was involved, the trainees learnt in practice, and the visitors were very satisfied with the results of the project. Research limitations/implications: The paper is limited to understand two aspects of sustainability: management and market. To achieve more sustainability for the island very important complementary studies need to be considered: the characterization of local flora and fauna, both terrestrial and marine; landscape studies and research about the business impact on the life of the local community. Originality/value: The paper is a case study that compiles 14 years of successful experience using methods, techniques and instruments to manage and control sustainability in a place that combines a fragile environment, tourism, recreation and business. This case is a reference for similar environments in Brazil.

Santana, G. (2000). An overview of contemporary tourism development in Brazil. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(7), 424-430.

Tourism in South America has been largely overlooked compared to other tourism developing regions such as Asia and Africa. Decades of political and economic uncertainty have directly influenced tourism development in the region and explain tourism’s current state. Despite its dimension, diversity and attractiveness, Brazil has only recently recognized the tourism industry as a promoter of economic and social development. Recent trends in the tourism industry in Brazil clearly illustrate the correlation between economic and political stability and development in tourism. This paper discusses the major issues that have influenced and shaped tourism in Brazil and addresses the major developments in the last decade and the future perspectives for the industry.

Santana, G. (2001). Tourism in South America. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1(3-4), 1-21.

Santana, G. (2003). Crisis management and tourism: beyond the rhetoric. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 15(4), 299-321.

Undoubtedly, the tourism industry is one of the most susceptible and vulnerable industries to crises. Recent major events that had devastating impacts on the industry ranges from natural disasters to epidemics, and from mismanagement to terrorist attacks. These kinds of episodes are not confined to any geographical region, as crises respect no political or cultural boundaries. Two major recent events illustrate this point: the BSE crisis in the UK in the 1990s, which was followed by the foot and mouth disease in 2000 and 2001, crippled the industry in several regions of England. Most recently, the events of September 11th in New York and Washington changed the way the industry operates forever. Crises are not new to the tourism industry. However, it has been observed that tourism management capability and ability to deal with complex and critical situations are limited. This paper discusses the concept of crisis management and its relevance to tourism. It presents an overview of the general trends in tourism crises events of the last two decades, assesses the impacts of major man-made crises on the industry, and argues for the importance of crisis management in tourism management. The paper also discusses the complex issue of crisis definition and its implications for organizations, and provides an operational definition of crisis management. Critical issues in crisis management, such as crisis anatomy, crisis incubation, risk perception in tourism and destination image, are discussed. Finally, the paper explores and analyses, in the context of crisis anatomy, the public sector handling of a major resort pollution crisis in Southern Brazil.

Santana, G. (2003). Tourism development in coastal areas - Brazil: economic, demand and environmental issues. Journal of Coastal Research, 35, 85-93.

Tourism organizations and experts alike consider that international tourism may be the world's largest industry and one of the most promising for the next century. Tourism's beneficial economic impact has made it a major development strategy in developed, developing, and underdeveloped nations. For developing and underdeveloped nations, tourism represents unrealized developmental potential. Several nations, such as Morocco, Tunisia, Mexico, Gambia, Costa Rica, and many Caribbean countries, have embraced tourism as a way of raising their general level of prosperity and accomplishing. economic development. For the developed countries, tourism is a major source of income. Tourism also provides young people with numerous entry-level jobs and real-life managerial experiences. In both cases, the major incidence of tourism is sea-related tourism. Inevitably, the pressure on the natural environment has been increasing consistently in recent decades. This paper focuses on critical issues related to marine tourism in Brazil and their implications. It begins with an analysis of the factors that have contributed towards shaping and influencing tourism development in Brazil, the economic aspects of demand and the potential consequences of environmental degradation (supply of tourism products). It also addresses the historical process of coastal occupation in Brazil and the implications of marine tourism-related activities in the country.

Santos, G. E. d. O., Ramos, V., & Rey-Maquieira, J. (2012). Determinants of multi-destination tourism trips in Brazil. Tourism Economics, 18(6), 1331-1349.

