RACISM and the JOHN BIRCH SOCIETY – part 3  (rev. 04/05/21)

MY RESEARCH:  https://sites.google.com/site/ernie124102/home     MORE INFO:  ernie1241@aol.com

 12/06/20 UPDATE:

I recently revised, expanded, and combined all of my chapters pertaining to JBS attacks upon our civil rights movement and it leaders into one new PDF document (245 pages).  That new combined Report is now available at the bottom of this webpage as a PDF document AND it also appears on my Internet Archive webpage at:   https://archive.org/details/combined-pdf-jbs-vs.-civil-rights-movement

What appears below is the third chapter of a three-part discussion regarding Racism and the John Birch Society.  

[Note:  An updated PDF copy of this Report (as of 04/05/21) is now available at the BOTTOM of this webpage.  It includes considerable new material in the Chronology which could NOT be included in the Chronology which appears below because of webpage space limitations.

The updated PDF includes a link to the December 2019 resignation letter by the former Research Director of the John Birch Society (Thomas Eddlem) who objected to "nazi race propaganda" being published in the JBS magazine, The New American.]   https://tinyurl.com/rtsq547

Part 1 of my discussion replied to absurdities and falsehoods posted online by JBS member Jim Smith.  It appears here:   https://sites.google.com/site/aboutxr/

Part 2 of my discussion replied to absurdities posted online by JBS member “LiveLife98” (link below)


This third chapter will be somewhat different from the two previous chapters. This chapter will consist of two sections:

SECTION ONE focuses upon the primary arguments used by the John Birch Society to influence

·   the analysis and conclusions which the JBS wanted Americans to believe with respect to the status of African-Americans in our country AND

·    JBS conclusions regarding the character of our civil rights movement



This a massive chronological chart which summarizes factual evidence (mostly from FBI files) regarding how the Birch Society as an organization, advanced bigoted themes, arguments and racial stereotypes, AND how individual JBS members, officials, employees, and supporters advanced arguments and positions associated with indisputably racially and religiously bigoted individuals, organizations and publicationsNOTE:  The Chronology starts on page 24 of the PDF attachment and continues through page 121.]

Introduction to Part 3


Any discussion of this subject must first begin by recognizing the following facts regarding the John Birch Society and its membership and its supporters.

(a)  JBS officials and JBS members are never willing to candidly acknowledge anything about the John Birch Society or its history which they perceive as derogatory information 

(b)  Most JBS members and supporters are profoundly ignorant about JBS history, which means they cannot (or will not) recognize or candidly acknowledge indisputably factual information about that history. [Note: a considerable percentage of current JBS members were born 30-45 years ago—which means that they have no contemporaneous personal knowledge about JBS history during the 1960’s.]

(c)  Because JBS members automatically reject anything which they interpret as criticism of the JBS (i.e. they have a cult-like belief that the JBS is infallible), they instead routinely resort to ad hominem slurs and insults against anybody who dares to bring critical information to public attention AND they describe ALL criticism of the JBS as nothing more than lies and smears --- EVEN WHEN that information originates from other JBS members OR from sources previously recommended by the JBS as indisputably knowledgeable, reliable and authoritative.

(d)   It is important to recognize that no serious discussion of this subject matter is possible unless the person presenting this type of narrative has very detailed historical knowledge about the Birch Society and about some of the more recognizable people who joined or endorsed the JBS. Unfortunately, most of that factual data is extremely difficult to find – particularly since the JBS does NOT permit outside independent scholars or researchers to have access to its archives. Consequently, the Birch Society and its sympathizers use the general opaqueness surrounding JBS history as a tactic to de-value and dismiss and de-legitimize all JBS critics or opponents and their arguments.


The second factor which must be candidly recognized when discussing the John Birch Society’s interpretation or analysis of race-related subjects concerns the operational structure of the Society itself and the background of its senior leadership. 

The Birch Society was created by a wealthy white businessman born in a small segregated rural North Carolina county (Robert Welch was born in Chowan County, NC in 1899) who never experienced a single moment of discrimination or harassment during his lifetime which was caused by, or was the result of, his racial background. 

When Welch created the JBS, he surrounded himself with eleven co-founders who were also predominantly wealthy white businessmen—including several life-long southern segregationists! There were no African Americans or Asians or Hispanics or women in a senior leadership position within the JBS (on its National Council or on its Executive Committee) during the first decades of its existence.

The only official investigation ever conducted into the JBS was during 1961 by the California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities. The Subcommittee’s Report was not published until 1963.  That Report pointed out:

Robert Welch is the undisputed authority in this movement, and from his decisions there can be no appeal.  Operating under him is an Executive Committee and a National Council, but these are purely advisory bodies.  If Welch makes a decision and both the Executive Committee and Council unanimously, vehemently, and implacably disagree, there is no question about who will prevail: Welch.  Indeed, since he appoints the members of these bodies, he can fire them individually or collectively at will.”  [California Report, 1963, page 18].

Consequently, it should be recognized that the official position of the JBS about anything race-related is entirely an expression of the prevailing southern white interpretation about black Americans and their presumed place within American society.


JBS members are never willing to answer this fundamental question: 

WHY did so many white supremacist individuals and organizations in our country consider the JBS to be their ALLY and not their opponent?

EXAMPLE: The Dallas TX Times-Herald newspaper published an article about the Birch Society in its March 26, 1961 issue – which made the following observation:

“Rev. Carey Daniel, key figure in the White Citizens Council of Dallas, a white supremacy group, was lavish in his praise of the Birch Society when The Times Herald questioned him. ‘God bless all John Birch members’ he said. ‘Please say that the White Citizens Council is backing them 100 percent. I am thinking of joining.’ ”

The answer to the question I just posed is fairly obvious (as I will discuss below) and the answer explains why:

·         many white supremacist organizations recommended and sold JBS publications AND/OR

·         they recommended and showed JBS films AND/OR

·         they recommended attendance at local events featuring JBS speakers---especially about our civil rights movement AND

·         members of those white supremacist organizations often also became members or endorsers of the John Birch Society.

JBS members and supporters understand this (even when they pretend not to understand).

When Birchers are presented with evidence about a LEFT-WING person or organization which supposedly had numerous links and associations with persons or organizations or publications that the JBS has characterized as “Communist” or “Communist sympathizer” or “subversive” etc. THEN Birchers NEVER dispute a conclusion that such person(s) or groups represented a clear and present danger to our country

ONLY when we discuss the Birch Society, do all Birchers want us to totally ignore, de-value, dismiss, or excuse bad behavior OR excuse indisputable JBS connections to racists or other bigots while simultaneously de-legitimizing the source(s) of that inconvenient adverse information.

As merely one example – let’s consider how the Birch Society described labor and civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph.

After the Birch Society presented over TWO pages of small-font text which summarizes all the alleged "subversive" and "Communist" associations of Randolph did the Birch Society sum it all up in the final sentence of their final paragraph:

"Randolph learned his lessons well as he rubbed elbows with Communists over the past three decades."  [Francis X. Gannon, Biographical Dictionary of the Left, Volume 1, page 488; Western Islands Publishers, 1969]

This is a fairly typical example of how the Birch Society used sinister innuendo and/or sarcasm to slime the reputation and character of someone they disliked.

What is particularly striking about this defamatory attack upon Randolph is that (according to the FBI’s files about Randolph) Communists DESPISED Randolph. They described him as a "traitor" to his race. They declared he was a vicious "Red-baiter" and senior Communist Party officials bitterly complained (in their secret closed National Executive Committee meetings) that Randolph was constantly thwarting Communist efforts at infiltrating labor unions as well as the NAACP and other civil rights organizations.

The Communist Party went to great lengths to DISCREDIT Randolph because they considered him to be an all-too-effective MORTAL ENEMY of the Communist Party. For details regarding the Communist Party’s attack upon Randolph, see Chapter 6 of my JBS Report:


Consequently, one could easily make a compelling case that the Birch Society performed a flawless PRO-COMMUNIST service (in alliance with the Communist Party) by using the JBS to discredit and slime the reputation of anti-Communist A. Philip Randolph.

As readers review the information presented in Parts 1 thru 3 of this Report – keep in mind the tactics which the Birch Society itself has utilized when they have used sinister innuendo, insinuation, or outright statements to characterize persons (and organizations) that they perceive as JBS critics, opponents, and enemies.


Readers might want to consider applying an analytical criterion to the Birch Society which JBS founder Robert Welch declared was appropriate with respect to evaluating labor leader Walter Reuther.  After all, turnabout is fair play!

After giving a speech in Jackson MS, Robert Welch was asked if he believed that United Auto Workers President Walter Reuther was a Communist.  Welch’s reply was:

“It doesn’t matter whether he is or not.  The Communists love him whether he is one of them or not and he is a dangerous left-winger.” [New Orleans LA State-Times, 11/18/61, p1 “Welch Says Reds in Freedom Rides”; FBI-New Orleans 105-1499, serial #83]

Consequently, as readers review the extensive chronology which appears below, perhaps we should apply Robert Welch’s standard for recognizing whether or not some person or organization is harmful or poisonous to our country because of their racial or religious or political beliefs. IF bigots love the JBS – then (according to Welch’s methodology), the JBS is dangerous to our society.


Section 1 of this Chapter = is a summary of some of the basic arguments and themes used by the Birch Society which often replicate the arguments and themes preferred by white supremacists

Section 2 of this Chapter = is a chronological chart which presents a representative sample of JBS connections and associations with bigots (racists and anti-semites or other types). 

Again: keep in mind that if we were discussing a LEFT-wing person or organization, the Birch Society would scream bloody murder about the volume and the significance of the type of data summarized below.

However, as previously noted:  ONLY when we discuss the Birch Society, do all Birchers want us to totally ignore, de-value, dismiss, or mitigate their bad behavior OR excuse indisputable JBS connections to racists.


The Birch Society’s fierce hostility to our civil rights movement during the 1960’s and afterward arose from three basic predicates of JBS ideology, as follows:

1.    Nothing was very much wrong with conditions faced by African Americans in the United States.

2.    Consequently, the protests, demonstrations, sit-ins, marches, and legislation (proposed or actually enacted) during the 1960’s and afterward had no legitimate basis.

3.  All incidents which revealed white racism or crimes by whites against blacks were either contrived, grossly exaggerated, or unworthy of consideration.

In furtherance of these premises, the Birch Society used African American speakers and writers to affirm the JBS position.

For example:  See the article entitled “For America: Let Negroes Give Thanks”, authored by George S. Schuyler which was published in the JBS magazine (American Opinion).  In his article, Schuyler expresses a viewpoint which must have impressed every white supremacist and traditional white southerner who read his remarks:

“So let us give thanks that we are by world standards better paid, better housed, better fed, and better clothed than anybody else; that we can boast more college graduates than all the rest of the black world combined.”

“Let us not be grudging with our thanks for being beneficiaries of the goodwill and philanthropy of truly Christian whites since before the time of the birth of the nation.”

“We ought to always remember those rich who endowed institutions of learning for Negroes…Nor should we forget the much-maligned, war-impoverished, under-developed Southern states that gave and continue to give with ever-increasing willingness to our public education.”  [George S. Schuyler, American Opinion magazine, November 1965, page 15]

Before Schuyler associated himself with the John Birch Society, he presented a much different perspective when he wrote the following in his “Views and Reviews” column for one of our nation's oldest and most respected African-American newspapers:

"THE WHITE Citizens Council which has branches or cells everywhere, controls by terror such states as Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and to a lesser extent, Virginia. It has castigated the Supreme Court in general and the Chief Justice in particular. It has defied and disrupted the operation of the laws of the land. It has used threats and vicious economic reprisals. It is as undemocratic as the John Birch Society and it exacts large sums of money from its followers. It has become a legal arm of Mississippi's Government. Why no furore to investigate the White Citizens Council?” [George S. Schuyler: “Views and Reviews”, New Pittsburgh Courier, National edition; [Pittsburgh PA] 04-22-61,page 8].

Another JBS member (Rev. Delmar Dennis) was a white FBI informant inside the most violent Klan in our nation’s history (White Knights of the KKK of Mississippi).  Rev. Dennis reported the following to his FBI case agent in November 1964 – but apparently he did not share this information with the JBS:

“The Klan in Mississippi has completely infiltrated every phase of the legal, political, social and economic system in Mississippi. The membership in the Klan ranges from common laborers and criminals, to judges, lawyers, doctors and political leaders. While they may not be active members, they are secret members who use their influence to further Klan efforts and aid Klan activities, for example, it is generally known in Klan circles that supervisors who pick juries use their influence to get Klan members on the jury panel.”

Another African American whom the Birch Society frequently cites approvingly is Manning Johnson. 

Johnson wrote about a fundamental “deep consciousness among Negro Americans. They have, in spite of the divisive influences of the Negro intellectual, the same instinctive urge to group together as have other racial and national groups.”  [Manning Johnson: Color, Communism, and Common Sense; Alliance, Inc., 1958, page 59].

Alliance, Inc.” was a publishing house in New York City operated by Archibald B. Roosevelt (a JBS member who was the son of Theodore Roosevelt).  This same Archibald Roosevelt wrote a letter to Verne Kaub in 1962 which described the political situation in New York. Roosevelt told Kaub that “professional do-gooders” planned “to be elected by being extreme pro-negro…By extreme I really mean special privileges for the negro, who in most cases is certainly below the average white man in intelligence.”  [9/20/62 letter from Archibald B. Roosevelt to Verne P. Kaub, Madison WI].

From the perspective of George Schuyler and Manning Johnson, African Americans preferred to stay in Harlem or Watts or in other black ghetto neighborhoods because they wanted to, rather than because they had no alternative.

So – from the JBS point of view, the “good Negro” had nothing to complain about. That is certainly a viewpoint which southern racists loved and understood about the “right-thinking Negro” who recognized his place and accepted it without complaint. [For additional details see:  I.A. Newby: Jim Crow’s Defense: Anti-Negro Thought in America 1900-1939, Louisiana State University Press, 1965]

Another JBS member and prolific author (Alan Stang) presented a comparable argument to illustrate this sentiment within the JBS. 

Stang wrote an article about an African American by the name of Silvester Glaze.  Glaze and other African Americans blocked a civil rights march and Stang quotes Glaze as saying:  “I have no complaints.  I like my job and get good pay.  There’s no way in the world it could be better.  I’m doing fine.” [Alan Stang: Lincolnton – Home of Silvester Glaze; published in the JBS magazine American Opinion, December 1965, page 38].

JBS Coordinator Medford Evans was also a regular contributor to the JBS magazine American Opinion.  In addition, he was the Editor of the national magazine of the segregationist Citizens Council movement. Evans recognized what he considered the special paternal obligation of white Americans toward black Americans.  Evans wrote:

“In Rhodesia or Virginia, a gentleman recognizes that he has a special obligation towards Negroes…Kipling called it ‘the white man’s burden’…”  [Medford Evans: “From The South”, American Opinion magazine, January 1966, page 60].  [NOTE: The Birch Society openly sided with white minority regimes in Rhodesia and South Africa.]

JBS founder, Robert Welch, (himself a native southerner from a small community in rural North Carolina) shared this attitude toward black Americans. Welch wrote about one of his black neighbors:

He was a good farmer, a good neighbor, and highly regarded by everybody…The fact that we never dreamed of inviting him to supper, or vice versa, bothered him not at all.  He had his social friends, his church and his school, and we had ours.  And he and his friends would have been as reluctant to change that arrangement as we and our friends would have been—because it is more natural and more comfortable for human beings generally to be with their own kind.  [Robert Welch, John Birch Society Bulletin, September 1963, page 76].  Incidentally, in an April 1961 speech in Shreveport LA, Welch stated that the JBS had two “all Negro chapters, one in the deep South, and one in a border state.” [FBI-New Orleans, 105-1499, serial #36 which is article entitled “Birch Society Founder Speaks” published 4/20/61 in the New Orleans LA Times-Picayune.]

In other words, racial separation is the only legitimate policy to follow – and southern Negroes do not want integration.

Even in 1956, Welch echoed the sentiments expressed in 1965 by George Schuyler (quoted above).  Welch observed:

“Even under the still-far-from-equal standards that have prevailed, our Negro population has been making steady gains in its educational level.  The London Economist has pointed out that already a larger percentage of American Negroes get college educations than the percentage of Englishmen in the British isles. We believe it could also have pointed out…that the material standard of living of the average American Negro is today higher than that of the average Englishman.”  [Robert Welch: “A Letter to the South on Segregation”, One Man’s Opinion magazine, September 1956, section I, page 2].

Welch’s 1956 argument is identical to the argument published by the White Citizens Councils.  For example, in February 1956, Tom Ethridge wrote the following in his monthly column in the Councils’ newsletter:

“The Negro’s progress as a race during the past century is one of the most inspiring chapters of American history. It not only is a tribute to the patience and friendship of Southern whites…Freely conceding that his social and economic status can be improved, the Southern Negro has much to be thankful for as a result of friendship and cooperation by his white friends.”

Robert Welch also claimed that the “easy-going colored man” of the South could be “easily misled by agitators,” and “is now being inflamed into a hatred of his white neighbors which he never felt before. Welch also opined that the phrase civil rights” was a Communist slogan. Welch asserted that racial integration “embarrassed” good black Americans.  [Robert Welch: “A Letter to the South on Segregation”, One Man’s Opinion magazine, September 1956, page 4]. NOTE:  See rebuttal of Welch’s assertions in December 1954 House Committee on Un-American Activities report, “The American Negro in the Communist Party” cited below.]

Of course, at no point, does Mr. Welch explain how he arrived at his understanding about what the majority of African Americans in the United States believed about their status OR what they believed about the degree or nature of the discrimination and oppression they confronted in their everyday lives. Presumably, Welch never consulted George Schuyler who wrote in 1961 about “The White Citizens Council which has branches or cells everywhere, controls by terror such states as Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and to a lesser extent, Virginia.”

At no point does Robert Welch or the John Birch Society consider the possibility that society at large could have some responsibility or some blame for creating an environment which produced feelings of despair or impotence within a minority community nor would our society ever bear any blame for the limitations it placed upon opportunities available to black Americans or other minorities.

Instead, JBS writers and speakers chose to de-legitimize and de-humanize black Americans—especially if they dared to protest their condition.  For example, during racial upheavals such as the Watts Riot of 1965, the JBS referred to “the spear concession in Watts”. [Gary Allen and Bill Richardson: “Los Angeles: Hell in the City of Angels”, American Opinion magazine, September 1965, pages 1-14].  Obviously, such comments are welcomed by racists. See additional JBS references to blacks as “cannibals” or “savages” in the attached Chronology.


The idyllic picture presented by the Birch Society cannot be sustained unless unwelcome factual data is suppressed or de-valued so it does not disrupt the picture which the JBS wants Americans to believe.

Here, then, are the five most dominant JBS themes:

1.     First, any anti-black or anti-civil rights atrocities have to be explained away.

For example:  In 1965, when Thomas L. Coleman was acquitted of killing an Episcopal seminarian (Rev. Jonathan Daniels), who was a civil rights activist in Alabama working to register voters, the JBS magazine published an article on the matter which noted that “typical” newspapers such as the Washington Post had denounced the trial as a “farce” – suggesting that the Post could not possibly have any legitimate basis for such a pejorative judgment. 

A grand jury indicted Coleman for manslaughter but the Attorney General of Alabama (Richmond Flowers) believed the charge should have been murder. He was overruled by the trial judge. Coleman was acquitted of manslaughter charges by an all-white jury because blacks were excluded from jury service. [Jere Real: “Jon Daniels: Product of His Seminary”, American Opinion magazine, January 1966, pages 33-40].  NOTE: The Alabama Attorney General described the verdict as representing the "democratic process going down the drain of irrationality, bigotry and improper law enforcement…now those who feel they have a license to kill, destroy and cripple have been issued that license.  [For additional details see:  Sara Bullard: “Free At Last: A History of the Civil Rights Movement and Those Who Died in the Struggle”, Oxford University Press, 1994, pages 86-87].