Despite the relatively frequent occurrence of multi-destination tourism trips (MTTs), their determinants have been unsatisfactorily studied in the academic literature. The objective of this paper is to develop an analysis of the determinants of MTTs, assessing the theoretical propositions and empirical findings of previous studies. The authors use a large dataset of 183,000 international tourists who visited Brazil from 2004 to 2010. They employ a censored zero-inflated negative binomial model to overcome econometric deficiencies in previous studies. The set of explanatory variables used in preceding analyses is substantially extended to include additional determinants such as level of education, type of accommodation and season. Some of the findings throw light on conflicting theoretical arguments in the literature, especially those regarding the effects of party size and monetary and time constraints. The authors find a qualitative difference between single and multiple destination trips. Finally, tourists' decisions to take single or multiple destination trips are shown to be different and somehow detached from the decision on how many destinations to visit.

Santos, G. E. d. O., Ramos, V., & Rey-Maquieira, J. (2014). Length of Stay at Multiple Destinations of Tourism Trips in Brazil. Journal of Travel Research.,

This study applied a shared heterogeneity duration model to tourists’ length of stay at different locations of multidestination trips. This analysis helps to understand tourists’ behaviors and to predict their length of stay according to relevant variables. Such information can be applied to the development of efficient marketing strategies aiming to push the average length of stay to the desired direction, and to develop “on the fly” service provision and revenue management strategies. The focus on multiple destination trips offers an innovative analytical perspective. A large data set of 309,000 visits to Brazilian destinations was analyzed. Several empirical findings regarding determinants of tourists’ length of stay were obtained. Positively skewed distributions for duration and hazard functions were found to best fit observed data. Shared heterogeneity was found to statistically improve the explanatory capacity of duration models when multidestination tourism trips data are analyzed.

Scarpel, R. A. (2013). Forecasting air passengers at São Paulo International Airport using a mixture of local experts model. Journal of Air Transport Management, 26, 35-39.

An integrated mixture of local experts model is employed to forecast air passengers at São Paulo International Airport. Such approach is normally used in rapidly changing situations, i.e., when the time series presents turning points or any kind of structural change and allows the development of forecasting models that takes into account the heterogeneity of the mapping structure into different regions of the input space. The model is validated using out-of-sample data, and the accuracy of the generated predictions proves to be satisfactory. An assessment of uncertainty in the predictions is made, as well as long lead-time forecasts employing the built model, considering different scenarios.

Schossler, J. C. (2015). Transport and tourism in Brazil: an ongoing movement. Mobility in History, 6(1), 165-171.

The article analyzes how Brazilian scholars have interpreted the relationship between transport and tourism in Brazil. It addresses the subject through the historical evolution of modes of transport, noting the gaps in literature and suggesting new approaches for future studies, such as traveler experiences, a holistic view of the nation's transport system, and greater disciplinary exchange.

Silva, J. N., & Ghilardi-Lopes, N. P. (2012). Indicators of the impacts of tourism on hard-bottom benthic communities of Ilha do Cardoso State Park (Cananéia) and Sonho Beach (Itanhaém), two southern coastal areas of São Paulo State (Brazil). Ocean & Coastal Management, 58(0), 1-8.

Unplanned public visitation can have negative impacts on coastal benthic communities. This study evaluated and compared the indicators of the impacts of tourism in the mid-littoral of two rocky shore sites (Ilha do Cardoso State Park – ICSP, a protected area and Sonho Beach, a non-protected area) in the coast of São Paulo State. The impact indicators observed were: sediment resuspension; trampling; handling and removal of organisms. Tourists at Sonho Beach were mostly on vacation and made more mistakes when asked about rocky shores than the tourists at ICSP, which were mainly participating in environmental education activities. At Sonho Beach, 376 occurrences of impact indicators were observed. Nonparametric tests indicated significant differences between genders (p < 0.05), due to the greater number of instances of sediment resuspension caused by males; and among age groups, because of the greater number of instances of trampling observed for tourists younger than seven. A total of 236 occurrences of impact indicators were observed at ICSP, and no significant differences were detected between genders or among age groups (p > 0.05). The areas differed significantly for resuspension and trampling (more frequent at Sonho Beach) and handling (more frequent at ICSP). This outcome was expected because environmental education programs are conducted at ICSP but not at Sonho Beach. These results indicate the importance of environmentally directed activities and visitor control within protected areas, and they indicate a need for such activities in non-protected areas.

Sobral, F., Peci, A., & Souza, G. (2007). An analysis of the dynamics of the tourism industry in Brazil: challenges and recommendations. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(40701), 507-512.

Purpose – The main purpose of this study is to present an analysis of the dynamics of the tourism market in South America and, more specifically, in Brazil, by measuring and analyzing the growth in tourists' arrivals to the region between 1998 and 2002. Design/methodology/approach – This study uses the shift-share technique that decomposes the growth of the number of tourists into various components, enabling in-depth diagnosis of the dynamics of the sector in the period. Findings – Despite the fact that Brazil is the leading tourist destination in South America, the study shows that Brazil has been losing ground in relation to some of its neighbors in South America. The study also revealed the impact of 9/11 and Argentina's crises and the growing participation of the European tourist in Brazil. Originality/value – Despite some limitations, this technique has the advantage of focusing on a region scarcely studied in mainstream tourism researches and offering Brazilian policy-makers a new methodology such that they may take advantage of emerging opportunities and create competitive advantages for the country.

Sousa, R. C. d., Pereira, L. C. C., Costa, R. M. d., & Jiménez, J. A. (2014). Tourism carrying capacity on estuarine beaches in the Brazilian Amazon region. Journal of Coastal Research, (SI.70), 545-550.

Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) can be defined as the level of human activity that an area can support without provoking deterioration of its physical and environmental characteristics. The present study aimed to estimate the maximum number of visitors that Colares, Marudá and Murubira beaches can receive during periods of peak visitation. The TCC was calculated considering the Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC), the Real Carrying Capacity (RCC), and the Effective Carrying Capacity (ECC) of each beach. In each survey, the number of visitors along a pre-established transect (central portion of each beach) was counted every hour (8 am until 6 pm). The maximum recommended ECC values indicated a maximum of 674 visitors per day at Colares, 812 visitors per day at Marudá and 97 visitors per day at Murubira. In comparison with these recommendations, the observed numbers of visitors were relatively high at Marudá (885 visitors) and Murubira beaches (297 visitors), while Colares was within the suggested limit (193 visitors). Peak visitation rates were recorded between 1 pm and 4 pm, and observed carrying values varied from 1.5 to over 5.000 m² per visitor at Colares beach, 0.7-426 m² per visitor at Marudá beach, and 1.7-42.9 m² at Murubira. The results of the present study indicated that the density of visitors on the study beaches exceeded tolerable limits, and that coastal management measures are necessary to improve local tourist activities.

Stacke, A. R. N. P. A., Hoffmann, V. E., & Costa, H. A. (2012). Knowledge transfer among clustered firms: a study of Brazil. Anatolia, 23(1), 90-106.

This paper analyses knowledge transfer among clustered firms and its relation to the competitiveness of a tourism destination in southern Brazil. It is assumed that knowledge is a strategic resource transferred among clustered firms. Research methods used were secondary data analysis followed by a survey conducted with 49 respondents. Findings show that the access to resources is more evident for the third sector and public administration than to firms. Besides, it was found that the knowledge transfer happens in different ways, but especially through the periodic meetings among the tourism firms. It was demonstrated that there is a better access and communication and information exchange among tourist firms, but the data have not connected knowledge transfer to destination competitiveness.

Storni, A., Paiva, P. M. V., Bernal, R., & Peralta, N. (2007). Evaluation of the Impact on Fauna Caused by the Presence of Ecotourists on Trails of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Tourism & Hospitality: Planning & Development, 4(1), 25-32.

Ecotourism has been defended as a viable option for the maintenance of protected areas in the Amazon. The present study was carried out in a community-based ecotourism project. The project had been implemented eight years ago in a protected area in Brazil. The main objective of the present study was to monitor the environmental impacts of ecotourism on the fauna of Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in order to implement measures that aim to minimize those impacts. Eight animal species were monitored. Five primates: Cacajao calvus (white bold uakari), Saimiri vanzolinii (black-faced squirrel monkey), Saimiri sciureus (common squirrel monkey), Alouatta seniculus (red howler monkey), Cebus macrocephalus (brown capuchin monkey); and three birds: Monasa nigrifrons (black-fronted nunbird), Crax globulosa (wattled curassow) and Mitu tuberosum (great curassow) from 2002 to 2005. These animals were chosen for their biological importance for the area and because, as we were informed by local guides, they are common on Mamirauá trails. For the primates, the white bold uakari and black-faced squirrel monkey are considered endangered and vulnerable, respectively. For the birds, the wattled curassow is considered vulnerable (Base de Dados Tropical, 2006). Results found in the present study suggest there was no statistically significant difference between the observations of animals on trails with and without tourists for most of the species studied. Only one primate species (black-faced squirrel monkey) and one bird species (black-fronted nunbird) presented statistically significant differences in analyses with and without tourists (t-test: t = −2.27; p = 0.0267 and Mann-Whitney U = 207.5; p = 0.0025, respectively).