Similarly, when Rev. Robert Reeb was murdered in Selma AL, the editor of the JBS magazine (Scott Stanley Jr.) implied that quick hospitalization would have saved Rev. Reeb, “But now he is dead; and King and SNCC have their martyr.”  [Scott Stanley Jr.: “Revolution: The Assault on Selma”, American Opinion magazine, May 1965, page 9].

When Medgar Evers was murdered in 1963, JBS Coordinator Medford Evans could not resist a standard tactic used by racists in the south to belittle the significance of such murders through sarcasm or snide remarks. Evans wrote: “We don’t know who shot him by the way.  Maybe it was Lee Harvey Oswald.”  Oddly, JBS author Alan Stang made the same comment so perhaps it was meant to be taken seriously?  [Medford Evans: "The Sheriff: Jim Clark of Selma", American Opinion magazine, February 1966, page 3 and Alan Stang: “It’s Very Simple: The True Story of Civil Rights”, Western Islands, 1965, p. 207]

In 1964, when McComb, Mississippi experienced over 16 bombings and arsons of homes, churches, and businesses of persons connected to civil rights activities, Medford Evans interpretation was: “Never a death; always a headline. To some the classic instance of this sort of thing is the Reichstag fire…”. [Medford Evans: “Mississippi—The Long Hot Summer”, American Opinion magazine, November 1964, page 15]. 

NOTE: Subsequent investigation by the FBI resulted in the arrest nine white supremacists. Two pleaded guilty to three counts of unlawful use of explosives and each received three five‐year sentences. Four other defendants pleaded guilty to one count and received a five year sentence. Three more pleaded no contest to conspiracy charges and received suspended six‐month sentences and $500 fines.

Incidentally, the insinuation that the victims of racial crimes might have been responsible for their own bombings and arsons or even murders is a standard trope used by right-wing extremists and white supremacists. When Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated, Birchers suggested that “his own side” might have been responsible for the crime in order to produce a martyr.  

Also see: “Welch Blames Reds in Killings”, Phoenix AZ Republic, 9/26/65, page A-1 which opens with:

“Racial killings in the South are perpetrated by Communists to warn Negroes not to oppose the civil rights movement, Robert Welch, founder of the John Birch Society, asserted yesterday.

About a year before this absurd comment by Robert Welch, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover held a press conference to discuss a variety of matters. According to news reports, one remark by Hoover was:

Hoover said ‘all the lynching’s and bombings of homes in the South’ were the work of Klan members. He said his agency knows ‘pretty well who they are’.” [FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial #2365 which is a copy of an Indianapolis IN Star article, page 1, on 11/19/64. Most U.S. newspapers published an article which contained Hoover’s comments based upon AP and UPI wire service summaries.]

Perhaps the most notorious racial killing of the mid-1960’s was the murder of Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman outside Philadelphia, MS in 1964. The local Sheriff was among those accused of involvement. Once again, JBS Coordinator (and White Citizens Council official) Medford Evans presented his unique interpretation by offering “two alternative hypotheses: one, that the three were killed by ‘wet squads’ on their own side; the other, that they were not killed at all.” 

In support of his lunatic idea, after all three bodies had been discovered buried in an earthen dam – Evans suggested that identification of the bodies must have been difficult and any “three stiffs from the local morgue” could have been buried there. Naturally, the Klan itself could hardly produce anything more appealing to a racist. [Medford Evans: “Mississippi—The Long Hot Summer”, American Opinion magazine, November 1964, page 14]. 

The quality of Medford Evans' analytical skills might best be revealed by reviewing the following information:

Evans helped organize the Tri-State Citizens Council of Texarkana AR.  One FBI serial about that Council pointed out that Evans “said the bodies of the three civil rights workers found near Philadelphia MS could have been planted there by the U.S. Government.”   AND  “Dr. Evans talked of the success of the Citizens Council in Alabama in thwarting the efforts of Martin Luther King in registering Negro voters.”  [FBI-HQ file 105-34237-25, serial #45; 3/1/65 SAC Little Rock to Hoover re: Tri-State Citizens Council of Texarkana AR]. 

2.   The second theme employed by the JBS is to validate discrimination.

According to the JBS, IF there actually are instances of racial discrimination, then they must be based upon natural and proper and reasonable distinctions of ability and education.

For example:  The poll tax, which even its supporters acknowledged was a device for preventing black Americans from voting, was defended by JBS author James P. Lucier as “a reasonable restriction, and in practice, a modest one…If such tests of maturity cut most deeply against Negroes, it is merely an objective indication that more individual Negroes have not yet earned the stake in the community necessary for responsible citizenship.  If the social structure is determined by individual choice and cultural patterns, no one’s rights are violated.”  [Jim Lucier, “Civil Rites: Who Should Vote?”, American Opinion magazine, June 1965, page 30].

Even JBS founder, Robert Welch, agreed during a Boston TV interview that:  I would be inclined to agree with our founding fathers in having some limitation on suffrage.”  [“Welch Would Curb U.S. Voting Rights”, Boston MA Herald, 7/28/65, page 18; FBI-Boston 100-32899, serial #350.]

For anybody who might think that the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution forbids denying the right to vote on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, Jim Lucier had a different interpretation:

This radical measure is contrary not only to the division of powers in the body of the Constitution, but to the intent of the Fourteenth Amendment.”  And in his same article, Lucier suggests that the Fourteenth Amendment is invalid because of faulty ratification procedures.  [Jim Lucier, op cit]. 

Lucier’s arguments (shared by the JBS) should not surprise anyone. Lucier worked for two segregationist politicians (Sen. Strom Thurmond and Jesse Helms) along with the segregationist editor of the Richmond VA News-Leader newspaper (James J. Kilpatrick) before associating himself with the Birch Society.  [In 1962, Kilpatrick wrote a book entitled: “The Southern Case for School Segregation”]

Lucier was merely repeating what segregationists had been proposing for decades. For example:   In 1956, the Mississippians for States Rights was founded. The Chairman of this group was W.B. Fontaine of Jackson MS. Fontaine explained the organizing principle of his new group: “There is no such thing as an acceptable civil rights program. Civil rights laws are foreign to the concept of English law, the basis for our government, and are connected with socialism.”  [Laurel MS Leader-Call, 5/31/56, p1 and 7; “States Rights Group Sets Up Organization].

From 1963 to 1966, Lucier wrote 14 articles for American Opinion.  In 1963, he warned about the spread of socialism among the “cannibals and savages of newly independent African nations.” The reason they were becoming socialist according to Lucier, was because it “was easy to convince cannibals and savages that socialism will supply abundance without necessitating the earning of it.”  Lucier also commented that black African leaders had “learned to grasp only the concept that one eats one’s enemies.” 


At NO time, did anybody connected with the John Birch Society (including its African American speakers) ever bring the attention of JBS members to the actual state of affairs in our southern states which is described below. 

Instead, the JBS hired Dallas County, Alabama, Sheriff Jim Clark to be a paid speaker for the JBS and the JBS chose to heavily publicize lurid accusations of sexual misconduct between black men and white women during the Selma March which were made by Alabama GOP Congressman William L. Dickinson.  The FBI file on the Selma March stated that the FBI found no evidence to support those charges.  This is just another example of how the Birch Society chose to ally itself with the worst racist elements in our country and then parrot their falsehoods about our civil rights movement. [Not surprisingly, Dickinson received a score of 84 on the Birch Society’s “Conservative Index” for 1973.]

In March 1965, the Birch Society published an article in its magazine (American Opinion) by its Editor (Scott Stanley Jr.) which tried to depict Selma,  (Dallas County) Alabama as a place where there was “deep respect for the law” and, according to Stanley, it had already registered 20% of its adult African Americans as of January 1965. 

So, according to Stanley and the JBS, “Selma was not only living up to the laws of the land but was honorably going the extra mile—doing everything possible to forestall racial difficulty there.”  Stanley then added that because of Selma’s exemplary record, it “was the last place on earth that one would have expected to see the racist revolutionary, Dr. Martin Luther King.  But there he was…In the middle of January, Dr. King and his team of agitators arrived in Selma…”  [Scott Stanley Jr.: “Revolution: The Assault on Selma”, American Opinion, May 1965, page 1; FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial #2576]

Of course, at no point does Mr. Stanley provide a footnote to substantiate his assertion about the progress made in Dallas County Alabama or in Selma.  The reality was starkly different (see below). 

As usual, the Birch Society’s article includes a photo of “Martin Luther King at Communist Training School” – referring to Highlander Folk School of Monteagle TN. The description of Highlander as a “Communist Training School” originated with the official photographer of the United Klans of America chapter in Georgia who infiltrated Highlander and took photos of blacks and whites working, eating, and dancing together. For additional information regarding the Highlander Folk School controversy, see my detailed online report at link below:


Stanley also repeated the false allegations about sexual misconduct by black men with white women during the Selma March which originated with the racist Alabama Congressman William L. Dickinson. Yet again the Birch Society chose to associate itself with arguments and racial stereotypes created by white supremacists (such as black men having excessive sexual desires directed toward white women). 

After quoting a misleading statement by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, Stanley closes his diatribe with this summation:

“But, that Communist control of the Negro "Civil-Rights" movement is now a matter of fact, or merely a matter of time, should provoke reasonable Americans - white and black - to resolve that it is the hour for good men to stop doing nothing, lest evil triumph. It is time for good men to become involved in a major effort to free the ‘Civil Rights’ movement of Communist influence before it is too late.”  [Stanley, op cit, page 10].

At no point does Stanley present JBS members with the actual judgment of Hoover and the FBI, which was:

“Let me emphasize that the American civil rights movement is not and has never been dominated by the communists--because the overwhelming majority of civil rights leaders in this country, both Negro and white, have recognized and rejected communism as a menace to the freedoms of all."   [J. Edgar Hoover speech, 12/12/64, Our Heritage of Greatness, pg 7 - Hoover speech before Pennsylvania Society and the Society of Pennsylvania Women; bold emphasis on "not" and "never" in original document].


As of November 1964, three months before the famous Selma March to Montgomery, the following statistics were sent by the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI’s Mobile AL field office to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. These numbers appear in a “Memorandum Opinion, Preliminary Injunction and Writ of Injunction in the case entitledHOSEA WILLIAMS; et al, Plaintiffs; UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - PLAINTIFF-INTERVENOR vs. HONORABLE GEORGE C. WALLACE as Governor of the State of Alabama; ET AL - . DEFENDANTS’,” Civil Action No. 2181-N filed in U.S. District Court Middle District of Alabama, Montgomery, Alabama.

As reflected in by Appendix ‘A’ to this opinion, the efforts of these Negro citizens to secure this right to register to vote in some of these counties, have accomplished very little.  For instance, in Dallas County, as of November 1964, where Negro citizens of voting age outnumber white citizens of voting age, only 2.2% of the Negroes were registered to vote.  In Perry County as of August 1964, where the Negro citizens of voting age outnumber white citizens, only 7% of the Negroes were registered to vote.  In Wilcox County as of December 1963, where the Negro citizens of voting age outnumber white citizens over two to one, 0% of the Negro citizens were registered to vote as contrasted with the registration of 100% of the white citizens of voting age in this county…The evidence in this case reflects that, particularly as to Selma, Dallas County, Alabama, an almost continuous pattern of conduct has existed on the part of defendant Sheriff Clark, his deputies, and his auxiliary deputies known as ‘possemen’ of harassment, intimidation, coercion, threatening conduct, and, sometimes, brutal mistreatment toward these plaintiffs and other members of their class who were engaged in their demonstrations for the purpose of encouraging Negroes to attempt to register to vote and to protest discriminatory voter registration practices in Alabama. This harassment, intimidation and brutal treatment has ranged from mass arrest without just cause to forced marches for several miles into the countryside, with the sheriff’s deputies and members of his posse herding the Negro demonstrators at rapid pace through the use of electrical shocking devices (designed for use on cattle) and night sticks to prod them along. The Alabama State Troopers, under the command of the defendant Lingo have, upon several occasions, assisted the defendant Sheriff Clark in these activities, and the State Troopers, along with Sheriff Clark as an ‘invited guest’, have extended the harassment and intimidating activities into Perry County…” [FBI-HQ 44-28544, serial #346, SAC Mobile to J. Edgar Hoover, page 4.]

Many segregationists chose to become JBS members or officials precisely because the Birch Society adopted white supremacist talking points and themes and because the JBS reflexively defended white privilege. For example JBS National Council member Thomas J. Anderson of Nashville TN wrote:

It is the natural right of man to discriminate…A person who doesn’t discriminate is either a slave or a slob.  Property rights are the very basis of ‘human rights’ and the right to self-determination of associates is what the privacy of the individual is all about.  Forced equality is not democracy: it is a barnyard just as Orwell said.” [Tom Anderson: “Reflections of a Southern Segregationist”, American Opinion magazine, February 1965, page 24].  Later, Anderson wrote an article justifying slavery for the racist and pro-Klan Louisiana newsletter, The Councilor, entitled “Tom Anderson Says Blacks Should Be Grateful to Whites”.

Not surprisingly, Anderson and his wife belonged to a whites-only church and they praised fellow JBS member, Rev. Delmar Dennis, when Dennis set up his whites-only congregation in Mississippi.

The FBI Special Agent in Charge of the Jackson MS field office wrote in a summary memo about Delmar Dennis that he was “widely known in rural Mississippi as an ardent segregationist...He founded the First Southern Methodist Church in Mississippi, which church was founded for the sole intent of maintaining racial segregation." [FBI-HQ 170-249, serial #1, page 2; 11/9/64 SAC Jackson MS to J. Edgar Hoover.]

Delmar Dennis was also:  • Chairman, Citizens Council Lauderdale County MS; • Chairman, Citizens Council of Meridian and Chairman of its Public Affairs Committee; • On Board of Directors, White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund (a Ku Klux Klan fundraising group)

3.   The third JBS position or theme is to always ignore discriminatory Southern racial laws and practices.

Robert Welch and the Birch Society often attempted to claim some moral high ground by stating that they had no problem with civil rights but they opposed “forced integration”, i.e. using government to compel racial integration. 

However, the JBS never objected to forced segregation, i.e. using government to compel separation of whites from people of color (whether blacks, Asians, Hispanics, Indians or anyone else).

For example:  the JBS was totally silent when southern states took it upon themselves to legislate human relations by passing laws

·         to prevent a white person from marrying a person of color OR

·         to prevent a white person and a black person from travelling together on buses, OR

·         to prevent them from eating together in restaurants, OR

·         to prevent them from using the same waiting rooms or restrooms, OR

·         to prevent them from attending the same public schools, OR

·         to prevent them from enjoying the same public parks, swimming pools, and recreational facilities.

But every law which sought to break down racial separation, whether a Federal Civil Rights Act, or a state law (such as California’s fair housing legislation) was immediately denounced by the JBS as an intolerable invasion upon individual choice.

The Birch Society claims to believe that the less government there is, the better for our society – BUT with a strange absence of logic, this standard is never applied to the kinds of laws which racists supported and implemented.

Then there is the matter of discriminatory treatment of African Americans by Southern law enforcement officials.  One might recall the comment made by J. Edgar Hoover in November 1964:

"Around Philadelphia Mississippi, law enforcement is practically nil and many times sheriffs and deputies participate in crimes” and Hoover also observed that FBI agents investigating civil rights cases in the swamp country of Mississippi sometimes found the area filled with "nothing but water moccasins, rattlesnakes and red-necked sheriffs, and they are all in the same category as far as I am concerned.” [New York Times, 11/28/64, p34].

But the John Birch Society had a different opinion. The segregationist Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma AL was singled out by the JBS for special praise. [Medford Evans: “The Sheriff: Jim Clark of Selma”, American Opinion magazine, February 1966, page 10].  Clark also became a paid speaker under the auspices of the JBS Speakers Bureau.

In addition, while the JBS excoriated the U.S. Supreme Court for what the JBS considered the Court’s too careful consideration of the rights of defendants and the Court’s supposed eagerness to hamper police, nevertheless, the JBS has always been totally silent about the record of Southern courts when they routinely dismissed cases against whites charged with crimes against blacks (or against civil rights workers). The JBS was also silent about criminal defendants being found not guilty by all-white juries.  Once again, the JBS abandoned its logic in a way calculated to appeal to and comfort racists.


A central point of JBS philosophy is that race is a legitimate category by which to group individuals regardless of their other characteristics. Furthermore, the JBS proposes that racial pride is more appropriate than any aspiration for equality with whites.  Once again, Manning Johnson is used by the JBS to make this point. Johnson attributed most of the progress made by African Americans since slavery to George Washington Carver and Booker T. Washington and then Johnson wrote:

“Theirs was a deep and abiding pride of race, a firm belief in the ability of their benighted people to rise above their past and eventually stand on an equal plane with all other races.  Moreover, equality was to them not just a catchword---the prattle of fools---but a living thing to be achieved only by demonstrated ability.”  [Manning Johnson, op cit, page 56].

This is the same Manning Johnson who wrote an article in 1952 for a national Catholic monthly publication in which Johnson attempted to explain why some black Americans were seduced by the Communist Party.  In his article, Manning wrote about “Big Tom” Williams:

He was born and reared in Jim Crow surroundings which in time he grew to hate. The narrowly circumscribed life based upon race hate and the belief that he had no rights which a white man was bound to respect rankled and embittered him…After graduation he married a fine and attractive girl and would have settled down, but he could not harden himself to the Jim Crow surroundings as had so many others of his race. The vivid recollections of a race riot in which white hoodlums indiscriminately attacked Negroes, burned their homes, wrecked their businesses, and the Roman Holiday atmosphere that prevailed when one of his neighbors was dragged from his home and lynched, left a deep impression on him so that no amount of persuasion could stop him from moving his family North to ‘freedom.”  [Manning Johnson: “Big Tom, The Red”, The Sign magazine, December 1952]

Significantly, the Birch Society never informed its members about the type of experience  described above which was faced by many African Americans. Nor did the JBS ever correctly inform its members about the reasons why African Americans (or other racial or religious minorities) became interested in radical left organizations, i.e. why  radicalism appealed to certain segments of our society—including minorities. For relevant background about this matter, see the 309-page December 1951 FBI training monograph entitled “Reasons Why People Accept and Reject Communism”. In particular, see the section about African American author, Richard Wright (pages 71-76).

Thomas Anderson presented a similar argument to what Manning Johnson wrote but from a white supremacist viewpoint:

If the Negro were really equal, he wouldn’t force himself on whites; he wouldn’t have to.  I’m for allowing the Negro the opportunity to develop himself to his fullest capacities, to contribute his utmost to mankind and to gain pride of race so that he won’t even want to force himself upon those who do not want to associate with him on equal terms.”  [Thomas Anderson, op cit, page 26]

During the 1960’s, the JBS argument was that contemporary black leaders were not just totally wrong in their direction, but they were also out of touch with their own followers.  The JBS claimed that “ordinary blacks were not to be blamed for the protests and demonstrations in the South. 

As Robert Welch explained:

So please remember that it was not the ordinary colored people of the South who brought on the Supreme Court decision of May 17, 1954.  They had nothing to do with it, and certainly most of them did not want it, nor the turmoil to which it has led.”  [Robert Welch: JBS Bulletin, September 1963, page 87]. 