Stronza, A., & Pegas, F. (2008). Ecotourism and Conservation: Two Cases from Brazil and Peru. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13(4), 263-279.

This article evaluates two theories to explain the relationship between ecotourism and conservation. One posits that economic benefits must accrue to local communities for ecotourism to result in conservation; the other holds that social benefits, including participation in management, must also be present. Although these ideas about causal mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, scholarly studies tend to reflect one more than the other. Two ecotourism projects from Brazil and Peru are compared. The Brazil study illustrates sea turtle ecotourism that generates economic benefits for coastal communities. The case in Peru also generates economic benefits for a local community, but has the added goal of building local management capacity. Both cases provide empirical evidence for causal mechanisms linking ecotourism with conservation. In the Brazil case, economic benefits alone seem to account for conservation outcomes. In Peru, local participation in ecotourism management has also sparked collective action for conservation.

Tarlow, P. E., & Santana, G. (2002). Providing safety for tourists: a study of a selected sample of tourist destinations in the United States and Brazil. Journal of Travel Research, 40(4), 424-431.

Scholars and practitioners alike have assumed that tourism security professionals play a key role in the success of the tourism industry. This article seeks to compare three U.S. tourism cities with three Brazilian cities to determine what role culture plays in the way that police departments work with the tourism industry. Through the use of comparative taxonomies, the authors introduce the notion of a safety continuum. They argue that the classical notion held by safety experts that tourists seek a secure environment may be only one side of a business continuum. Another possibility is that tourism and law enforcement seek to deny any problems of violence. This article builds on a previous study published in the Journal of Travel Research by Pizam, Tarlow, and Bloom.

Trigo, L. G. G. (2003). The old problems of Brazilian tourism. Tourism Review, 58(1), 19-24.

Brazil is a key tourism receiving country. Based on improvements with regard to infrastructure, supra-structure (hotels, etc.), professional education and new equipment, international arrivals have reached more than 5 million in 2001. However, Brazil faces a number of old new problems, not only tied to tourism but also with regard to the general business environment. This article describes the very complete phenomena of “tourism in Brazil” on the basis of many examples.

Turolla, F. A., Vassallo, M. D., & Oliveira, A. V. M. D. (2008). Intermodal competition in the Brazilian interstate travel market. Revista de Análisis Económico, 23(1), 21-33.

This paper presents a test of intermodal interaction between coaches and airlines in Brazil in order to check for the efficacy of recent liberalization measures designed to promote competition in both industries. Interstate travel service in the country is heavily provided by coaches, and the system is fully operated by the private sector under public delegation through permits and authorizations. Agency-based regulation was introduced in 2002 along with a price cap regime aimed at enhancing the flexibility to change fares in response to demand and cost conditions. By making use of a reaction function-based model of coach operators’ pricing decisions in the interstate travel market, we then estimate the sensitivity of the changes in coach fares to the changes in airline fares in a simultaneous-equation framework. Intermodal interaction among coach operators and airlines is found to be highly significant and probably due to the competition for a small but increasing set of premium, quality-sensitive, coach passengers.

Valente, F. J., Dredge, D., & Lohmann, G. (2014). Leadership capacity in two Brazilian regional tourism organisations. Tourism Review, 69(1), 10-24.

Purpose: This paper examines the leadership practices of two Brazilian regional tourism organisations (RTOs) using an exploratory case study. Design/methodology/approach: The research adopts an embedded case study approach, permitting the comparison of the leadership phenomenon in the “Instituto Estrada Real” (the IER) and the “Associação Circuito do Ouro” (the ACO). Semi-structured interviews (n=14) were undertaken to gather information from the RTOs' executives and actors/followers influenced directly by RTO leadership in order to obtain their perceptions about leadership practice. Findings: Four leadership themes emerged: capacity to produce results, capacity to mobilise followers, articulation and communication of goals and actions, and articulation of roles and responsibilities. The findings are discussed in regards to the hierarchical and market governance structures of the two RTOs and the implications for leadership practice. The interviewees identified that transactional forms of leadership dominated the hierarchical governance structure of the ACO and that it was able to mobilise effectively other levels of government. However, this leadership does not deliver results at the speed required by the private sector. The IER is a market-led governance structure and its leadership practices effectively mobilised the private sector. However, it was found to operate in isolation from government and other key tourism stakeholders. Originality/value: This paper draws together the regional tourism management and leadership literature, making both theoretical and applied contributions to regional tourism leadership.