This repeats Welch’s sentiment from 1956:

Do not put the responsibility where it doesn’t belong. Do not blame your neighbors, the colored people of the South. They had nothing to do with the Supreme Court decision, did not seek it, and as a class have not been the ones to bring the racial issue to a boil. Most of them would be just as embarrassed as you would at forced integration and are just as opposed to the whole idea.” [Robert Welch, “A Letter to the South on Segregation”, One’s Man’s Opinion magazine, September 1956, page 5]. 

Of course, at no point does Mr. Welch explain what method he used to determine what “ordinary colored people of the South wanted or how he determined what “most of them” (African Americans) believed.

Instead, the JBS position was that those ordinary colored people have been betrayed by their own leadership.  As Manning Johnson explained:

“Betrayal of the Negro people may well come through Communist corruption of the Negro intellectual.  This is not so difficult since the Communists, the ‘white liberals’ and the ‘white progressives’ do the thinking for most of them. The utter bankruptcy of the Negro intelligentsia is startingly evident by reason of the absence of any strong and dramatic movement for genuine Negro organization, leadership, and thinking.  Deep in the swamp of inferiority, lack of ability, muddled thought, the Negro intelligentsia looks to the phoney [sic] white liberals, politicians and progressive hypocrites for leadership, guidance, and money.  These ‘whites’ are carriers of ‘isms’ other than Americanism which spreads like an epidemic in the ranks of the hapless Negro intellectuals.”  [Manning Johnson, op cit, page 61]

Then Manning Johnson refers to the “disastrous effect of integration”:

“The Negro bitten by the integration bug is so naïve that he thinks that boycotting his own race and spending his money in a place where he is unwanted is ‘putting his own best foot forward” [Ibid, page 59]

Johnson then adopts a standard white racist argument when he declares that civil rights organizations built a persecution complex into the Southern Negro that has little to do with reality:

“The main danger to the Negro is not the Southern school, but the persecution and hate complex the N.A.A.C.P. and reds are trying to create.”  [Manning Johnson, op cit, page 50]

The Birch Society encouraged its paid writers and speakers to heap scorn and abuse upon civil rights workers, white or black. George Schuyler, for example, speaks of “roving banditti” and “battalions of retardates” as well as “The lunatic grins and cretin cheers of the goggle-eyed mob that ‘marched’ to Washington.”  [Schuyler, op cit, page 30]

Schuyler then claims (in a manner reminiscent of literature published by white hate groups) that the funding for civil rights groups came from:

Well-healed [sic] crypto Communists in high places, lone-wolf Marxists, socialist labor unions, senile dowagers, emotionally charged utopians…the hirsute brained…”  [Schuyler, op cit, page 30].

Medford Evans, a JBS member who was a self-identified white supremacist inquired:

What loyal Southerner can compare in national fame with Hodding Carter or Ralph McGill?  It would be unfair to compare such scalawags with Judas. Judas was filled with remorse.” [Medford Evans, “From the South”, American Opinion magazine, March 1966, page 67].

The JBS reprinted parts of Alabama Congressman William L. Dickinson’s lurid charges about conduct on the march from Selma to Montgomery which conformed to the south’s racial stereotypes:

There were many—not just a few—instances of sexual intercourse in public between Negro and white…Photographs were taken of this I am told.  I have not seen the actual photographs. But they are being processed and compiled.”  Appended to Dickinson’s remarks was a note by American Opinion which added: “We know it is true because our own reporters verify it in details.” [see previously cited May 1965 article by Scott Stanley Jr., page 9].  The “reporters” are not identified but JBS speaker, Sheriff Jim Clark, also made such assertions in his JBS-sponsored speeches.

Manning Johnson also had his own unique characterization of those interested in black equality:

Among them are found Communists, crypto-Communists, fuzzy-headed liberals, eggheads, pacifists, idealists, civil disobedience advocates, self-seekers, muddle-headed humanitarians, addle-brained intellectuals, and plain meddlers.” [Manning Johnson, op cit, page 51].

By so labeling all civil rights leaders, workers and sympathizers, the Birch Society provided an obvious service to white racists.  Instead of calling the civil rights advocate a “nigger lover, the overt racist can just adopt Birch Society rhetoric.

The use of such vicious language separates the JBS rather clearly from the “nice” segregationists, or the respectable conservatives, whom the JBS claims to represent. But the JBS rhetorical style has more in common with the Ku Klux Klan than with anybody who wants to avoid stirring up racial hatreds and avoid validating racist stereotypes.

In December 1958, Manning Johnson testified at hearings conducted by the Arkansas Legislative Council Committee which was investigating possible links between communism and racial unrest in Arkansas. He previously testified in March 1957 at hearings conducted by the Louisiana Joint Legislative Committee on Segregation.

The FBI summary concerning Johnson’s Arkansas testimony pointed out that “…he is not in a position to speak authoritatively regarding the present tactics and activities of the Communist Party in the Negro field as he was dropped from the Communist Party in 1939.  It would appear Johnson was attempting to prove or infer that the present racial unrest is the result of Communist Party policies formulated in the 1920s and 30s. This premise is not supported by data in Bufiles; however it is observed that the Communist Party, at every opportunity, has attempted to capitalize on the situation…Johnson’s testimony adds nothing to our knowledge in this field.” [FBI-HQ 62-105198, serial #8, page 1; SAC Little Rock to J. Edgar Hoover, regarding Arkansas Legislative Council Committee; also FBI-Little Rock 44-341].

The FBI also pointed out falsehoods in Johnson’s testimony. In one specific instance,  with respect to Manning Johnson’s derogatory comments regarding the NAACP, the FBI observed that in response to an inquiry by the Pittsburgh PA Courier newspaper in April 1957, the Department of Justice informed the Courier that “the Department informed the NAACP that recent statements made by Johnson attempting to link the NAACP with the Communist Party did not reflect the views nor findings of the Justice Department; that Johnson was not one of its employees as reportedly cited in various newspaper accounts; and that Johnson in no way was connected with the Department nor did he speak for the Department.” [FBI-HQ 62-105198, serial #8, page 6; SAC Little Rock to J. Edgar Hoover, regarding Arkansas Legislative Council Committee; also FBI-Little Rock 44-341].

The Bureau concluded that:

“Despite the recurring allegations by Southern political leaders that the racial situation is Communist-inspired, our investigation of the Communist Party and the over-all racial situation in this country has reflected that in practically all instances, with relatively few exceptions, racial incidents in this country have not been caused or inspired by Communist Party elements.” [FBI-HQ 62-105198, serial #8, page 5; SAC Little Rock to J. Edgar Hoover, regarding Arkansas Legislative Council Committee; also FBI-Little Rock 44-341].

The Birch Society used African American speakers and writers (like Manning Johnson) because African Americans like Manning Johnson were willing to affirm and perpetuate racist arguments created by white supremacists about Communist influence and control within our civil rights movement and then cheerfully promoted by credulous right-wing extremist groups like the JBS.


According to Robert Welch and the JBS, the aspirations of our civil rights movement were the direct result of Communist policy decisions. 

“The truth is that, if you look far enough, you will find every agitator on this issue being pushed from somewhere behind, by a Communist—even though the agitator may not know he is just a pawn in a dirty game.”  [Robert Welch, A Letter to the South on Segregation, One Man’s Opinion magazine, September 1956, section III, page 7].  The possibility that at least some civil rights activity is motivated by something other than Communism is never considered.  [NOTE:  See rebuttal to Welch’s claim in December 1954 report by the House Committee on Un-American Activities cited below.]

In the June 1965 JBS Bulletin, Mr. Welch observed:

"Our task must be simply to make clear that the movement known as 'civil rights' is Communist-plotted, Communist-controlled, and in fact...serves only Communist purposes."

In August 1965, the JBS ran a full-page ad in many U.S. newspapers entitled “What’s Wrong With Civil Rights? One of the answers provided by the JBS was:

“For the civil rights movement in the United States with all of its growing agitation and riots and bitterness, and insidious steps toward the appearance of civil war, has not been infiltrated by the Communists, as you now frequently hear. It has been deliberately and almost wholly created by the Communists patiently building up to this present stage for more than thirty years.” [FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial #2621, 8/31/65 airtel from SAC Birmingham to J. Edgar Hoover with attachment of ad from Sunday 8/29/65 Birmingham AL News.]

In the November 1965 JBS Bulletin, page 44, Robert Welch declared:

“We have said many times, and we repeat now, that if you can fully expose the civil rights fraud, you will break the back of the Communist conspiracy.  But the word ‘fully’ is important in that sentence.  It calls for bringing a preponderant majority of our fellow citizens really to grasp the fact that the ‘civil rights’ program has been designed by Communists, is controlled by Communists, and will be used by the Communists as a vital part of their total strategy for taking over our country.”

As Alan Stang warned in his JBS-published 1965 book:

Remember this, the Communist policy toward Negroes would consist of two slogans or strategies: first a drive for equal rights for Negroes everywhere in America, and second, at the same time a drive for self-determination in the South.” [Alan Stang, It’s Very Simple, page 31]

In support of its contention regarding the origins of our civil rights movement, Robert Welch strongly recommended Alan Stang’s book, because:

“It gives the whole picture of the ‘civil rights’ development, as a part of Communist strategy, more completely and convincingly than anything else available.” [Robert Welch, November 1965 JBS Bulletin]

Again, in May 1966, Mr. Welch used the JBS Bulletin to heap praise upon Stang’s book:

“This book, because of its thoroughness, its comprehensive coverage of the whole ‘civil rights’ story, and its meticulous documentation, is the best single searchlight we have for exposing the ‘civil rights’ fraud.”

Even in the 21st century, the JBS continued to promote its continual and constant denunciation of all civil rights activity because of its alleged Communist domination:

"Just as the John Birch Society showed in the 1960's that the communists basically ran both the civil rights movement and the KKK, the strategy was nothing new. The former was used to transfer power to Washington DC in the name of civil rights and the latter provided a pretext for transferring power to Washington. You cannot get a really good conflict started unless you control both sides of the argument."  [JBS Bulletin, May 2008]


In 1965, J. Edgar Hoover described the civil rights movement as "a great and too long neglected cause of human rights" in our country. [FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Introduction, April 1965].

Hoover observed in a December 1964 speech, that:

"Let me emphasize that the American civil rights movement is not and has never been dominated by the communists--because the overwhelming majority of civil rights leaders in this country, both Negro and white, have recognized and rejected communism as a menace to the freedoms of all."   [J. Edgar Hoover speech, 12/12/64, Our Heritage of Greatness, pg 7 - Hoover speech before Pennsylvania Society and the Society of Pennsylvania Women; bold emphasis on "not" and "never" in original document].

In November 1966, Hoover received an inquiry from a self-identified JBS member who saw the above quote in a letter-to-the-editor of his local newspaper and the Bircher wanted to know if the quote was an accurate reflection of Hoover’s judgment both in 1964 and 1966. Hoover replied affirmatively and concluded: “This position remains essentially unchanged today.” [FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial #3021, 11/15/66 Hoover reply to incoming Bircher inquiry].

Also see following Hoover comments:

“Communist leaders have been complaining bitterly about the turnover of Negro members and of the Party’s inability to indoctrinate any large number of Negroes.  Information we have received follows a regular pattern: Negroes are rejecting Communism.” [J. Edgar Hoover, Masters of Deceit, 1958, page 232]

It would be absurd to suggest that the aspirations of Negroes for equality are communist inspired. This is demonstrably not true…” [J. Edgar Hoover speech, Faith In Freedom, 12/4/63, page 6].

“In general, legitimate civil rights organizations have been successful in excluding Communists, although a few have received covert counseling from them and have even accepted them as members…The CP is not satisfied with this situation and is continually striving to infiltrate the civil rights movement at every level. " [J. Edgar Hoover, U.S. News and World Report, 11/1/65, page 46].

“It is no secret that one of the bitterest disappointments to communistic efforts in this Nation has been their failure to lure our Negro citizens into the party. Despite every type of propaganda boomed at our Nation’s Negro citizens, they have never succumbed to the party’s saccharine promises of a Communist ‘Utopia’. This generation and generations to come for many years owe a tremendous debt to our Negro citizens who have consistently refused to surrender their freedoms for the tyranny of communism.” J. Edgar Hoover testimony before U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 01/17/60, reprinted in March 1960 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, page 7].

Also see the following comment by the House Committee on Un-American Activities:

“The Communist Party in the United States of America, in its continuing efforts to infiltrate and destroy the Constitutional government of this country, has made the minority groups in the United States prime targets of attack…The fact that the Communist conspiracy has experienced so little success in attracting the American Negro to its cause reflects favorably on the loyalty and integrity of the vast majority of the 15,000,000 Negro citizens.  To attest to this fact we restate the words of Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which appeared in the Congressional Record of January 26, 1953:

We recently reviewed the origins of 5,395 of the leading members of the Communist Party. The results were most interesting.  Only 411 were Negroes but of the remaining 4,984, we found that 4,555, (or 91 ½ percent) were either of foreign birth or born of foreign parents…The fact that only 411 Negroes were found in this select group is strong evidence that the American Negro is not hoodwinked by these false messiahs.’

“In furtherance of its traitorous design the Communist Party of the United States has exploited issues of genuine concern to the American Negro and all Americans.” [Committee on Un-American Activities, U.S. House of Representatives, "The American Negro in the Communist Party". 12/22/54, page 1]. 

And in its “Conclusion”, the Committee observed:

“From the facts set forth in this report, the committee can only conclude that the vast majority of Americans of the Negro race have consistently resisted the blandishments and treacherous promises offered them by the Communist conspirators.”  [Committee on Un-American Activities, U.S. House of Representatives, “The American Negro in the Communist Party” 12/22/54, page 13]

Also see October 1956 FBI monograph used for training its Agents entitled "The Communist Party and the Negro, 1953-1956" here:


In 1961, the California Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities reported that:

“The Communist Party in this country has, from its inception, endeavored to attract Negroes to its ranks. At one stage of its existence the Party even undertook to establish a Negro nation in the deep South and through its Southern Conference for Human Welfare made an all-out effort to recruit large numbers of the Negro people. This attempt, like the Communist attempt to penetrate and control the N.A.A.C.P., resulted in failure.” [Eleventh Report of the California Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, 1961, page 136].

During the 1960’s, the Birch Society and its front-organization TACT (Truth About Civil Turmoil) were responsible for widespread distribution of a postcard showing a photo of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. "attending a Communist training school."

In addition to postcards, the JBS was also responsible for billboards which contained the photo and for hundreds of instances when JBS speakers referred to King's attendance at a "Communist training school." The school was identified as Highlander Folk School (HFS) in Monteagle, TN.

Alan Stang discusses HFS and the photograph in his JBS-published book on civil rights. He described Highlander as "this Communist school". [Alan Stang: “It's Very Simple: The True Story of Civil Rights”; Western Islands Publishers, 1965, page 114)

What the Birch Society is very careful to suppress, however, is the story behind whom took the picture and the background of the persons responsible for describing HFS as a "Communist training school"

The famous photograph of Dr. King at Highlander was taken by Edwin H. Friend. Mr. Friend of Atlanta GA described himself as "an undercover agent" for the Georgia Commission on Education (GCE). The GCE was a state agency created in 1953 to preserve segregated public schools in Georgia. Mr. Friend was also the official photographer for the United Klans of America chapter in Georgia headed by Grand Dragon Calvin F. Craig.  For a detailed discussion of Highlander, see my online report here:  https://sites.google.com/site/ernie124102/hfs-1

During a February 1967 appearance before the House Appropriations Committee, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover was asked if he approved of former FBI informants speaking under the auspices of "extremist groups" such as the JBS-front group TACT (Truth About Civil Turmoil).

Hoover accepted the premise that TACT was an extremist group and he then said:

"It is an improper attempt to capitalize on the name of the FBI."

Congressman Andrews then asked:

In other words, this certainly does not indicate what it would to the average American, that the ‘ex-FBI undercover agents’ are so frustrated in their work in the Agency that they leave and sign-up with extremist organizations in order to try to protect America.”

Hoover replied: “Nor does it indicate I in any way condone the use of the name ‘ex-FBI-undercover agent’ in such endeavors.“ [FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial #3135, 5/31/67].

Hoover objected to former FBI informants seeking to inflate their credentials to persuade audiences that they had some sort of special expertise when, in reality, they simply provided raw information, of varying quality, to the Bureau.

Interestingly, the FBI was very critical of the post-FBI activities of two former African American FBI informants who subsequently became paid speakers for the John Birch Society (Julia Brown and Lola Belle Holmes). 

With respect to Lola Belle Holmes, the FBI observed:

"After she was discontinued as an informant, she displayed signs of emotional instability and it was necessary to admonish her to cease making false statements which were embarrassing to the Bureau." [FBI-HQ 134-4473; no serial number, 10/3/66 "Office of the Director" note].


“It has on previous occasions been necessary to admonish Holmes not to make untruthful statements in which she involved her association with the FBI." [J. Edgar Hoover memo to FBI-Boston field office on July 23, 1969].

See chapter 6 of my JBS Report for a detailed discussion of the misrepresentations and lies by Julia Brown and Lola Belle Holmes:  https://sites.google.com/site/ernie124102/jbs-3

Another aspect of the “Communist plot” narrative circulated by the Birch Society concerned the purported Communist goal of establishing a “Negro Soviet Republic in the area comprising our southern states.

According to Robert Welch in “The Time Has Come”, a 1964 JBS pamphlet, the Communist civil rights strategy since 1928 was to stir up racial bitterness and rioting while promising “to convert the Dixie states into a Negro Soviet Republic…”  This theme was echoed in a Birch Society national newspaper ad from August 1965 captioned “What’s Wrong With Civil Rights?” and it also was repeated by other JBS-recommended sources such as Dan Smoot and Alan Stang. Welch repeated this argument in section III-B of a 1967 pamphlet entitled “This Is It” when he discussed The Two Main Planks of Current Communist Strategy”.

By contrast, J. Edgar Hoover pointed out in his January 1960 testimony before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee that the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party USA held in New York City on December 10, 1959 had discarded that Party position:

"The Negro resolution adopted by the convention discarded the party's historic position advocating 'self-determination' meaning that Negroes should be given the right to form a separate nation in the Southern States…The 1959 convention resolution hence represents a party admission that its position concerning Negroes is bankrupt. Time itself has shown that the party is not interested in the welfare of the Negro, but only in using him as a tool to advance party interests." [J. Edgar Hoover: An Analysis of the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party USA; Statement made to Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 1/17/60, page 7; Also see: FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1960 – for same comment.]

In August 1963, the FBI prepared a comprehensive 76-page summary regarding Communist strategy with respect to our civil rights movement.  Below is the pertinent section regarding the Communist strategy regarding “self-determination

By this theory of ‘self-determination’, communists meant that in many counties of the southern states Negroes composed a majority of the population and, as a separate race, they constituted a nation with the right, if they so desired, to secede from the United States and form their own nation and government.  This concept was adhered to and developed by the CPUSA for nearly 30 years…The policy of ‘self-determination’ was questioned more and more in Party circles following Stalin’s death in March 1953.  In December 1958, some members pointed out that the Party, through its adherence to such a position, was in effect advocating the segregation of Negroes from the rest of the population. Members of the Party’s National Committee recommended that the policy of ‘self-determination’ be modified or abandoned.  However, they did not dare make a change without Soviet approval. As a consequence, in February 1959, James Jackson, a top leader of the CPUSA and a delegate to the 21st Congress of the CP of the Soviet Union in Moscow, presented the proposed change to the Soviets for their endorsement.  Upon his return to this country, Jackson reported to Party leaders that the Soviets had approved discontinuing the policy of ‘self-determination’.  In December 1959, the CPUSA, at its 17th National Convention, adopted a resolution which brought an end to the 30-year-old policy of ‘self-determination’.  The resolution replaced it with a call for equality for the Negro throughout the United States in all phases of political, social, and economic life---in other words, full and complete integration.”  [FBI-HQ 100-3-116, serial #253X = 8/23/63 FBI monograph “Communist Party USA—Negro Question”, pages 5-6]. 