Valente, F., Dredge, D., Lohmann, G. (2015). Leadership and governance in regional tourism. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4 (2), 127-136.

The rise of neoliberal market management has contributed to an incontrovertible 'truth' that regional tourism organizations (RTOs) established and led by business actors are more effective in leading regional tourism development. Despite this assertion, little evidence has surfaced to support the idea that market-led governance offers a superior model of leadership for regional tourism. This paper adopts an embedded case study approach, undertaking a comparison of leadership in two RTOs that are operating in the same geographical location but under different governance regimes. Semi- structured interviews with executives/leaders and stakeholders/followers were undertaken in two RTOs: a market-led organization and a government-led organization. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of governance arrangements on the capacity of these RTOs to lead tourism. Findings reveal that while dimensions of governance such as participation, efficiency, legitimacy, accountability, effectiveness and transparency influence a RTO׳s capacity to lead, good governance and strong leadership were not necessarily synonymous. RTOs can demonstrate varying levels of effectiveness in different dimensions of governance and leadership can be strong in some aspects and weak in others at the same time. The paper argues for a more nuanced approach to understanding governance and leadership.

Wagner, J. E. (1997). Estimating the economic impacts of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(1), 78-89.

An important component in assessing the merits of tourism focusing on the ecosystem is determining its economic impact in the designated area. This study uses a social accounting matrix to examine the economic effects of tourism in a Brazilian region. The matrix provides a systematic framework for synthesizing and displaying the data on a region's economy and estimating regional economic multipliers. Most of the inputs, commodities, and capital used in the region are imported. Therefore, monies tourists spend are used to pay for these imports and will generate only a small economic impact. Consequently, there is little incentive to stop current economic activities that are probably counter to ecosystem-based tourism.

Wallace, G. N., & Pierce, S. M. (1996). An evaluation of ecotourism in Amazonas, Brazil. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(4), 843-873.

Registered “ecotour” lodges were studied using observation and interviews with visitors, employees, and local people. Findings were evaluated using proposed ecotourism principles. Besides providing employment, lodges improve access, stimulate new services (health utilities, etc.), and make valued but limited local purchases. In other ways, lodges fall short of the ideals inherent in the principles. They contribute little to conservation education, resource protection, or the involvement and empowerment of local people. Tourists wish to see and would support conservation and community development programs both financially and via their future selection of ecotour operators. Numerous implications for concessions, protected area management, and rural development in Amazonas are discussed.

Wight, P. A. (1993). Sustainable ecotourism: balancing economic, environmental and social goals within an ethical framework. Journal of Tourism Studies, 4(2), 54-66.

The tourism industry is under scrutiny, both from the public and internally, in order to assess how well it meets the criteria of sustainable development. Ecotourism is described not as an alternative to mass tourism but as a potentially sustainable form of visitor demand and resource supply if nine fundamental ethics based principles can be operationalised. A view of ecotourism as having a spectrum of demanded and supplied products is advanced with illustrations from Brazil. A consideration of the constraints of ecotourism is included and the relationships among adventure, nature based and cultural tourism is indicated with an ethical overlay defining sustainable ecotourism. Some positive ecotourism related practices of an Artic adventure tourism company illustrate key practical decisions to promote sustainability.

Zanotti, L., & Chernela, J. (2008). Conflicting cultures of nature: ecotourism, education and the Kayapó of the Brazilian Amazon. Tourism Geographies, 10(4), 495-521.

Despite advancements in the design and implementation of ecotourism, the educational component of ecotourism has received little attention in comparison to ecological, economic and other social factors. This article discusses the unexplored conventions of education as a form of empowerment in ecotourism through the case study of a pilot ecotourism project co-managed by an ecologist, an anthropologist and a Kayapó indigenous community in Brazil. Designed as a university-level study-abroad course that holistically incorporates both a conservation biology perspective and local systems of knowledge, the pilot project provides an opportunity to consider the interdependence among the ecological, economic, educational and social consequences of one ecotourism experience, as well as to glean broader insights into the role of education in ecotourism. In particular, the intention is to look beneath the surface of assumptions about the meaning of education, asking: (1) who or what may be considered a legitimate source of information?; (2) what information is considered ‘educational’ in the ecotourism experience?; (3) to whom is education aimed (who are the learning targets)?; and (4) what are the objectives of education in the context of ecotourism? Based on the analysis, certain recommendations are made for reconsidering the values and goals of the endeavour.