The fact that spokespersons for the Birch Society might occasionally have expressed a pious concern for black Americans and a desire to reduce racial tensions cannot be given too much credibility or weight because many overtly racist politicians such as Alabama Governor George Wallace, Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus and Georgia Governor Marvin Griffin said the same things.

The Birch Society no doubt contained many members who deplored the stirring of racial antagonisms and who thought of themselves as unprejudiced but the JBS chose to provide the thinnest of covers for outright racism by distorting facts and indulging in rhetoric calculated to appeal to the purveyors of racial hatred. That is precisely why white supremacist individuals and organizations regarded the JBS as their ALLY – and not their opponent.




A newly revised edition of this Chronology (dated April 2021) 

appears at the bottom of this webpage as a PDF document.

The purpose of the Chronology is to:

(a) document the voluminous connections and associations which JBS officials, JBS writers and speakers, JBS members, and JBS endorsers/sympathizers had with bigoted individuals, organizations, political parties, publications, and movements.


(b) identify JBS members who were involved in, condoned, or advocated violent acts and/or who committed crimes.

In addition, I have provided pertinent historical background information about the type of persons whom Robert Welch and the JBS considered to be “patriots” as well as reputable and credible individuals.

This new edition incorporates documentation from the FBI HQ file on the assassination of President Kennedy (HQ 62-109060) along with the U.S. Secret Service’s file about persons who made threats against the President because they contain so many references which illustrate how the JBS brought out the absolute worst qualities in people who believed the premises and conclusions disseminated through JBS literature.





JBS member George Deatherage (Satsuma FL) had an extremely colorful history.

In 1935, Deatherage founded and was the Grand Commander for the racist Knights of White Camellia.

In 1938, he was the President of the American Nationalist Confederation of St. Albans WV. The Confederation’s “News Bulletin” of 5/7/38 described itself as “The official organ of the fascist party in America”. According to its Platform:

“The Party seeks to include in its membership all Christian Americans who are opposed to the advent of alien communism under the direction of International Jewry---popularly called ‘The New Deal’…”

For additional info on Deatherage see pages 3455-3543 of Volume 5“Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States”, Committee on Un-American Activities, U.S. House of Representatives, May 18, 22-24, 31 and June 1, 1939; Also see pages 2243-2246 and 2385-2389 of Volume 3 (October-November 1938).

In 1939, Deatherage published a pamphlet entitled Has Martin Dies Sold Out to the Jewish Bankers?” which suggested that the Dies Committee should investigate Communists in America instead of Nazis or their publications.  

By the 1950s George Deatherage had moved to Palm Beach, Florida and he worked as a researcher for columnists Upton Close and Don Bell.  Deatherage was Regional Director of America First in Satsuma, FL and he worked with Tyler Kent’s newspaper The Putnam Sun. [NOTE:  Kent was a cipher clerk at the U.S. Embassy in London during World War II.  He was arrested in May 1940 and charged with providing secret documents to a pro-German organization. He was convicted in November 1940 and sentenced to seven years in prison.  After he was deported to the U.S. he married a wealthy woman and he published his pro-segregation and pro-KKK newspaper in Satsuma FL.]

In 1956, Deatherage contributed articles to the racist and anti-semitic Union NJ newspaper, Common Sense, published by Conde J. McGinley Sr.  [see separate entries regarding McGinley and his newspaper].    

Deatherage was indicted in January 1943 on the charge of conspiracy to undermine the loyalty of American troops. Deatherage also used his American Nationalist Confederation to recommend publications authored by Joseph Peter Kamp.

In the Spring of 1951, the Americanism Commission of the Department of Illinois—American Legion published a report on the “subversive activities” of  “hate mongers”.  Joseph Kamp is discussed on page 6 of this report:

“Early this year, Joseph P. Kamp addressed the Women’s Patriotic Conference on National Defence in Washington DC and engaged in an anti-Semitic attack of one of the country’s patriotic organizations…Since 1937 Kamp has been running his Constitutional Educational League in New York City.  We of the American Legion in Illinois have been acquainted with Kamp who makes irresponsible charges against responsible and respected groups and individuals.  Last year Kamp served four months in Federal prison for refusing to tell the United States Congress the source of his funds. He is again under Federal indictment for Contempt of Congress.”

A 1955 FBI-New York City memo described Joseph Kamp as “known to the New York Office as a pro-Fascist and anti-Semitic publisher.” [FBI-NYC 105-6112, #236].

During the 1950’s, JBS founder Robert Welch hired Joseph Kamp to provide editorial assistance for his manuscript, The Politician.


JBS member Merwin K. Hart (New York City) formed the first JBS chapter (#26) in New York City.

1936 = Hart used information appearing in James B. True’s newsletter, “Industrial Control Reports”.  Hart described Mr. True as “An accurate and fine journalist” and “One of the finest men I know” and “A man whom I count as a real friend.”

The FBI’s characterization of True:

True and his organization are strongly anti-semitic.” [FBI-HQ 100-128996, serial #15, page 12 dated 2/19/40 on Merwin K. Hart.]

James B. True Jr. was born 07/01/1890.  He was employed for several years in the advertising department of the Chicago Tribune and he then worked as the Washington DC representative for several business publications.

True’s primary claim to fame was his invention of an extra-heavy policeman’s club which he described as a “The Kike Killer” – for which he sought a patent in September 1935. 

True told one interviewer that he equipped a very militant organization in the South with his club “in order to kill off the Jews.”  [The organizational reference is to Knights of the White Camellia. True recommended its publication, The White Knight”, to discover the identity of prominent Jews who should be assassinated.

During the 1930’s, True told interviewers that:

We may have to do something more militant than vote.  What I mean is that the thing has possibly gone too far for us to save the country by political methods.  I had a man in here to see me very recently.  He has an organization of 1,500—a very secret organization with each man sworn to absolute secrecy.  These Southern men were ready to kill the Jews and the Negroes in order to protect the white women of the South.  These Southern white men have discovered that rich Jews have hired ‘big buck niggers’ to attack white women.  These Jews give the niggers plenty of money and tell them to go after the white women.  Yes, these fellows down there are going to kill every Jew in their section of the South…I don’t see any way out except a pogrom/ We have got to kill the Jews. Ballots don’t mean anything to them”  [For additional details see interviews of James True by Unitarian minister Dr. Leon Milton Birkhead who headed the organization, Friends of Democracy. Birkhead’s papers are archived at the State Historical Society of Missouri (Kansas City); Also see similar interviews of, or articles about, Mr. True published in the New York World Telegram newspaper and in the magazine New Masses, 08/18/36, “Pogrom in September” and New Masses, 08/25/36, “Fifteen Leading Jews Marked For Death”.]

In February 1950, the conservative magazine, Plain Talk, published an article by Don Levine which stated that Hart’s National Economic Council “is in the business of merchandising anti-Semitism.  And, he wraps his contraband in packages bearing the labels of free enterprise, anti-Communism and Christian love.” [Don Levine: “The Strange Case of Merwin K. Hart”, Plain Talk, February 1950, pages 1-8]

Levine also mentioned that Hart’s 12/15/49 “Economic Council Letter” contained an article which reported that “the controlling influence in the world” was “Zionists” which Levine characterized as part of Hart’s two-year campaign to create the myth of a “Zionist-Communist global plot”.  Levine pointed out that Hart ignored the fact that Communist Russia was the first modern power to outlaw Zionism in 1920 and thousands of Zionists were sent to Soviet slave labor camps, many of whom perished. [FBI-HQ 100-128996, serial unrecorded, 2/8/50 = article by Frederick Woltman in New York World Telegram and Sun, entitledRed-Hater Don Levine Swings At Right, Hits Hart As Anti-Semite ].

One of Hart’s most frequent correspondents (as well as a major financial contributor) was George W. Armstrong Sr. of Texas.  Armstrong was a virulent racist and anti-semite who used his wealth to support almost every prominent bigoted person and organization and movement in our country.  He made financial contributions to Gerald L.K. Smith, Elizabeth Dilling, A.C. Schuler, Robert H. Williams, George Van Horne Moseley, Lyrl Clark van Hyning, Eugene N. Sanctuary, Marilyn Allen, Conde J. McGinley Sr., and the KKK. In June 1954, Armstrong received a commission in the American Confederate Army (a KKK front group) from KKK leader Bill Hendrix.

In September 1949, Hart invited Armstrong to participate in a conference of extreme right individuals who purported to be “fighting to preserve the American way of life.”

On 9/13/50, Hart sent a letter to Armstrong thanking him for his recent $250 contribution to Hart’s organization (National Economic Council of New York). That is equivalent to about $2611 in 2018 dollars.

On 2/18/52, Hart sent a letter to Armstrong which recommended that he read John O. Beaty’s 1951 book, Iron Curtain Over America”. 

The oldest Methodist Church periodical in North America (Zion’s Herald) described Beaty’s book as “the most extensive piece of racist propaganda in the history of the anti-semitic movement in America.”

Hart also suggested that Armstrong finance the distribution of Beaty’s book to every member of Congress. Beaty’s book declared that communism could be characterized as a Jewish conspiracy.

In a 1956 letter to Spruille Braden, Merwin K. Hart wrote:

Who is shaping America’s foreign policy?  Is it solely the do-gooders? Are the Zionists and their confederates even in more control than I thought?”

Four years later both Braden and Hart would become JBS members. Hart created the first JBS chapter in New York City (chapter #26).

04/58 = Hart wrote a letter to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and he enclosed a copy of the March 15, 1958 issue of Hart’s “Economic Council Letter” which is entitled “The Jews In Our Midst”. 

Hart’s letter complained about the section of Hoover’s recently released book, Masters of Deceit, which stated on page 257 that some of the most effective opposition to communism in the U.S. came from Jewish organizations.

Letters to the FBI from Hart were either ignored by the FBI or replies were sent over the signature of Hoover’s long-time secretary, Helen M. Gandy – which was done when the FBI did not want itself associated with political extremists or other persons of disrepute.  [FBI-HQ 100-128996, serial #123 dated 4/2/9/58]

10/58 = An FBI summary memo about Hart and his organization made the following observations. “Bufiles” refers to FBI files aka Bureau files.

Bufiles reflect he was the subject of a security type investigation conducted between 1942 to April 1948, New York origin. This revealed he was pro-Fascist, pro-Franco, and was sympathetic to America First Group…Hart has been President of the National Economic Council, Inc. since it was founded in 1930…The organization has been described as strongly pro-Franco and ‘fascist’. It also has been termed as violently anti-labor and has made reckless attacks against the United Nations.” [FBI-HQ 100-128996, serial #127]

Although Hart always denied allegations that he was an anti-semite, he made the following comment before the Buchanan committee (House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities), as reported in a 1961 newsletter of Hart’s New York organization, National Economic Council:

“...if there were 6,000,000 Jews within reach of Hitler, which number is widely questioned, and if they have all disappeared, where are they?...Is it not likely that many of these 6,000,000 claimed to have been killed by Hitler and Eichmann are right here in the United States and are now joining in the agitation for more and more support for the state of Israel—even if the American Republic goes down?" [“Merwin K. Hart of Birch Society", New York Times, 12/2/62, p. 88]

The Buchanan Committee described Hart’s organization as working “to disparage those who oppose its objectives by appeals to religious prejudice often an ill-concealed anti-Semitism.”


In December 1951, John Owen Beaty’s book, “Iron Curtain Over America” was published. Beaty was a Professor of English at Southern Methodist University in Texas. In his book, Beaty argued that Jews were largely responsible for the success of the Bolshevik Revolution and the U.S. was being communized by Democratic Party Khazar Jews who followed orders from their headquarters in the Kremlin.

The oldest Methodist Church periodical in North America (Zion’s Herald) described Beaty’s book as “the most extensive piece of racist propaganda in the history of the anti-semitic movement in America.”

Many anti-semites in the U.S. were quick to praise Beaty’s book. Some of them became members or endorsers of the John Birch Society in later years – such as:  Lt. Gen. Edward M. Almond (AL) who wrote “This book is a magnificent contribution to those who would preserve our American values”; and Merwin K. Hart (NY) who organized the first JBS chapter in New York City and Vice Admiral T.G.W. Settle (Washington DC), Col. William Potter Gale (CA) and Lt. Col. Gordon Dwight “Jack” Mohr (MS).  

Gordon Mohr was a paid speaker for the JBS for 12 years. Mohr was the founder and leader of the Citizens Emergency Defense System, an extreme right paramilitary group. He was “National Defense Coordinator” of John Harrell's Christian Patriots Defense League - another extremist and anti-Semitic organization based in Illinois. Mohr published the Christian Patriot Crusader quarterly newsletter which promoted anti-Semitic Christian Identity themes.

A typical comment by Mohr: 


"The power of the world Jewry has grown to the place where most pastors are afraid to buck it, even though they know the Jews are the enemies of Jesus Christ, and thusly of God Himself.  There is no sphere of human activity where these anti-Christ's have not done Satan's propaganda work. They clamor for 'freedom in a democracy' so they can tear down the Republic. They desire freedom only for themselves so they can destroy every vestige of our White Christian Civilization."


Robert Welch cited a 1952 pamphlet by Joseph Kamp as source material for Welch’s book, May God Forgive Us.

Later, Welch paid Kamp $100 to check the manuscript of his 1954 book, The Life of John Birch for inaccuracies.  

Sections of Welch’s infamous 1954 manuscript about President Eisenhower entitled, The Politician, appeared to have been taken almost verbatim from the March 15, 1952, issue of Kamp’s newsletter “Headlines and What’s Behind Them.


On page 4 of that March 15, 1952 issue, Kamp wrote an article about Leonard Finder entitled “Ike's First Sponsor Acted for Powerful Secret Subversive Group”.  Kamp observed that:

The ADL, which has become more powerful than its parent body, is internationalist and anti-American in its policies. It maintains a lecture bureau that features Communist party-line speakers. Its literature is authored by a stable of Communist fronters. It floods the newspapers, the magazines, the radio, the schools and colleges, and the churches with its propaganda. It maintains its own spy network. It employs the smear to intimidate and terrorize pro-Americans.”

Welch relied upon anti-semitic propagandists for source material. For example: on pages 66-68 of Welch’s 1954 manuscript, “The Politician”, Welch explained how American Communists were informed that Dwight Eisenhower was a fellow Communist so that they would promote and vote for the “right” man. This is reference to Eisenhower supporter Leonard Finder whom Welch declared was “extremely significant to Communists ‘in the know’.” Finder was formerly a Vice President of Anti-Defamation League and the Republican editor of the Sacramento CA Union newspaper.

Where did Welch get his info re: Finder?  From TWO anti-semitic publishers about five years earlier:

(1) Robert H. Williams, editor and publisher of Williams Intelligence Summary in his July 1951 issue. 

(2) Joseph P. Kamp newsletter “Headlines” of 03/15/52. Conservative Republican U.S. Senator Robert A. Taft described himself as “particularly disgusted” with Kamp’s publication and other comparable “anti-semitic sheets” which made such charges.

For Taft quotes see:

http://israelite.galileo.usg.edu/israelite/view?docId=bookreader/asi/asi1952/asi1952-0327.mets.xml#page/1/mode/1up  Also see: 6/24/52 issue of New York Times, p22 which quotes Taft as repudiating “smear” attacks on Eisenhower. Taft added that “this kind of slander can only hurt the Republican Party…I would extend that to this publication ‘Headlines’ published by Joseph P. Kamp and to the Gerald Winrod publications.”

Robert Welch later wrote he had not been aware of Kamp’s background – even though Welch was an enthusiastic follower and supporter of Senator Taft and Welch told Verne Kaub (and other people) that he subscribed to Robert Williams’ newsletter.


From 1933 to 1936 = Kamp was Executive Editor of The Awakener (published twice a month). This was set up as a partnership between Kamp and Harold Lord Varney. Varney was Editor and Associate Editors were Lawrence Dennis and Demarest Lloyd. 

Lawrence Dennis

Lawrence Dennis was the author of “The Coming American Fascism which argued that fascism was the only cure for U.S. economic problems and he frequently condemned democracy while extolling the fascist regimes in Italy and Germany. He also was a regular contributor to the magazine published by Nazi propagandist Friedrich Auhagen (Today’s Challenge). In his 1940 book, Dynamics of War and Revolution, Dennis wrote: “I do not believe in democracy or the intelligence of the masses.” (page ix).

Harold Lord Varney

Harold Lord Varney was Managing Director of the Italian Historical Society which distributed numerous pro-Mussolini publications. In 1932, the Mussolini government gave Varney the honorific of “Order of Cavaliere of the Crown of Italy”. Demarest Lloyd was also a pro-Mussolini acolyte.

When JBS National Council member Spruille Braden was interviewed about Varney by the FBI on March 15, 1961, Braden described Varney as “definitely not a Communist, but he approached being a Fascist.” [FBI-NYC 97-1889, serial #18; 3/31/61, page 6.].  During the 1960’s, Varney became a paid speaker under the auspices of the JBS Speakers Bureau and he merged his own organization (Committee for Pan American Policy) into the Birch Society.

Contributors to The Awakener included John Eoghan Kelly (of the Christian Front) who was jailed as an unregistered agent of the Franco government of Spain.

After Awakener folded in 1936, Kamp then joined the Constitutional Educational League staff as Executive Vice-Chairman and later as Chairman. 

10/28/38 = Kamp was a featured speaker at weekly “Patriotic Luncheons” sponsored by Allen Zoll. One FBI memo about Zoll describes him as “one of the promoters of the National Council for American Education (who) was the subject of a security investigation in 1940. Information was developed indicating a possible violation of the Neutrality Act and his association with Bundist and Fascist groups.  Zoll has also been active in the organization, American Patriots, which has been cited  by the Attorney General as Fascist.” [FBI-HQ 123-14911, serial #10, page 3, 4/24/53]

People and organizations which recommended and/or sold Kamp publications include: 

·         World Service” = the nazi newsletter published in Erfurt, Germany “to enlighten ill-informed Gentiles…”  World Service also recommended “Action”, the weekly organ of the British Union of Fascists

·         William Dudley Pelley (jailed in the 1940’s for sedition)

·         Robert Edward Edmonson – indicted for sedition in 1940’s

·         Gerald B. Winrod – indicted for sedition in 1940’s

·         Eugene Nelson Sanctuary – indicted for sedition in 1940’s

·         Aryan Book Store (Los Angeles) – the German-American Bund bookstore which distributed pro-Hitler publications

·         The American Nationalist Confederation which described itself in 1938 as: The official organ of the fascist party in America”

·         Elizabeth Dilling (Patriotic Research Bureau)

In 1944, Kamp published an article about columnist and broadcaster Walter Winchell which described Winchell as a “Communist kike”.  [Joseph Kamp: “With Lotions of Love”, 1944, 48pp].

In January 1944, Kamp was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury for refusing to provide a list of officers and contributors as requested by subpoena from a Congressional Committee. On 4/24/48 he was sentenced to 4 months imprisonment and a $100 fine.

In 1946, Kamp published a pamphlet which stated that Communist Jews and other radicals were attempting to gain political control of the South through “Operation Dixie”. [Joseph Kamp: “Communist Carpetbaggers in Operation Dixie”, 1946, 32pp]

In 1955, the Special Agent in Charge (SAC) of the New York City FBI field office sent a memo to the SAC in Philadelphia which described Kamp as “known to the New York Office as a pro-Fascist and anti-Semitic publisher.” [FBI-NYC 105-6112, serial #236, 3/15/55 SAC NYC to SAC Philadelphia].