Book chapters

Bath, B., & Gonçalves, P. (2007). Interpretative planning as a means of urban regeneration. Recife, Brazil In M. K. Smith (Ed.), Tourism, culture and regeneration. Wallingford: CABI Publishers.

Diegues, A. C. (2001). Regional and domestic mass tourism in Brazil: an overview In K. Ghimire (Ed.), The native tourist: mass tourism within developing countries. Oxford (UK): EarthScan.

Flecha, A., Knupp, M. E. C. G., Lohmann, G., & Liccardo, A. (2011). Mining tourism in Ouro Preto, Brazil: opportunities and challenges In M. V. Conlin and L. Jolliffe (Eds.), Mining Heritage and Tourism: A Global Synthesis. Oxon (UK): Routledge.

This chapter identifies and presents major opportunities and challenges for mining related tourism in Ouro Preto. The cultural and mining heritage of the city constitutes a fascinating product when presented as tourism attractions, particularly considering that tourism is currently the heartbeat of the local economy. The chapter is divided into four sections. The first addresses some conceptual and general aspects of geoparks, geotourism and mining heritage tourism. The area in which Ouro Preto and a UNESCO related geopark project are located, the ‘Quadrilátero Ferrífero’ (Iron Quadrangle, in English) is contextualized in the subsequent section. The third part discusses tourism in Ouro Preto, where many attractions are related to the mineralogical setting. Finally, the last section presents and discusses opportunities and challenges for Ouro Preto as a mining tourism destination, along with some recommendations on the interpretation and use of mining heritage resources for tourism.

Fraga, C. C. L., Santos, M. P. d. S., & Ribeiro, S. d. C. (2014). Railroad tourism in Brazil In M. V. Colin and G. R. Bird (Eds.), Railway Heritage and Tourism: global perspectives. Bristol: Channel View Publications.

González, E. C., & Duccino, L. (2010). On "black culture" and "black bodies": State discourses, tourism and public policies in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil In D. V. L. Macleod and J. G. Carrier (Eds.), Tourism, Power and Culture: Anthropological Insights. Bristol: Channel View Publications.

Grünewald, R. D. A. (2006). Pataxo tourism art and cultural authenticity In M. K. Smith and M. Robinson (Eds.), Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (Re)presentation. Frankfurt: Channel View Publications.

Jaguaribe, B., & Hetherington, K. (2004). Favela tours : indistinct and mapless representations of the real in Rio de Janeiro In M. Sheller and J. Urry (Eds.), Tourism Mobilities: Places to Play. London: Routledge.

Klein, A. H. F., Araújo, R. S., Polette, M., Sperb, R. M., Freitas Neto, D., Sprovieri, F. C., & Pinto, F. T. (2009). Ameliorative strategies at Balneário Piçarras beach In A. T. Williams and A. Micallef (Eds.), Beach Management: Principles and Practice. London: Earthscan.

Leal, S., & Padilha, M. A. (2005). Brazil and Latin America In D. Airey and J. Tribe (Eds.), An International Handbook of Tourism Education. Oxford (UK): Elsevier Science.

Since a long time, tourism education has been a topic of debate in academia and numerous studies have been published about the theme in some of the major international specialised journals (see e.g. Jafari & Ritchie, 1981; Airey & Johnson, 1999; Tribe, 2002). Some parts of the world, however, have been left out of the discussion for several years, as is the case of Latin America, only more recently addressed by Pizam (1999). Also, only a limited number of researchers have approached the topic of tourism education provision in countries of the region, such as Charles (1997), who wrote about the past and future development of tourism and hospitality education and training in the Caribbean region and Knowles, Teixeira, and Egan (2003) who presented a comparison of tourism and hospitality education in Brazil and in the United Kingdom (UK).

Leal, S. R., & Almeida, S. L. (2014). Wine Tourism in the São Francisco Valley of Brazil and the Search for a Distinctive Identity In M. Harvey, L. White and W. Frost (Eds.), Wine and Identity: Branding, Heritage, Terroir. Abingdon: Routledge.