In 1956, Kamp published “Behind the Plot to Sovietize the South” which condemned racial integration and he accused the Anti-Defamation League of furthering the plot.  A year later, Kamp wrote “The Lowdown of Little Rock and the Plot to Sovietize the South” which declared that organized Jewry was behind the desegregation movement in the south.

In 1960, Kamp again published a jeremiad against all national Jewish organizations whom he accused of inspiring and encouraging acts of anti-semitic vandalism “which they in fact created in order to gain publicity and to raise funds to attack patriotic American anti-communists in the guise of combatting ‘anti-semitism’  [Joseph Kamp: “The Bigots Behind the Swastika Spree”, 1960, 39pp]

In March 1961, the FBI replied to an inquiry about Kamp which it received from Rev. G.L. Halmrast of Mentor MN.  The Bureau file copy of its reply has this notation:

“Joseph Peter Kamp is well known to the Bureau.  He has a long record as a professional hate monger and his organization, ‘Constitutional Educational League, Inc.’ publishes many anti-Semitic, anti-United Nations and anti-administration publications.” [FBI-HQ 61-10355, serial #684, 3/2/61]

In October 1964, the FBI prepared a summary memorandum in reply to a White House inquiry concerning Kamp.  The summary reported that:

“Kamp has been described as a professional hatemonger and prolific publisher of pamphlets which are anti-Semitic, anti-Negro, and anti-United Nations.  He also has been described as a professional anti-Communist. He has attacked Government officials, Democrats and Republicans alike…Kamp, for a number of years, headed the Constitutional Educational League, Inc. of Westport, Connecticut. This was basically a one-man organization devoted almost exclusively to the publication of Kamp’s hate pamphlets which almost always were filled with distortions and appeals to fear and prejudice…Kamp was convicted for contempt of Congress in 1948 for failure to produce records of the Constitutional Educational League, Inc., before the House Committee on Campaign Expenditures in 1944.  He was sentenced to four months imprisonment and a $100 fine.  The conviction was upheld on appeal and he served the prison term in 1950.  He was indicted for contempt of Congress in 1950 for failing to answer questions of the House Committee on Un-American Activities.  He was convicted in 1951, but on appeal a new trial was ordered and he was acquitted in 1952.”  [FBI-HQ 62-10355, serial #685, 10/5/64]


It should be noted that Robert Welch and virulent racists often had identical viewpoints. For example:

Cong. John T. Wood of Idaho often wrote articles for Gerald L.K. Smith’s newsletter, “The Cross and the Flag and Conde J. McGinley’s racist and anti-semitic New Jersey newspaper, Common Sense as well as Gerald B. Winrod’s magazine “The Defender”. Wood used those publications for his vitriolic attacks upon the United Nations and (as discussed below) the very concept of democracy. Wood then inserted his speeches or articles into the Congressional Record.

In February 1952, Gerald L.K. Smith’s newsletter, “The Cross and the Flag published an article by Wood in which he said:

“No wonder I shudder every time I hear the word ‘democracy’.  It…has an entirely different connotation than when Webster wrote his dictionary. Certainly no American should ever now use the term.  I am sure I do not need to remind you that we are not now, and never were a democracy; we are a constitutional republic, and have nothing in common with that hated term (democracy) which has now become opprobrious to a most extreme degree.”

Robert Welch presented identical sentiments about democracy at the founding meeting of the Birch Society in December 1958:

“And democracy, of course, in government or organization, as the Greeks and Romans both found out, and as I believe every man in this room clearly recognizes -- democracy is merely a deceptive phrase, a weapon of demagoguery, and a perennial fraud.” [Robert Welch: John Birch Society Blue Book, 5th printing, 1961, page 159]

And a footnote for the online edition of the Blue Book, adds this comment:

Our Liberal critics would have you believe that this statement, for an American, is practically heresy. This is because these same Liberals have been working so long and so hard to convert our republic into a democracy, and to make the American people believe that it is supposed to be a democracy, Nothing could be further from the truth than that insidiously planted premise. Our founding fathers knew a great deal about history and government, and they had very nearly a clean slate on which to write the blueprint for our own. They gave us a republic because they considered it the best of all forms of government. They visibly spurned a democracy as probably the worst of all forms of government. But our past history and our present danger indicate that they were right in both particulars.”

With respect to how Noah Webster defined democracy (in the 1828 edition of his Dictionary), this was his definition:

Government by the people; a form of government, in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of the people collectively, or in which the people exercise the powers of legislation.”

With respect to Robert Welch’s assertions regarding the beliefs of our Founding Fathers:

Political extremists such as the Birch Society claim that our Founding Fathers distrusted and detested democracy but Thomas Jefferson and James Madison named the political party they founded the "Democratic-Republican Party".

Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to Isaac H. Tiffany in 1816, which certainly contradicts Robert Welch’s understanding regarding what our Founding Fathers thought.

With respect to the Greeks, Jefferson wrote:

"They had just ideas of the value of personal liberty, but none at all of the structure of government best calculated to preserve it. They knew no medium between a democracy (the only pure republic, but impracticable beyond the limits of a town) and an abandonment of themselves to an aristocracy or a tyranny independent of the people."

Jefferson also pointed out that:

 "It seems not to have occurred that where the citizens cannot meet to transact their business in person, they alone have the right to chuse the agents who shall transact it; and that, in this way, a republican, or popular government, of the 2d grade of purity, may be exercised over any extent of country. The full experiment of a government democratical, but representative, was and is still reserved for us."

Robert Welch and bigots like Cong. Wood make much of the difference between a democracy and a republic but Thomas Jefferson (as shown above) used the terms interchangeably


In his 1954 book-length manuscript, (aka “private letter”) entitled The Politician, an authority cited by Robert Welch was Merwin K. Hart, who had been one of America’s most prolific voices of anti-Semitism through almost three decades.  Hart had been an active Coughlinite.

Hart’s association with Robert Welch first came to public view in 1958, when he was listed on the advisory board of the first Birch Society front group, the “Committee Against Summit Entanglements.” Later, Hart became a John Birch Society chapter leader. At least two supporters of Hart’s organization (National Economic Council) served as members of the National Council of the Birch Society.

Hart believed that the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion was a credible document.  In November 1955, Hart travelled to England to give an address to the British organization, League of Empire Loyalists, founded by A.K. Chesterton.  Chesterton had been a member of Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists.


In his book-length “private letter” entitled The Politician, Robert Welch described Lucille Miller of Bethel, VT as “a patriotic but not too cautious Vermont woman.”

Actually, she was a blatant anti-Semite, and she had been so identified quite publicly. Lucille created a newsletter, the Green Mountain Rifleman, which she and her husband, Manuel, mailed to a list of about 500 like-minded people across the country. The Millers used the Green Mountain Rifleman to hammer away at communism as well as declaring their opposition to the United Nations, and the supposed infiltration of the U.S. government by a Jewish Communist cabal.

One issue of the Green Mountain Rifleman contained this observation:

"Forrestal learned the Jews' plans for betrayal and he warned us...Lewis Johnson saw the Jews about to throw the Korean War and he rebelled against them...One requirement for any public office is unceasing solicitude for the wishes and preferences of the Jews." [“The Lucille Miller Story” in Faith and Freedom magazine, 09/55, p7]

The FBI Special Agent in Charge of the Albany NY field office (which covered the state of Vermont) sent the following memo to Director J. Edgar Hoover:

Lucille Miller is the individual who is alleged to have started the newspaper publicity in the Randolph-Bethel, Vermont area concerning Communist matters in the summer of 1950. She is believed to be completely unreliable and is not contacted by Agents of this office.” [FBI-HQ 25-382156, serial #X1, dated 1/18/51]

Lucille Miller wrote a letter to FBI Director Hoover to express her indignation when she learned that Hoover was planning to attend the November 23, 1953 meeting of the Anti-Defamation League in Washington DC as their guest of honor:\

“No persons have been more scornful of these precious things of ours than the spokesmen, the members and the adherents of the ADL of B’nai B’rith because they are Jews and care for Jewish things and because so many of them are Europeans who tend to despise American things. For many years, the bulk of our people gave the Jews the benefit of all possible doubts.  But Eisenhower as soon as he was safely entrenched in power began to push the ADL objectives openly and shamefullyNow you are joining the President and this cabal for what purposes we know not.  What do you suppose we think of you? Do you care what we think of you? We think you have deserted us for the luxury of the enemy’s camp.  Goodbye Mr. Hoover.  We were the more deceived.” [Lucille Miller letter to Director Hoover, 11/14/53; FBI-HQ 25-382956, serial #10].

Lucille was also Director of Action Strategy for the National Patrick Henry Organization, Inc. (Columbus GA) which was one of the most vicious racist and anti-semitic organizations in our country.

Many FBI memos describe Lucille as “a crackpot” and most of her letters to Hoover were deemed unworthy of reply because of her anti-semitic bigotry. For additional information, see the FBI file on Lucille and Manuel Miller which I have uploaded onto Internet Archive website.  https://archive.org/details/MillerLucilleS.AndManuelGreenMountainRiflemanHQ25382156


Two months after the May 1954 U.S. Supreme Court de-segregation decision, a group of 14 prominent citizens met at the home of Mississippi U.S. Senator James O. Eastland to consider ways to thwart and undermine that decision.

At that meeting, Robert B. Patterson (Holly Ridge MS) suggested organizing White Citizens Councils for the purpose of maintaining segregated institutions, and preserving Jim Crow laws, customs and practices in the south.  Methods to be used included:

(1)   political activity (i.e. enlisting the aid and support of local and state governments, creating state sovereignty commissions, and supporting pro-segregation political leaders)

(2)   building a large grass roots membership and then indoctrinate them through speakers and publications to believe that any pro-integration efforts were “subversive” activities; in addition, stress racial purity, defend the southern way of life, and bring attention to the horrors within integrated society

(3)   mobilize public opinion through editorials and columnists and other molders of public opinion

(4)   social and economic pressure to discourage black Americans from voting or signing petitions or seeking redress of grievances and, when deemed necessary, encourage employers to fire “troublemakers” or have businesses deny credit or pursue foreclosures while achieving social ostracization for anybody supporting integration or dissent. 

Significantly, many of the most rabid segregationist figures within the white supremacist movement were subsequently praised and promoted in JBS publications during the 1950’s, 1960’s, 1970’s and 1980’s including such segregationist political figures as: Gov. George Wallace (AL), Gov. Lester Maddox (GA), Gov. Ross Barnett (MS), Cong. John Rarick (LA), Cong. William L. Dickinson (AL), Cong. L. Mendel Rivers (SC), Sen. Strom Thurmond (SC), Sen. Jesse Helms (NC), Sheriff James G. Clark (Selma AL). 

See July 1963 entry below for additional details regarding Thurmond, Rarick and Clark.

Furthermore, numerous members and officials of the White Citizens Council movement were JBS members or JBS officials, including as paid Coordinators and speakers and writers. 

At least four members of the JBS National Council were life-long segregationists = T. Coleman Andrews Sr. (VA); A.G. Heinsohn Jr. (TN), Dr. Thomas Parker (SC) and Thomas J. Anderson (TN).  Dr. Medford Evans was a JBS Coordinator as well as a paid speaker for the JBS while he served in various positions within the Citizens Council movement including as Editor of its national magazine.


National Guard Lt. Gen. Sumter L. Lowry (Tampa FL) became a JBS endorser circa 1959.  He may have also been a JBS member.

In 1956, Lowry ran on the single issue of preserving school segregation when he was a candidate for the Governor of Florida.  He was endorsed by the Ku Klux Klan in Florida.  [See Tallahassee FL Democrat, 02/02/56, page 1, “Sumter Lowry Segregation Backer In Race”]

During that time, he called desegregation “part and parcel of their [the Communists'] three-pronged attack to destroy our national independence through world government; to destroy our Christian Church through infiltration; and to destroy our race by mixing it with the blood of the Negro race." [Joseph A. Tomberlin: “Florida and the School De-Segregation Issue, 1954-1959”; Journal of Negro Education, Autumn 1974, page 462; Also see:  Helen L. Jacobstein, "The Segregation Factor in the Florida Democratic Gubernatorial Primary of 1956"; Unpublished master's thesis, University of Miami, 1964.]

In 1962, Lowry ran on a segregationist platform for a newly created 10th Congressional District in Tampa FL.

Lowry was active in pro-segregation groups such as Federation For Constitutional Government and Liberty Lobby. The FCG was formed on January 21-22, 1955 in Jackson MS as a confederation of organizations from 11 southern states whose objective was to combat all forms of racial integration.


The Louisiana States Rights Party endorsed T. Coleman Andrews Sr. (Richmond VA) for President. The Party platform at that time advocated “segregation, interposition” and it favored adoption of the principles contained in the anti-integration “Southern Manifesto”. 

Andrews joined the Birch Society in 1959 and served on its National Council starting in 1960.  [Radford VA News Journal, 8/20/56, p 6, “Louisiana States Righters Endorse Coleman as Nominee”].  NOTE:  The Co-Chairman of the 39-member National Committee of the States’ Rights Party was segregationist John U. Barr.  He subsequently became an endorser of the John Birch Society in 1959.

Various “states’ rights” parties in the south endorsed Andrews for President.  They all were pro-segregation.

JBS founder, Robert Welch, left the Republican Party and campaigned for Andrews in 1956.


Robert Welch wrote an article in his first magazine, One Man’s Opinion, entitled A Letter to the South on Segregation”.  Welch claimed that the easy-going colored man” of the South could be “easily misled by agitators,” and that the phrase “civil rights” was a Communist slogan. Welch also asserted that racial integration “embarrassed” good African Americans.

Welch argued that the May 17, 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision on de-segregation was not Constitutional because it revised the 10th and 14th Amendments by fiat and made educational policies subject to federal control rather than the intended state control.  Furthermore, Welch maintained that the Plessy v Ferguson Supreme Court decision validated "separate but equal schools or any other public facilities for colored people and white people fulfilled the requirements of the Fourteenth Amendment. This was in accordance with legal precedent which had already prevailed since the Amendment had been adopted in 1868."

Then Welch discussed what he considered to be the "Communist sympathies and connections of the 'authorities' on modern psychology to which the Court referred in its decision, and on which its action was theoretically based."

It is important to understand the underlying principles which Mr. Welch was affirming in his article.  In effect, Welch was leaving black Americans to the mercy of the states and Welch understood that doing so put African Americans in a position of legal inferiority – which is the import of the 1896 Plessy decision.

In Plessy v. Ferguson (163 U.S. 537) , the Supreme Court was asked to consider a Louisiana act which required “separate but equal accommodations in transportation facilities (a typical Jim Crow law).  The Act imposed a penalty for passengers who chose to sit in an area assigned to the other race.

One passenger who had one great-grand-parent who was black, sat in a car reserved for white passengers and he was arrested. The Supreme Court held that the Louisiana Act was a reasonable exercise of the state’s police power because segregation was not discrimination.

Welch’s legal argument reduced African Americans to “the condition of a subject race” (to quote a comment from Justice Harlan’s dissent).  In Mississippi, for example, it was a crime to publish a statement advocating or suggesting social equality of the races.

It should also be noted that segregation laws (or other laws which took note of a person’s race or color) during the period which Welch refers to, require statutory or judicial definitions of the term “Negro”.  All those definitions are made from the standpoint of the white person who seeks to avoid contact with any person he deems to be a “Negro”.  Consequently, in some states, anyone with any trace of Negro blood (no matter how distantly) was classified as a “Negro”.  This arbitrary standard is what Welch believed was required by American law. BTW, in Mississippi, Chinese children were sent to black schools.   

Furthermore, acceptance of Welch’s argument meant adopting a standard which was intended as the basis for prohibiting marriage of white persons with persons of color (prohibited in 29 states) and which required segregation of the races in interstate passenger traffic and in hospitals, and penal institutions, and in educational institutions—even when those facilities were not “equal”.  For example, in 1948-1949, the U.S. Office of Education reported that Mississippi spent an average of $123 per white pupil in grade and high schools whereas they spent only $27 per black pupil.  Most other states spent considerably less per black student. 

See additional comments regarding Welch’s adoption of white supremacist arguments in subsequent entries in this chronology.


Robert Welch attended, and was a speaker at, the September 14-16, 1956 National Conference of States Rights held in Memphis TN. [G. Edward Griffin: The Life and Words of Robert Welch—Founder of the John Birch Society; American Media, 1975, page 254.  Note:  Mr. Griffin was one of only four people who were authorized to speak officially for the John Birch Society.]

As one historian correctly observed about this Conference:

“Generally, individuals within or closely associated with southern white supremacy organizations provided the nucleus of leadership for the states’ rights campaign.” [Numan V. Bartley, The Rise of Massive Resistance, Louisiana State University Press, 1969, page 165].

The Conference was organized by John U. Barr, a wealthy New Orleans businessman who was a life-long segregationist. 


Barr was a co-founder and Chairman of the New Orleans-based Federation For Constitutional Government (FCG), a pro-segregation organization which attracted many of the most racist bigots in the south.

[See: James Gunter article in Memphis TN Commercial Appeal, 12/29/55 on formation of FCG which is in Dallas-FBI file 105-506, serial #5, SAC Memphis to J. Edgar Hoover, dated 1/13/56; Also see FBI-New Orleans file 105-582 on FCG; Also see: 12/30/55, “Segregationists in South Set Up Political Unit” in St. Louis Post-Dispatch; Also see: Sarah H. Brown: “The Role of Elite Leadership in the Southern Defense of Segregation, 1954-1964”; Journal of Southern History, November 2011, pages 827-864]. 

Example of Barr’s beliefs: https://repository.duke.edu/dc/broadsides/bdsla60752

The three day Conference was attended by 317 delegates from 25 states, representing over a dozen splinter parties – including:

Constitution Parties of Arkansas, Tennessee, Texas, Iowa

States’ Rights Party of Louisiana

Mississippians for States Rights

New Party of New Mexico

Independent GOP of Connecticut

Independent Electors of Alabama, Kentucky, South Carolina, and Virginia

States’ Rights Council of Georgia

Federation For Constitutional Government

According to Barr:  “All of the parties are committed to the doctrine of powerful individual states and a weaker federal government.  All believe racial segregation is a matter for states to handle.  All regard the major parties as socialist carbon copies.” [09/17/56, Kingsport TN Times, page 8, “John Barr Was Planner of States Rights Meet”]

The keynote speaker for this event was Clarence Manion of Indiana. He predicted that “communism will soon take over this country from the inside and without firing a shot” and he condemned both the Democratic and Republican parties for wrecking the U.S. Constitution.  He described both parties as “socialistic look-alikes”.  [Manion subsequently became a founding member of the John Birch Society and he served on its National Council.]

To give readers an idea about the type of persons at this 1956 Conference whom Robert Welch considered his allies, consider the following persons who were among the delegates and officers attending this Conference:


·         Robert C. Chandler of Shreveport LA.  Chandler was an attorney who co-founded the States Rights Party of Louisiana in 1956 to oppose racial integration of public schools.  He served as Temporary Chairman of this September Conference.  He also served as President of the Shreveport White Citizens Council

·         Earl Evans Jr. of Canton MS.  Evans was the permanent Chairman of this Conference.  He was a “bitter opponent” of equalizing white and black schools according to the Hattiesburg MS American, 5/19/54, page 1.

·         Joseph Beauharnais of Chicago.  He founded the racist White Circle League of America. Beauharnais was listed as a racial extremist” by the FBI-Chicago office which described him as follows:  “…founder and organizer of the White Circle League” and “in 1949 was described as ‘psycho’ in connection with his hatred of the Negro race.  Since 1952, Beauharnais has been in several Midwestern cities to speak before conventions of organizations that were and are anti-Negro, anti-Semitic, or both.  Beauharnais is an associate of known ‘hate’ subjects and/or ‘hate’ organizations in the Chicago area.” [FBI HQ file 157-1-9, serial #24, 8/21/59]

·         Sims Crownover of Tennessee.  He was an attorney who represented the segregationist Federation For Constitutional Government (FCG).  In May 1956, Crownover fought against a Davidson County TN decision which declared that racial segregation laws in that County were invalid [Kingsport TN Times, 5/8/56, page 1].  Crownover advocated the doctrine of interposition to invalidate the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court de-segregation decision. [See his August 1956 American Bar Association Journal article entitled “The Segregation Cases” pages 727-729]. See entry for A.G. Heinsohn for additional info re: the Federation.

·         Ed Worthington of Memphis. Worthington was a member of the Memphis White Citizens Council

·         Mrs. Terry Mulhall of Sioux City IA, representing the Constitution Party of Iowa.  The Constitution Party of the 1950’s and 1960’s attracted the most virulent racists and anti-semites in the U.S.

·         Edward Reed Fields of Iowa represented the Constitution Party. In 1946, while he was in high school, Fields joined Emory Burke’s new Atlanta-based organization, The Columbians, the first openly neo-nazi organization in postwar America. [The Columbians was listed as a subversive fascist organization by the Attorney General of the United States.]  While in high school, Fields also created a short-lived pro-nazi group of his own called the Black Front.  In the early 1950’s Fields joined J.B. Stoner’s Christian Anti-Jewish Party (CAJP) and he became its Executive Secretary.  The CAJP was created in 1945 by Stoner and Emmett O’Neill Morris in Tennessee. Both Stoner and Morris had been pro-nazi during World War II.  In 1955, the Texas Attorney General listed Fields as a leader of the U.S. Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. In November 1957 the United White Party was organized. Its principals included Edward Fields, Emory Burke (The Columbians), Matt Koehl, John Kasper (Seaboard White Citizens Council), John G. Crommelin, Millard Grubbs, and many other individuals whom the FBI described as “a group of notorious anti-semites”. [FBI HQ file 105-66233, serial #11; 1/22/58]

This States’ Rights Conference endorsed segregationist Democrat T. Coleman Andrews of Richmond VA for President and Republican Thomas H. Werdel of Bakersfield CA for Vice President.  [Andrews later became a founding member of the John Birch Society and he served on its National Council.]

Many of the participants in, and endorsers of, this Conference later became members or endorsers of the John Birch Society – including:  John U. Barr, Lt. Gen. Edward M. Almond, Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer, Vice Admiral C.S. Freeman, Merwin K. Hart, and Clarence Manion.

For additional reporting concerning this Conference see:

Birmingham AL News, 9/16/56

Chattanooga TN Times, 9/15 and 9/16 1956

Kingsport TN News, 9/13/56

Kingsport TN Times, 9/14/56, 9/17/56

Kingsport TN Times-News, 9/16/56

Memphis TN Commercial-Appeal, 9/16/56

New York Times, 9/16/56, p 73


Washington DC Evening Star, 9/16/56


Dr. Thomas Parker: In October 1956, Dr. Thomas Parker (Greenville SC) became an independent elector for the forthcoming Presidential election. The independent electors placed an ad in South Carolina newspapers which explained their platform as follows:

We believe that the women of South Carolina will recognize that the only hope of protecting their children from the evils of integration lies in a sweeping victory of the Independent Electors. We believe in the time-honored and cherished traditions and customs of the South and are opposed to any legislation, movement, or policy which seeks to destroy or impair them.  We believe in and demand social and educational separation of the races. We are opposed to and will not accept integration, gradual or otherwise.  There can be no integration without destroying both races.”  [Florence SC Morning News, 10/7/56, p 10].

Parker joined the Birch Society in 1959 and served on its National Council starting in 1960.


JBS founder Robert Welch sent a reply to a letter received from Bradford Martin (the Editor of Willis Carto’s San Francisco newsletter, “Right”).  Welch made the following comment in his letter about JBS member Mary Dawson Cain:

Although I know and have a great admiration for Mary Cain, I do not receive her SUMMIT SUN regularly and consequently had not seen her editorial to which you refer.”

Mary Dawson Cain (Summit MS) was editor/publisher of the pro-segregation Mississippi weekly newspaper, The Summit Sun.  She also was a frequent speaker at White Citizens Councils events.  For many years, she was the leader of the pro-segregation organization, Women for Constitutional Government.  Also see entry which mentions Cain below under 1965-08.

In 1956, Mary Cain joined the Mississippians For States Rights founded by Judge M.M. McGowan. This group was a re-birth of the 1948 Dixiecrat movement. The Chairman of this new group was W.B. Fontaine of Jackson MS. Fontaine explained the organizing principle of his new group: There is no such thing as an acceptable civil rights program. Civil rights laws are foreign to the concept of English law, the basis for our government, and are connected with socialism.” Cain associated herself with this principle, and she observed:  “There is nothing for us in either party; nothing to lose but our chains; and nothing to gain but our self-respect.” [Laurel MS Leader-Call, 5/31/56, p1 and 7; States Rights Group Sets Up Organization”].


JBS founder Robert Welch sent a letter to Bradford Martin in which Welch characterized the recent attempt by African American Clennon W. King Jr. to attend the University of Mississippi as King running slightly amuck at the University of Mississippibut Welch declared “King is still in my opinion a good man, who means extremely well.”

Clennon King entered college at 16. He earned a BA degree from Tuskegee Institute and a Master's degree in history from Case Western Reserve University. He studied Egyptology and read hieroglyphics.

In 1956, King was head of the History Department at the all-black Alcorn A&M College in western Mississippi. In March 1957 hundreds of students boycotted classes at Alcorn demanding King's dismissal because he openly supported racial segregation. Alcorn declined to renew his contract at the end of the 1958 school year.

In 1958 King tried to have one of his children integrate an all-white elementary school in Mississippi and King applied to attend graduate school at the all-white Univ of Mississippi to pursue an advanced degree. 

The State of Mississippi committed him to a Mississippi State psychiatric hospital (Whitefield State Mental Hospital) -- presumably upon the theory that any intelligent black person knew that attempting to enroll in the University of MS was evidence of insanity OR as Robert Welch put it, because King had run slightly amuck”. [June 13, 1958 Robert Welch letter to Willis Carto].

Welch published an article in his magazine by Clennon King, which advocated the emigration of black Americans to Africa. [Clennon King, “Negroes Back to Africa?American Opinion, May 1958, p 21-27].  The reason why Robert Welch decided to publish this article is because Clennon King re-inforced Welch’s preferred theme, i.e. that black Americans had nothing serious to complain about.  As Clennon King put it:  “We Negro Americans are one of the most fortunate races on earth.  Our opportunities are definitely superior to those of any other colored race in the world.”

In his Introduction to Clennon King’s article, Welch wrote:

We have stated repeatedly in this magazine our belief that the trouble in the South over integration is Communist-contrived; that Communist agents, working largely behind the scenes, are using every trick and skill in the Communist repertory to foment bitterness between black and white where no bitterness existed before; and that the Communists thoroughly intend to fan and coalesce small flames of ‘civil disorder’ into the conflagration of civil war if possible.”  [Robert Welch:  American Opinion magazine, May 1958, page 21, Introduction to Clennon King article; FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial unrecorded but just after serial #3; section one of HQ main file, page 87].

In this regard, Welch’s viewpoint was identical to every racist bigot in the south who insisted that only “outside agitators” were responsible for any racial discontent in southern states OR as Georgia attorney R. Carter Pittman wrote in 1955 “…the South has no racial problem and has had none for a half century.  Its racial problems were solved by segregation.”.  Pittman subsequently became an enthusiastic endorser of the Birch Society because he considered Robert Welch and the JBS to be his trustworthy ally in preserving segregation and Jim Crow laws, customs and practices.

In 1963, the Birch Society published “The Invasion of Mississippi” by Earl Lively Jr., a political commentator from Dallas TX which was used by the JBS to augment the argument made by  Robert Welch in 1956. Lively contended that the real victims in the south were white segregationists because “the segregationist – who never violated anyone’s rights by keeping to himself – is denied freedom of association.  No man has a right to associate where he is not wanted; every man has a right to his privacy.” Furthermore, “If anyone is oppressed in the South today, it is the white man.  His laws are violated and struck down by edicts of a judicial oligarchy, his rights are trampled, and his land is repeatedly invaded by the brute force of a tyrannical federal Administration.” [Earl Lively Jr., “The Invasion of Mississippi”, American Opinion, pages 114-116].  Thus Lively presents white victimhood as the real issue.  Once again, the Birch Society revealed its true sentiments.

In later years, the Birch Society sought to camouflage its history of supporting racists. The Society’s Public Relations Director (Bill Hahn) claimed in 2010 that the JBS could not legitimately be accused of supporting racism because “Determining what’s best for an individual based on the color of one’s skin is collectivism at best and racism at its worst.  Neither of those ‘isms’ we support.”

However, the JBS still has no explanation for why it invited and welcomed segregationists into its ranks as JBS members, officials, speakers and writers.  As I wrote in reply to Mr. Hahn:

“Isn’t being in favor of segregation a form of collectivism?  In other words, a pejorative judgment is made about an entire category of human beings based not upon their individual character and behavior – but solely upon the color of their skin (or assumptions about their racial heritage) which is something they have no control over whatsoever and then coercion is used through the instrumentalities of government to enforce that judgment and those government policies.”

See numerous entries in this chronology which reflect the segregationists and assorted other bigots who joined the JBS and often served in major positions of prominence and authority.


JBS National Council member A.G. Heinsohn Jr. (Sevierville TN) was a founding member of the JBS in December 1958 and he served on its National Council starting in January 1960.  Heinsohn was President of Cherokee Mills in Tennessee and Spindale Mills in North Carolina.

In 1955, Heinsohn was on the Advisory Committee of the pro-segregation Federation for Constitutional Government. The FCG was organized to coordinate its anti-integration efforts with such organizations as the White Citizens’ Councils in southern states.

10/26/55 Kingsport TN News contains an advertisement captioned Attention: People of Tennessee on page 10 which begins with:

I am in favor on keeping separate schools for whites and Negroes as required by the Tennessee Constitution, Section 11, Article 12”.

That section of the Tennessee Constitution declares:

No school aided or established under this section shall allow white and Negro children to be received as scholars together in the same school.”. 

This newspaper ad attributes integration efforts to “pressure and threats and agitation of the NAACP and its left-wing out-of-state followers” and then solicits members for the Tennessee Federation for Constitutional Government whose Chairman from 1955-1959 was Donald Davidson of Vanderbilt University and whose “Advisory Board” included A.G. Heinsohn Jr.

The TN Encyclopedia of History and Culture describes Davidson as follows:


Davidson, who considered African Americans racially inferior, defended segregation as a social institution developed by white southerners to preserve their culture and identity. In the 1950s he headed the pro-segregation Tennessee Federation for Constitutional Government, the state's generally ineffective version of a White Citizens Council.”

01/58 = Heinsohn became State Chairman of a new pro-segregation group known as “Tennessee Independents” with headquarters in Memphis.


Paul H. Talbert (JBS National Council) gave $120 to Gerald L.K. Smith’s Christian Nationalist Crusade [FBI-Boston 100-32899, serial #198].  That is equivalent to $1000 in 2017 dollars.


JBS member Billy James Hargis (Oklahoma) stated in 1959 that:

“God’s plan is for each race to live to itself, the members segregated to themselves and to marry within the bonds of their race in order to keep the blood pure.” [Billy James Hargis: “The Truth About Segregation”, 1959, 13pp]


JBS Coordinator Medford Evans was the featured speaker at Plain Dealing LA White Citizens Council meeting per 4/13/59 Shreveport LA Journal. Evans was described by the FBI as a “strong supporter of segregation [FBI-New Orleans 105-1499, serial #2 which is SAC New Orleans memo to J. Edgar Hoover, 2/9/60, page 2]

In a 1961 speech, Evans observed:

The South, as we know it, depends entirely on the institution of segregation.  The enduring vitality of the United States of America depends on legal segregation in the South.” [Lake Charles LA American Press, 4/12/61; FBI-New Orleans 105-1499, serial #31]


Willis Allison Carto (San Francisco CA) joined the John Birch Society in June 1959.  Carto then moved to JBS headquarters in Belmont MA and he was hired by Robert Welch as a JBS Coordinator.

Carto has always been a major figure within the white nationalist movement. In 1953, Carto and Aldrich Blake organized Liberty and Property, Inc., with headquarters in San Francisco. The newsletter of this group (first published in October 1955) was entitled “RIGHT: A Monthly Bulletin Of, By and For The American Rightwing”

Robert Welch subscribed to RIGHT and when Carto announced that he was discontinuing it, Welch wrote: “I am sorry to learn that RIGHT is discontinuing publication” because “the paper has been a source of much useful information (and) has shown a lot of courage…” [09/19/60 Robert Welch letter to Willis Carto]

“RIGHT” regularly gave favorable publicity to overtly anti-semitic and racist organizations and individuals. 

For example: in the October 1955 issue, Carto described  the virulent racist and anti-semite Lt. Gen. Pedro A. del Valle as a “prominent and respected leader” (page 2)  and Carto also described Lucille Miller of Vermont as a “fighting Vermont lady patriot” (page 3).  Miller was a notorious anti-semite.

Carto’s newsletter praised and publicized the activities of such racist groups and publications as: Federation for Constitutional Government, Defenders of the American Constitution, Citizens Councils of Mississippi, The Virginia League, “Augusta GA Courier”, Joseph Beauharnais (White Circle League of America), “God: The Original Segregationist”, Cong. John Bell Williams, Earnest Sevier Cox, Parson “Jack” Johnston and “The Georgia Tribune”.

Using the alias of “Willis Allison”, Carto wrote an article for the June 1954 issue of “The White Sentinel” which was the newsletter of the white supremacist National Citizens Protective Association of St. Louis MO. The article was captioned “White Race Faces Destruction” which discussed the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court de-segregation decision.

Carto observed:

“The Supreme Court decision will serve to open the eyes of a lot of people to what is going on.  Soon there is bound to be a case come before them which challenges the legality of laws which forbid miscegenation. The only possible outcome, logically, must be that the court will declare such laws unconstitutional.  On that date the government will have officially placed itself in the position of favoring the destruction of the White Race.  This is the end of the run, and is what people like you and I have been saying must happen eventually as soon as the first line is eliminated.  Why is it that people are so blind?”

Carto made the following comments in a 1960 issue of his newsletter RIGHT:

That the U.S. was on the wrong side in the last war is a fact so revolutionary…that is automatically denied by most Americans.” AND

The Bolshevik conspiracy was hatched and led by Bronx Jews and financed to a great extent by Wall Street Jews.” AND

Party-wise RIGHT recommends the National States Rights Party and Lincoln Rockwell’s oddly named American Nazi Party.”

Carto’s bigotry was never hidden from Robert Welch.  For example:

In September 1960, in a letter to Welch, Carto praised the annual Scoreboard issue of the JBS magazine, American Opinion. However, Carto told Welch that too much attention was given to Africa.  Carto paraphrased comments he attributed to German philosopher Friedrich Hegel, i.e. “Africa has no history and will never have one, because there is no soul, as Europeans understand it”. Then Carto remarked that “It is a shame that we have to bother about such an inconsequential thing as Africa” because “we must as a consequence forget more, ever more about the history, accomplishments and Destiny of the White man.”

Then Carto observed that “the only country in Africa of any importance or significance to history” was the Union of South Africa (the apartheid state). Carto reminded Welch that conservative anti-communists should not let “liberals and Communists hopelessly confuse us and mire us down in a hopeless, stupid situation with the cannibal tribes of Africa…” because the West “should not take sides between two or three hundred feuding groups of savages.” Carto concluded by observing that “the Jew-N and the Russians will do all possible to divide the continent…” [09/26/60 letter from Willis Carto to Robert Welch].

NOTE: Carto’s reference to “Jew-N” is Carto’s shorthand for Jew-Nigger.  See additional Carto comments below.

None of this appears to have bothered Robert Welch. When Welch learned about Carto’s financial difficulties, he told Carto not to bother paying JBS member dues because Welch was going to place Carto on the Birch Society’s “TRB” list “to receive our Bulletins indefinitely with our compliments” AND Carto would also receive a complimentary subscription to the JBS magazine, American Opinion.  [09/19/60 Robert Welch letter to Carto].

Carto’s overt bigotry was well known among all his correspondents.

In September 1960, Carto wrote a letter of protest to Frank Hanighen, the Editor of the conservative newspaper, Human Events, concerning comments by Phillippa Schuyler that were published in the 9/1/60 issue of Human Events

Carto declared that he was “shocked to read” that issue because Phillippa was the daughter of the conservative African-American author and columnist, George S. Schuyler.  According to Carto, Human Events violated a precept of conservatism because “all genuine conservatives should work to conserve the race which has created the culture and freedom and printing presses which we enjoy.  We wish to be allowed to pass on unblemished this racial heritage of ours, for all except those who have been hopelessly brainwashed by the communist-liberal cabal know that it is race which creates and bears civilization and not geography or magic…Therefore, if you would explain to your readers that your new writer, Phillippa Schuyler, is the hybrid offspring of George Schuyler and his White wife, your readers would likely wonder what on earth you are trying to do to them…Mr. Hanighen, I submit to you that racial mongrelization is NOT conservative or respectable (or even ‘inevitable’) no matter how you slice it and no matter who advocates it…In fact, I am sure that they would be as shocked as I am to discover that one of your writers symbolizes the most horrible—even though it the most traditional—fate that can overtake a civilization.” [09/06/60 Willis Carto letter to Frank Hanighen]

In October 1962, Carto wrote to Verne Kaub (American Council of Christian Laymen—Madison WI) about how our State Department “is always able to come up with proper specimens for every nigger ‘dignitary’ and Liberty Lobby [Carto’s new group] will try and do the same on the occasion of your state visit”.  [10/19/62 Willis Carto letter to Verne Kaub].

In February 1962, Carto wrote to Kaub about an article published in the San Francisco Progress newspaper which Carto described as “a vile rag which is edited by some lousy Hebrew with a white man’s name” and in July 1961 Carto wrote to Kaub and described U.S. Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter as a “Zionist subversive” [2/10/62 Carto to Kaub and 7/22/61 Carto to Kaub].


In the October 1959 JBS Bulletin, Welch recommended American Mercury magazine during the time when it was owned by Russell Maguire and it was widely considered an anti-semitic publication.

In September 1955, the entire top staff of the Mercury resigned en masse. This included Welch’s close friend and confidant, J.B. Matthews.

Frederick Woltman, the investigative reporter who was awarded the 1946 Pulitzer prize for his articles in the New York World Telegram and Sun on Communist infiltration of labor unions, was personally acquainted with the entire American Mercury staff. Woltman wrote: “The editors resigned feeling that attempts were being made to introduce anti-Semitic material into the Mercury.” [See Time magazine, 10/3/55, “Blowup At The Mercury.”]

In 1958 and 1959, as the Mercury’s articles became more virulently and explicitly anti-semitic, prominent conservatives lamented what had happened to the magazine and they dissociated themselves from Maguire’s handiwork.