Lohmann, G., Santos, G. E. O., & Allis, T. (2011). 'Los hermanos' visiting the south region of Brazil: a comparison between drive tourists and coach tourists from Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay In B. Prideaux and D. Carson (Eds.), Drive tourism: trends and emerging markets. Londres: Routledge.

Machado, D. F. C., Medeiros, M. D. L., & Passador, J. L. (2012). Local stakeholders'image of tourism destinations: outlooks for destination branding In R. H. Tsiotsou and R. E. Goldsmith (Eds.), Strategic Marketing in Tourism Services. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Magro, T. C., & Barros, M. I. A. (2004). Understanding use and users at Itatiaia National Park, Brazil In R. Buckley (Ed.), Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

Moreira, J. C., & Bigarella, J. J. (2010). Geotourism and Geoparks in Brazil In R. Dowling and D. Newsome (Eds.), Ross Dowling; David Newsome. London: Goodfellow Publishers.

Pegas, F. D. V., & Stronza, A. (2008). Ecotourism equations: do economic benefits equal conservation? In A. Stronza and W. H. Durham (Eds.), Ecotourism and Conservation in the Americas. Wallingford: CABI Publishers.

This chapter compares the outcome of the two conservation paradigms (equations) with a descriptive analysis of selected case studies in ecotourism. The chapter begins by reviewing a (non-exhaustive) set of case studies that illustrate the first equation. Again, that equation predicts conservation as an outcome primarily of economic benefits from ecotourism. Second, the alternative paradigm is discussed, which posits that conservation results when economic benefits from ecotourism are combined with the institution-building benefits of community participation. Then, presents a brief case study of ecotourism and sea turtle protection in Praia do Forte, Bahia, Brazil. In this case, local residents have received economic benefits - employment and income - from ecotourism, but have not participated in management, which exemplifies the first equation. It is argued with this case that economic benefits are important for short-term conservation goals of ecotourism, but that greater involvement of the community in conservation efforts may help sustain conservation success over time.

Pesci, R. (2002). El Camino del Gaucho : tourism evolution, biodiversity and landscape management from the argentinean to the south-brazilian coastal zones In F. D. Castri and V. Balaji (Eds.), Tourism, biodiversity and information. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Polette, M. (2009). Analysis of users'perceptions at Praia Central, Balneário Camboriú (Santa Catarina, Brazil) In A. T. Williams and A. Micallef (Eds.), Beach Management: Principles and Practice. London: Earthscan.

Rabahy, W. A., & Ruschmann, D. V. D. M. (1991). Tourism and the brazilian economy In C. P. Cooper (Ed.), Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management. London: Belhaven Press.

Santana, G. (2001). Tourism in the southern common market: MERCOSUL In D. Harrison (Ed.),

Rodrigues, C., & Prideaux, B. (2014). Developing backpacker tourism in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest In B. Prideaux (Ed.), Rainforest, Conservation and Management: challenges for sustainable tourism. Abingdon: Routledge.

Santo Jr., R. E. (2010). Brazil In A. Graham, A. Papatheodorou and P. Forsyth (Eds.), Aviation and Tourism: Implications for Leisure Travel. Surrey: Ashgate.

Trigo, L. G. G. (2010). Brazil: Handling the volatile demand - The CVC Tour Operator case in Brazil In K. Weiermair, P. Keller, H. Pechlaner and F. M. Go (Eds.), Innovation and entrepreneurship: Strategies and processes for success in tourism. Berlim: Erich Schmidt Verlag.

Walsh, L. J., & Lewis, R. C. (1997). The São Paulo Hotel In R. C. Lewis (Ed.), Cases in Hospitality Marketing and Management. New York: John Wiley.

This case-study text/reference in hospitality marketing and management includes: six mini-cases, which may be read quickly; 15 medium-length cases of moderate complexity; and one comprehensive case that demonstrates how the many of elements of management interrelate with marketing. Cases are divided equally between hotel and restaurant situations and include aspects of costs, human resources, organizations, financial statements, ownership relations, and franchise agreements.

Wunder, S. (2003). Native tourism, natural forests and local incomes on Ilha Grande, Brazil In S. Gössling (Ed.), Tourism and development in tropical islands: political ecology perspectives. Cheltenham (UK): Edward Elgar Publishing.

Research notes

Dalonso, Y. S., Lourenço, J. M., Remoaldo, P. C., & Panosso Netto, A. (2014). Tourism experience, events and public policies. Annals of Tourism Research, 46, 181-184.

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