For example:  Senator Styles Bridges of New Hampshire demanded that his name be removed from the masthead as a “contributor”. Fulton Lewis Jr, the conservative radio commentator, refused to give American Mercury permission to reprint one of his broadcasts. Lewis stated that he turned down the request because of the “anti-semitic tendencies” of AM. William Buckley Jr., announced to his staff at National Review magazine, that he would not publish any articles in National Review which were written by any author whose articles were also published in American Mercury


Olive Simes and Hope Gray (of Boston MA) both owned at least 2% of stock in Robert Welch Inc. Both women were also on the JBS Committee of Endorsers.

Both Simes and Gray were also major financial contributors to Gerald L.K. Smith’s Christian Nationalist Crusade through their “Penthouse Trust”.  Simes and Gray were close friends of JBS National Council member Laurence Bunker and Bunker often used the Penthouse Trust address as his contact info.

According to Gerald L.K. Smith’s reports to the U.S. House of Representatives, O. Simes contributed $140 in 1955, $285 in 1956, $200 in 1957, $160 in 1958, $205 in 1959 and $160 in 1960, $234 in 1964 [FBI-Boston 100-32899, serial #198.]


JBS founder and leader, Robert Welch asked Verne Kaub (the head of American Council of Christian Laymen in Madison WI) to join the JBS – even though Kaub wrote explicit letters to Welch describing his Jew-hatred. 

When Kaub declined to become a JBS member, Welch then asked Kaub to become an official endorser of the JBS.

In a May 1958 letter Kaub referred to "our good friend Conde McGinley".

The House Committee on Un-American Activities described Conde McGinley’s newspaper “Common Sense” as "almost exclusively a vehicle for the exploitation of ignorance, prejudice and fear" and as "a clearinghouse for hate propagandists throughout the country." [“Preliminary Report on Neo-Fascist and Hate Groups”, 12/17/54, House Committee on Un-American Activities”, pages 10 and 11.]


The FBI description:  “‘Common Sense’ is a notorious anti-Semitic hate sheet published by the Christian Educational Association.”  AND  “Common Sense depicts Communism as Judaism and devotes its pages almost entirely to attacks on the Jewish and to a lesser extent the Negro minorities in the United States.  Sympathy for the former Nazi Government in Germany is also shown in the paper.” [From “Appendix” to FBI memos which discuss Christian Educational Association]

In May 1959, Kaub wrote:

“…I no longer trust the FBI since its leader, J. Edgar Hoover, declared in his book, Masters of Deceit, that the American Jewish Committee, Anti-Defamation League, and B’nai B’rith are fine patriotic organizations,  Too, the  FBI was implicated in the fiendish Zionist plot to pin the bombing of the Atlanta sinagog [sic] unto five completely innocent persons who had expressed some anti-Semitic views in public.  In still other ways the FBI has proved that it is willing to go along with the enemies of the country in persecution of Christian American citizens.” [5/5/59 Kaub letter to Mrs. George E. Lyons, Marshall OK].

NOTE:   With respect to thefive completely innocent persons” referenced by Kaub:

The 10/12/58 bombing of the Atlanta Temple was planned at a 5/5/58 meeting according to an Atlanta police informant. That meeting was attended by Wallace Hugh Allen and George Michael Bright. Atlanta Police then arrested George Bright, Luther King Corley, Robert A. Bowling, Richard Bowling, Kenneth Chester Griffin, and Wallace Hugh Allen. All were indicted by the Fulton County Grand Jury except Corley. 

Kenneth Chester Griffin confessed to the crime and he accused George Bright of planning the crime and building the bomb. Griffin also told Atlanta detectives that the Chairman of the National States Rights Party (J.B. Stoner) supplied the dynamite.  Three of the five defendants were members of the viciously racist National States Rights Party. The NSRP advocated violence against Jews.  All five were also members of the Klan group, Knights of the White Camelia.  Nine of the 12 jurors at the trial of George Bright voted to convict him.  Officially, the crime remains unsolved.  For additional information see:

the FBI file on Wallace Hugh Allen:


and the FBI file on George Michael Bright:


and the FBI-Chicago file on the Atlanta Temple Bombing:


and the following summary re: the National States Rights Party:


and the book by Melissa Faye Greene, The Temple Bombing (Da Capo Press, 2006, 514pp).

In an October 1958 letter to Patrick Scanlan, the Managing Editor of the Catholic publication, The Tablet, Kaub complained about J. Edgar Hoover's recently released book, Masters of Deceit, because it included favorable comments about the American Jewish Committee and the Anti-Defamation League. 

Kaub then observed: 

"You of course know these organizations support all sorts of Communist-devised subversion by way of developing and leading to their own master-plot for world domination and destruction of Christian civilization."

In a June 1959 letter to the notorious anti-semite Kenneth Goff, Kaub praised Goff for "the wonderful work you have been doing" and "we have been promoting the sale of your books, but to me that does not seem enough. What else can we do to help?"

In a January 8, 1960 letter to JBS member Phoebe Courtney (New Orleans), Kaub praised Elizabeth Dilling and her book, The Red Network.  According to Kaub: "No more valuable work on Communist infiltration ever has been published."  This is the same Elizabeth Dilling whom Robert Welch identified as a virulent anti-semite in the October 1959 JBS Bulletin.

In February 1960, Kaub wrote to Helen Lasell that he could not join the JBS as a member because:

"I was not particularly happy over the fact that Jews are accepted as members of the Society..." 

Nevertheless, Robert Welch treated Kaub as a JBS “Home Chapter” member so that Kaub would receive all JBS material.


JBS member Kent Courtney (New Orleans LA) was a member of the New Orleans White Citizens Council AND a candidate for Governor on the pro-segregation Louisiana States Rights Party ticket in April 1960. In the November 1960 general election, Courtney was an elector for the pro-segregation States Rights Party. Courtney also was a strong supporter of Louisiana Congressman John R. Rarick (a KKK member). 


In the April 1960 JBS Bulletin, Robert Welch recommended Rev. Carl McIntire (leader of the American Council of Christian Churches). Welch gave a vote of praise emphatically” to McIntire’s radio programs. 

This is the same Carl McIntire whose organizational literature declared that:

“…The menace of Roman Catholicism in our land is hardly less than that of Godless Communism…The work of the American Council of Christian Churches is designed to protect our Protestant heritage and freedom against the threat from Roman Catholicism.” [FBI-Boston 100-32899, serial #346; 7/4/65 Boston MA Herald, p4]

In 1951, McIntire wrote:  “Rome will sell her secret confessional system for political world power” and in July 1963 issue of McIntire’s publication, Christian Beacon. McIntire wrote:We are confronted with the leftist and Roman Catholic control of the news media of this country.”


In the November 1960 JBS Bulletin, Robert Welch endorsed Merwin K. Hart’s “Economic Council Letter” which Welch described as: “This is a newsletter published twice a month by he National Economic Council…It is a compact source of penetrating information and incisive opinion presented with complete accuracy but always from the Americanist point of view.”

One FBI summary memo about Hart and his organization made the following observations. “Bufiles” refers to FBI files aka Bureau files.

Bufiles reflect he was the subject of a security type investigation conducted between 1942 to April 1948, New York origin.  This revealed he was pro-Fascist, pro-Franco, and was sympathetic to America First Group…Hart has been President of the National Economic Council, Inc. since it was founded in 1930…The organization has been described as strongly pro-Franco and ‘fascist’. It also has been termed as violently anti-labor and has made reckless attacks against the United Nations.” [FBI-HQ 100-128996, serial #127]

Among Hart’s “penetrating information and incisive opinion presented with complete accuracy but always from the Americanist point of view” is this observation:

“Is it not likely that many of these 6 million claimed to have been killed by Hitler and Eichmann, are right here in the U.S. and are joining in the agitation for more and more support for the State of Israel--even if the American Republic goes down?”  [Boston MA Globe, 7/4/65, page 4; FBI-Boston 100-32899, serial #346]

One of Merwin Hart’s newsletters reported that:

It is apparent that left-wing Jews, working in close conjunction with Communists, are largely responsible for this so-called integration decision of the Supreme Court.”

See other entries in this chronology re: Hart (especially 1950s-00)


T. Coleman Andrews Sr. (Richmond VA) was a founding member of the John Birch Society and he served on its National Council starting in January 1960. 

During the 1950’s, Andrews was a co-founder of Patrick Henry Group (PHG) in Richmond VA. The PHG produced and disseminated publications which asserted that Negroes were inferior to whites. For example, the PHG distributed Dr. Henry E. Garrett’s booklet, How Classroom Desegregation Will Work” which claimed that de-segregation can’t work because blacks are biologically inferior.

For additional historical background regarding Garrett’s bigotry, see:

Andrew S. Winston, "Science in the Service of the Far Right: Henry E Garrett, the IAAEE, and the Liberty Lobby " in Journal of Science Issues, 54, 1 (1998), 179-210

John J. Synon was the Director of PHG and he was a JBS endorser. Synon was the public relations adviser to Coleman Andrews. In 1965, Synon was Director of the Coordinating Committee For Fundamental American Freedoms (which opposed the 1964 civil rights bill).  Synon was also involved with Citizens Councils of America and he contributed articles to its official monthly journal, The Citizen.

Andrews was the States’ Rights Party candidate for President in 1956. He also was endorsed by the Constitution Party.  See:


As pointed out in every standard history of the States’ Rights Party (as reported in this quotation from article above):

"The States' Rights Party broke from the Democratic Party in 1948. The Party opposed racial integration and wanted to retain Jim Crow laws and racial segregation. The party slogan was 'Segregation Forever!' “

The “National Committee for T. Coleman Andrews and Thomas H. Werdel”  as independent candidates was composed of numerous racists including men who later became members or endorsers of the JBS including John U. Barr (Co-Chairman), A.G. Heinsohn Jr. (Co-Treasurer), J. Evetts Haley, and Dan Smoot.

In California, the Constitution Party endorsed Andrews and Werdel. Many of the members of that Party (particularly during the 1950’s) were overt racists.


Rev. James Parker Dees of Statesville NC owned more than 1% of stock in Robert Welch, Inc., the publishing arm of the Birch Society. 

Dees was President of the North Carolina Defenders of States’ Rights, Inc. The Defenders was organized to perpetuate segregation and Jim Crow laws in North Carolina.  As The Defenders pointed out in one of its publications:

“If you believe in racial segregation, States’ Rights, and Constitutional government, then we invite you to become a member of our organization. Unless we are willing to fight to preserve our southern and democratic society, then the NAACP and the Communist Party and their ‘liberal’ and left-wing adjuncts will bring upon us a mongrel society, neither white nor truly colored, along with an authoritarian dictatorship.”


Racial segregation is in accord with the natural law which is product of God’s creation…Where racial integration is effected, instances of crime soar, and academic standards and school discipline deteriorate, and economic values are destroyed…Reliable anthropologists tell us that racial integration is among the major factors contributing to the decay and fall of the Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilizations, among others, and has resulted in some quarters in a decadent and disease-ridden people.”

Dees also was a member of his local White Citizens Council and he served on the Editorial Board of the national publication of the Citizens Councils of America.

According to Rev. Dees:  “I think Gerald L.K. Smith is the greatest patriot in this country today. He is a profound Christian. I know him personally, and I have a deep respect for him…I feel like there are good Jews and bad Jews; to Mr. Smith they’re all bad. I’ve seen a lot of evidence that seems to substantiate his contentions.”


The Birch Society recommended and sold anti-semitic books by British author Nesta Bevan Webster. The Society’s 1969 booklist, listed two titles by Webster: “World Revolution: The Plot Against Civilization” and “Secret Societies and Subversive Movements”.

In World Revolution, Webster traces the conspiratorial role of Jews, as a hidden force, behind revolutionary movements from the French to the Bolshevik Revolutions.

In Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, Webster expanded upon her recurrent themes of Jewish plans for world domination and obliteration of Christianity which she traced to the Jewish Talmud. Chapter titles in the book included: The Jewish Cabalists and The Real Jewish Peril.

In 1922, Webster associated herself with Boswell Printing and Publishing Company (London) and its new journal, The Patriot. That journal devoted itself to revealing the purported dark, sinister forces which allegedly engineered wars and chaos to destroy society. More specifically, it focused on a Judeo-Bolshevik plot. Over the years, Webster wrote 30 articles and had 4 books published under the auspices of Boswell.

In the period from 1924-1927, Webster was a member of Britain's first fascist movement, The British Fascisti, (later re-named British Fascists, Ltd.) and for two years she served on its Grand Council.

In 1926, Webster authored a pamphlet for the British Fascisti entitled “The Need For Fascism in Great Britain” and she gave lectures under the auspices of BF.

In January 1965, Revilo P. Oliver, JBS National Council member and Associate Editor of the JBS magazine at that time (American Opinion) wrote a highly favorable review of World Revolution which quoted liberally from the Protocols of Zion.  Oliver described the book as “simply indispensable” for all students of the “Conspiracy”. 

After World Revolution was reprinted by Owen Publishing Company in Waco, Texas, it was advertised in American Opinion.  Owen Publishing was owned by Homer L. Owen, the former publisher of “The Fighting American” newsletter which reprinted anti-semitic articles during the early 1960’s. Then, when Secret Societies was reprinted by Omni Publications of Hawthorne, California, it was advertised in the February 1965 issue of American Opinion.

The Birch Society published articles in its magazine (The New American) which recommended Webster’s publications. For example, a September 16, 1996 article in TNA by JBS member, William McIlhany, recommended World Revolution (1921) and Secret Societies and Subversive Movements (1924).

An article in the subsequent issue of TNA (9/30/96) entitled "Roots of Subversion" refers to Nesta Webster lamely as "a British historian" who, in conjunction with JBS founder Robert Welch, "overwhelmingly established by both logic and a physical mountain of evidence the existence of a ‘Master Conspiracy’. “  [Note:  Nesta Webster was not a “historian”.  She had no formal training or college/university degrees in history nor was she recognized within the UK as an historian.]

However, Mrs. Webster’s writings have been pre-eminent in shaping conspiratorial thinking throughout the English-speaking world.

In the United States, the foremost promoters of Mrs. Webster's books, ideas, and themes, aside from the Birch Society, have been:

·         William Dudley Pelley (Silver Shirt Legion of America) and

·         holocaust deniers such as various Willis Carto enterprises including Institute For Historical Review and Liberty Lobby

·         Omni/Christian Book Club of America (which specializes in anti-semitic publications)

·         as well as all the usual disciples of conspiratorial interpretations of history wherein Jews play a prominent, malevolent role in the conspiratorial blueprint.

·         In Britain, Webster's promoters have included the predominant fascist organization, National Front, and Arnold Leese who founded the Imperial Fascist League.

Additional info re: Nesta Webster:





Former JBS member Ben Klassen (Lighthouse Point and Pompano Beach FL) operated a JBS bookstore and he was a major financial contributor to the JBS.

He became disillusioned with the JBS because of what he viewed as its tolerant position towards Jews. In November 1970, Klassen, along with Austin Davis, created the Nationalist White Party. The party's platform declared in its first sentence:  "We believe that the White Race was created in the Image of the Lord…”

In 1968, Klassen served as Florida campaign manager for George Wallace on behalf of the American Independent Party. He was State Vice Chairman and Broward County FL Chairman.

In 1970, Klassen attended a meeting of the National Socialist White People’s Party (formerly known as American Nazi Party). He became an organizer for the NSWPP.  [FBI-Miami 157-3464, serial #44].

Klassen attended the National States Rights Party National Convention at Newport KY from June 20-21, 1970 and he was a featured speaker. 

According to FBI report

Ben Klassen, Pompano Beach FL stated he was a former member of the John Birch Society.  He had given over thousand dollars to that Society before he learned that Robert Welch, its leader, was not telling the members the truth about Jews being in the Communist movement.  He referred to the John Birch Society as the ‘Jew Birch Society’.”  During this NSRP Convention, a publication authored by Klassen and Austin Davis entitled “50 Phony Arguments Used by Kosher Conservatives to Confuse Gentiles” was distributed.  It claimed that ‘communism is a Jewish conspiracy created to destroy the white race through ‘mongrelization, annihilation, and degeneration’.” (FBI-Miami 157-3464, serial #9 dated 7/1/70, page 4) and Miami 157-3464, serial #44; 12/20/71].

An FBI summary memo on Klassen observed:

He owns and operates an ‘American Opinion Bookstore’ located adjacent to his real estate business and through this bookstore he sells all types of right wing literature…Klassen feels the white Christians of the U.S. are being victimized by Jews and that Jews are behind the Communist, black militants, young revolutionist, and other radical groups with the intent of eventually overthrowing the U.S. Government, and establishing themselves as leaders of the government.  He feels the white Christians are apathetic, unorganized, and ignorant to the problem created by the Jews and he is attempting to arouse the white Christians in order to save the U.S.  He believes Hitler was a very intelligent person who recognized the problem the Jews presented and his downfall was caused by the Jews with the assistance of Christian traitors. Klassen also feels the Negroes are inferior to whites and he is opposed to all forms of integration but fears the Jews more.  Late in 1970, Klassen formed an organization called the Nationalist White Party and he intends to use it as a means to alert and arouse the white Christians… Klassen has also published one issue of a newsletter called ‘Racial Loyalty’ which is described as a publication of the Nationalist White Party.”  [FBI-Miami 157-3464, serial #27; 9/21/71 Special Agent Report].

Klassen’s 1973 book, Nature’s Eternal Religion, calls for unification of the white race and opposition to Jews as the parasitical destroyers of white civilization.


JBS member Frank R. Purinton (New York) organized Suffolk Freedom Fighters and the pro-segregation New York Citizens Council.

His personal papers are at University of Oregon (Eugene OR) as Special Collection #210.  The finding aid describes Purinton as follows:

Frank R. Purinton spent the majority of his lifetime pursuing and attacking evils which he believed threatened the United States and Christianity… Purinton was actively involved in forming and propagating theories regarding the ‘Communist-Zionist-Satanist’ plot to take over the world. In Purinton's world, ‘Jew’ and ‘Communist’ were virtual synonyms. To him, ‘Communist Jews’ sought control of the U.S. government, the Federal Reserve Board, the media, and African-Americans, as a step toward world domination. Purinton strongly objected to efforts by contemporary Christian thinkers to identify Christ as a Jew and he put considerable time and energy into a lifelong crusade to discredit the notion.”


JBS member George B. Fowler (Holyoke MA) founded the group Massachusetts For America (MFA) during the 1950’s.

MFA was part of the 1956 pro-segregation “States Rights” movement. Fowler’s organization distributed literature by such well-known bigots as Myron C. Fagan (Cinema Educational Guild), Gerald L.K. Smith (Christian Nationalist Crusade), and Robert H. Williams (Williams Intelligence Summary newsletter). 

In 1961, Fowler was on Willis Carto’s Liberty Lobby Board of Policy. 

Congressman Lawrence P. McDonald (GA) submitted an affidavit in a lawsuit involving Liberty Lobby which described the Lobby as "an organization founded by Willis Carto who seeks to use American populist causes as the method to bring about a National Socialist (Nazi) regime.”  [McDonald became the leader of the JBS after Robert Welch died.]

Fowler was also a member of the anti-semitic/racist “Defenders of the American Constitution” (formed by Pedro A. Del Valle in July 1953) and he was a financial contributor to Gerald L.K. Smith.  Del Valle believed that the greatest danger to the U.S. originated from a “one-worldist conspiracy” whose leadership was comprised of Jewish financiers in New York who controlled international communism. [FBI-HQ 100-74493]

For an exceptional article on The Defenders organization, see Kevin Coogan’s



JBS member Richard A. Evans (Arcadia CA) operated the Patriot Book Shop which sold publications authored by Kenneth Goff which included his volume Confessions of Stalin’s Agent” that observed: “The ultimate objective of the Communist movement (is) the establishment of a Jewish World State.”


JBS member, J. Evetts Haley (Texas), was a life-long segregationist.  He was a member of pro-segregation organizations such as White Citizens Council, Federation for Constitutional Government, and Constitution Party. His 1956 campaign for Governor of Texas included a pledge to use the Texas Rangers to defend school segregation. Haley also favored doctrine of interposition to overrule Supreme Court decisions.

Haley asserted that the "breakdown of color lines and mixture of the races --black, white, and tan-- is one of the cardinal principles of Red philosophy."

Haley was critical of George Wallace in 1963 for not ordering Alabama law enforcement officers to fire upon U.S. Marshals who were sent to Alabama to enforce integration at University of Alabama.


Eric Dudley Butler (Australia) was a paid JBS speaker as well as the Far East Correspondent for the JBS magazine American Opinion. 

In his biographical sketch in American Opinion, Butler is described as “National Director of the League of Rights, Australia’s most significant anti-Communist organization.”

Butler founded the League and edited its publication, “New Times”. In the September 26, 1947 issue, Butler wrote:

“Ever since their active participating in the crucifixion of Christ, the Jewish leaders have worked ceaselessly to undermine and destroy the Christian faith.  They have always believed and still believe in the Chosen Race idea; that the Jewish leaders are destined to rule the world.”

In the September 12, 1958 issue of New Times, Butler wrote:

“What is meant by the word gentleman does not exist among Jews.  The genuine Jew fails in this innate good breeding…” and in 1960 Butler declared that “the constant repetition of the statement that the Germans murdered six million Jews is without doubt one of the most frightening examples of the successful use of the big lie technique…to exaggerate the number of Jews murdered in order to make it easier for the Political Zionists to try and justify their own murderous and totalitarian policies.”

According to Butler, Jews were behind everything from the Spanish Inquisition to Nazism. Hitler, Butler declared, was of Jewish descent and the Fuhrer was "a man who helped advance Jewish aims". Nazi policies were financed by Jews - with the intention of having Jews arrive as refugees all over the world to spread their anti-Christian evil and political subversion.  

In 1941, Butler wrote a pamphlet entitled “The War Behind the War: The Real Nature of the Opposing Forces”. Butler’s argument was that Hitler’s National Socialism was “a Jewish system for exercising mastery over the world.”  That same year, Butler published: “The Enemy Within the Empire: A Short History of the Bank of England” which claimed that Jewish international financiers controlled the Bank of England.

Butler first came to the attention of the Australian federal government in 1945 after he served as an instructor of officers in the army. It was later revealed that he had been consorting with the enemy via the Japanese Chamber of Commerce.

During World War II, Butler described our war-time ally Russia as “a Jewish slave state . . . controlled by international Jewish financiers in New York”. Butler described the United Nations as "merely a cloak for Jewish policies".

In 1946, Butler published his "seminal" work, a 166-page book entitled "The International Jew: The Truth About the Protocols of Zion". [Its original title was Hitler’s Policy Was a Jewish Policy" ]. In this publication, Butler argued that Jews installed Bolshevism in Russia and they helped establish the League of Nations and then they brought Hitler to power as their agent so that he would serve the policies and war aims of Jewish international finance. The Catholic archdiocese of Sydney, Australia described Butler’s publication as “anti-Semitism at its worst” and a “disgraceful and mischievous production which is calculated to do harm to its readers”

In the 1950s Butler denounced the vaccine against polio as a Jewish ruse to kill children. In one of his publications, he stated: "Violence to the negro is but a pleasurable excitement. Blood rites move him to ecstasy."

Some examples of books sold by Butler’s organization include: Fraudulent Conversion, by British National Socialist Movement founder Colin Jordan; The World Conquerors, by Hungarian Arrow Cross member Louis Marschalko; Anti-Zion, by William Grimstad, former managing editor of the American Nazi Party paper, White Power; Hitler: Born at Versailles, by Belgian Waffen SS leader Leon Degrelle; Jewish Ritual Murder, by Imperial Fascist League founder Arnold Leese; For Those Who Cannot Speak, by Michael McLaughlin, leader of the openly Nazi British Movement; Imperium, by Francis Parker Yockey, which is dedicated to 'the hero of the Second World War' - Adolf Hitler.

Aside from his association with the John Birch Society, Butler also worked with anti-Semites such as British fascist Arnold Leese as well as Gerald L.K. Smith in the United States.  In January 19, 1964, Butler was a featured speaker at one of Smith’s events in Los Angeles (Citizens’ Congressional Committee).  Then a few months later, a Smith group published Butler’s speech as a 30-page pamphlet.

In October 1965, the Australian Anglican Church published a report by its Vicar, the Rev. D.J. Pope, which stated that an anti-Semitic group was engaged in secret infiltration of Australian churches.  Vicar Pope also declared that the group was spreading the lie “that the Jews are trying to seize control of the world” and the group was “reviving old techniques used against the Jews.”  Pope identified the infiltrating group as The League of Rights – the organization founded and directed by Eric D. Butler.

Mark Aarons, an expert on Nazis in Australia, said Butler was a "leading fascist, a racist of the highest order, most especially he was an anti-semite."

For additional information concerning Butler’s long record of racism and anti-semitism, see:

K.D. Gott: Voices of Hate: A Study of the Australian League of Rights and its Director, Eric D. Butler: (Melbourne, Australia, Dissent Publishing Assn, 1965, 45pp].

Also see, pages 190-191 of the 1997 book, “Faces of Hate: Hate Crime in Australia” edited by Chris Cunneen, David Fraser, Stephen Tomsen [Sydney, Australia: Hawkins Press, 1997, 250pp]



JBS member Rev. Ferrell Griswold (Birmingham, AL) was a paid speaker under the auspices of the Birch Society’s American Opinion Speakers Bureau on the topic “Civil Rights or Civil Riots”. 

Griswold frequently was also the featured speaker at Klan meetings in the south because he said, the Klan was a “patriotic” and "conservative" organization.  [Note: At the time he made his Klan speeches, the Klan was listed as a subversive organization on the U.S. Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations starting November 24, 1947.]

Also see:  Rev. Ferrell Griswold, “What One Communist Agent Can Do To Endanger Your Freedom,which Griswold wrote for the official monthly publication of the United Klans of America, i.e. The Fiery Cross, (May 20, 1964, page 4).


JBS member James Z. Oviatt  (Los Angeles CA) was closely connected to Rev. Wesley A. Swift (a major figure in the California Ku Klux Klan) whose speeches and sermons were filled with anti-semitic ideology akin to Christian Identity beliefs today.

Oviatt owned a clothing store and he distributed The Protocols of the Elders of Zion along with Conde McGinley’s racist and anti-semitic Common Sense newspaper to his customers. In 1952 Oviatt was a candidate for Vice President of the U.S. on Gerald L.K. Smith’s Christian Nationalist Party ticket. [FBI-Los Angeles 157-925; also see: “Rightist Mailings Stir Coast Clash”, New York Times, 2/9/64, p48]


Doug Heinsohn, the JBS Regional Coordinator for seven states, attended meeting of segregationist group, North Carolina Defenders of States’ Rights . [Burlington NC Daily Times, page B-1]


JBS member and chapter leader Harold S. Tuttle (Eagle River WI) was a 1961 contributor to Gerald L.K. Smith and then a George Wallace Presidential elector in 1968.


JBS member Wilma Oswolt (Michigan) was appointed as the official representative of the white supremacist National States Rights Party in Michigan in 1961. The FBI described NSRP as "a virulently racist and anti-semitic organization". [FBI-HQ 105-44536, serial #37]


JBS founder Robert Welch could not bring himself to condemn bigots like Gerald L.K. Smith (GLKS) or Russell Maguire (publisher of American Mercury magazine) or Verne Kaub (the President of American Council of Christian Laymen in Madison WI).

In a 1960 letter to Verne Kaub regarding GLKS, Welch declared that:

“I began by feeling that, while I might disagree with him somewhat on some matters, since most of us conservatives never quite agree with each other about anything, that undoubtedly he had been terribly maligned because of his patriotism.  And I held to the view that he was undoubtedly a good man, a sincere man, and a good patriot for a long time…”  [12/1/60 Welch letter to Verne P. Kaub]

In a subsequent letter to Kaub, Welch wrote:

I insisted on remaining on entirely friendly terms with Gerald L.K. Smith, Verne, in our exchanges of correspondence which he kept up and carried on, despite all of the smear attacks and the way his reputation had been smeared by so many attacks. On his insistent request I had even assured him that, in due time and when we were willing to send out a few copies of The Politician again – which meant whenever the smears against us based on The Politician had receded a little bit into the past – I would send him a copy.” 

Welch also observed:

As you know, it is my very deep rooted intention to try to work on just as friendly terms as I possibly can with every good patriot in this country who is honestly and truly opposed to the Communist advance…despite whatever other characteristic any such person might have with which I would not be in sympathy. (Provided, of course, there is nothing dishonorable either in the character of the actions to be considered).  Which is why I was perfectly willing to keep working with Russell Maguire and letting him reprint my material…”   [2/9/61 Robert Welch letter to Verne Kaub.]

Welch’s “friendly terms” reference to Gerald L.K. Smith (a notorious racist and anti-semite) is instructive.

Smith’s favorite publications about Jews were “The International Jew” by Henry Ford and “The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion”. His favorite publications about blacks were “You and Segregation” by Herman E. Talmadge and Wesley C. George’s “The Biology of the Race Problem” which argued that blacks were genetically inferior to whites.

In June 1956, Gerald L.K. Smith wrote an article entitled “Quarantined by the Anti-Christ” which described his beliefs:

“I discovered the most powerful manipulating force behind Communism is the organized international Jew. I frustrated myself by keeping my own counsel for some months---in fact, almost two years after I became convinced that Communism growing out of the philosophy of the Jew Karl Marx is not only related to one Jew personality, but has been an instrument of international Jewish intrigue.”  Smith then goes on to discuss his contempt for Jewish organizations such as Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith in virtually identical language as Robert Welch used a few years later.

Also see GLKS 1963 publication “Confessions”. Smith discusses his relationship with Henry Ford and how Ford “brought to the surface a copy of “the secret minutes of International Zionist Jews at a time when they planned world conquest.  In referring to these secret minutes, known as The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, Mr. Ford pointed out that as early as 1920 at least half of the conspiracy outlined in the Protocols had been carried out. I have reproduced this document.” Smith then goes on to recommend another publication that influenced his beliefs, i.e. Martin Luther’s book entitled “The Jews and Their Lies

In February 1962, GLKS wrote to Welch:

You are doing a great work and I would be the last to want to injure you or in any way hinder your accomplishments.  May God bless you and extend your years and give you wisdom and courage as you fight in defense of our Constitutional Republic and our Christian civilization and our patriotic traditions.” [Gerald L.K. Smith to Robert Welch 2/9/62].  Even in November 1960, Smith told Verne Kaub: “I hold Mr. Welch in high esteem and my correspondence with him has been lengthy and cordial”.  [11/21/60 Smith letter to Verne Kaub]

Welch’s “friendly terms continued into April 1962 when Welch wrote a letter to GLKS to explain why the Birch Society could not cooperate with Smith whom Welch lamely put into the same category as “other anti-Communist groups or leaders”. 

Welch attributed his decision to “a basic disagreement between us as to the main sources of the strength of the conspiracy” which Welch believed the JBS was fighting. Welch did not believe that the “main source” was (as Smith believed) Jews

But Welch then assured Smith that:

My conclusions, arrived at from a lot of studying over a long period of time, are not for ‘political reasons’ but are entirely sincere. I am willing to concede the same sincerity to yourself in your views.” 

And Welch concluded:

“I have been and still am entirely willing to let you fight your battle, without any interference from me, while I fight my own…I have never gone out of my way to condemn, or take any ‘cracks’ at, Gerald L.K. Smith and his views, because it simply is not my job or my province to do so. I am, as I have said many times, fighting the Communists, and nobody else.” [4/24/62 letter from Robert Welch to Gerald L.K. Smith.]

Thus, we must conclude that in Robert Welch’s scheme of things, there was nothing “dishonorable either in the character or of the actions…” in overt racists or anti-semites such as Russell Maguire, Verne Kaub, and Gerald L.K. Smith

Verne Kaub was an anti-semite and he never hid is Jew-hatred from Welch or any other correspondent. Kaub refused to join the JBS as a dues-paying member because (he said) Welch allowed “too many Jews” to become members. 

In a 02/22/60 letter to Helen Lasell (Jackson Heights, Long Island, NY) Kaub wrote that he attended a JBS recruitment meeting by Robert Welch in Chicago in August 1959 but Kaub noted: 

I made it very clear at this meeting that I was not particularly happy over the fact that Jews are accepted as members of the Society, but that I would go along unless and until there was some indication of softness toward Zionism. Welch accepted this with good grace. I had an hour conference with him in Chicago…and there was no disagreement on any point.”

Nevertheless, Welch asked Kaub to include his name on the JBS Committee of Endorsers – and Kaub agreed. Welch arranged for Kaub to become a JBS Home Chapter member so he would receive all JBS publications. 

Kaub also recommended Elizabeth Dilling’s 1934 book, The Red Network: A Who's Who and Handbook of Radicalism for Patriots.  Kaub described Dilling as being “persecuted more than any other woman I know of” because of the “terrific pressures…brought upon her by the cooperating Communist-Zionist forces.” [1/8/60 letter from Verne Kaub to JBS member Mrs. Phoebe Courtney – New Orleans LA]

In February 1966, the Business Manager of the Birch Society’s Wholesale Book Division (Donald R. Gray) sent a notice to all of the Society’s “American Opinion Bookstores” which warned them against stocking or selling publications that are not of sufficient value in substance or scholarship to rise above the level of anti-Semitic invective or propaganda.” Gray then listed “most of the books or pamphlets recommended or published by several individuals – including Gerald L.K. Smith!

Nevertheless, people connected to Gerald L.K. Smith's organizations were accepted as JBS members and some were even major financial contributors to GLKS. The following JBS members/endorsers were financial contributors to Gerald L.K. Smith's racist and anti-semitic Christian Nationalist Crusade:

George B. Fowler – Holyoke MA

Dr. Hugh S. Ramsay – Bloomington IN

Olive Simes – Boston (and stockholder in Robert Welch Inc.)

Franklin Farrel Jr. – New Haven CT

Edgar A. Scheubert – Chicago IL

Paul H. Talbert – Beverly Hills CA (JBS National Council member)

James Oviatt – Los Angeles CA

H.S. Tuttle - Eagle River, WI (JBS chapter leader)


Dr. Lawrence A. Lacey of Madison WI wrote to Robert Welch and suggested that Welch may not be familiar with all the indisputable factual evidence about what Lacey considered the connections between Jews and communism.

Welch objected to “your charge of cowardice against me…Since I own and have read practically every book on the list on Page 2 of your letter, since I have had, subscribed to, or made contributions so as to receive every issue of Conde McGinley’s COMMON SENSE, -- I believe – since the day the paper was started; since I had subscribed for years to the paper put out by Robert Williams, and bought all his pamphlets; and since I have read and studied a great deal of other material along the same lines, your assumption of my ignorance on this subject is not too well founded.”

Conde McGinley and Robert H. Williams were among the most virulent anti-semites and racists in our country.  See other entries in this chronology for details. 

Welch’s letter to Dr. Lacey then explains:

To me it seems likely, Dr. Lacey, that in 1900 or 1905, at the time of the first Russian Revolution, which was led by Trotsky, or in 1917, or even up to the middle 1920’s. the Communist Conspiracy was largely a child or at least a ward of the Zionist conspiracy.  And for that reason Jews were preponderant in the top levels of the Communist hierarchy.”

Welch goes on to explain that he thought the situation changed circa 1937 or 1938 when Stalin consolidated his power and, at that time, “the child had quite largely outgrown the parent…There followed a period when the Zionist conspiracy and the Communist conspiracy undoubtedly worked closely together, each one hoping and counting on ‘using’ the other, and coming out on top.”  Then (according to Welch) the Communist conspiracy outgrew the Zionist conspiracy so “the Zionist conspiracy has itself become merely on of the tools of the top Communist command.”

Welch closes his four-page letter by telling Dr. Lacey that:

Frankly, Dr. Lacey, I think that blaming the whole Communist conspiracy today, or during the past decade, on the Jews is an extremely dangerous over-simplification of our problem, and exactly what the Communists ( including those who pose as Jews) want us to do.  And I simply cannot go along with it.”

Notice that Welch does not state that the Jew-Communist conspiracy is a falsehood.  Instead, it is merely an “oversimplification of our problem”. [2/10/61 Robert Welch letter to Dr. Lawrence A. Lacey]  Note:  In April 1962, Welch wrote a similar letter regarding the Zionist Conspiracy to Verne Kaub.

It should also be noted that Robert Welch’s vicious attack upon President Dwight D. Eisenhower (and his Administration) which Welch wrote about in his 1954 manuscript entitled “The Politician” is nearly identical to comments which were published in hate sheets like Conde McGinley’s newspaper, Common Sense, and Robert H. Williams’ newsletter, “Williams Intelligence Summary” and Joseph Kamp’s newsletter, “Headlines and What’s Behind Them”. 

All those hate sheets made comments about an Invisible Government” operating in the U.S. and the “Jew-Marxist-Zionist New Deal” which then used Eisenhower “to break down European countries for Communism…”

In particular, see the March 15, 1952 issue of Kamp’s newsletter, “Headlines” and the “Special Eisenhower Edition of the Williams Intelligence Summary also published in 1952 and just about every issue of Gerald L.K. Smith’s publication, “The Cross and the Flag” and the January 1, 1953 issue of McGinley’s “Common Sense” newspaper for article entitled “Baruch Appoints Eisenhower Cabinet”.

Other racist/anti-semitic publications which published comparable articles include:

Women’s Voice” by Lyrl Clark Van Hyning (Chicago IL)

The American Nationalist” by Frank L. Britton (Inglewood CA)

The Broom” by C. Leon DeAryan” (San Diego CA)

The American Commentator” by Stephen Nenoff (Denton TX)

Not surprisingly, Robert Welch told Dr. Lawrence Lacey (in 1961) that he subscribed to many of these hate sheets and Welch accepted the concept of a Zionist conspiracy which pre-dated the Communist conspiracy.  Also, not surprisingly, after Welch created the Birch Society, many of these hate sheets praised Welch and the JBS.


JBS member William I. McKendrie (Norfolk VA) was an active member in, and co-founder of, the Norfolk chapter of the segregationist organization Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties. McKendrie was also a supporter of the Tidewater Educational Foundation, Inc. which supported a “massive resistance campaign against integration of public schools even through drastic actions such as closing public schools and creating segregated private schools. [FBI-Richmond 100-9991, serial #24]

Also see:  “Virginians Launch Organization to Retain Segregated Schools” in Winchester VA Evening Star, 10/8/54, p2 and Danville VA Bee, 10/27/54, p3 which quoted official of the Defenders stating that its purpose was to “preserve public school segregation”.


FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover sent a lengthy memo about the Birch Society to the Attorney General with copies also sent to senior Justice Department officials within the Internal Security Division. Included was this comment by Hoover:

A confidential source who has furnished reliable information in the past has advised that [name deleted for privacy] of Dallas, Texas, who has been identified in the past as being a former member of the U.S. Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, recently stated he was a member of the JBS and praised the work of the Society.”  [FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial number illegible; 4/5/61 memo from J. Edgar Hoover to Attorney General].


JBS members Frank R. Ford and Joseph A. Hagan (Norfolk VA) were officers in the pro-segregation Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties. Ford was the State Vice-President and Hagan was the President of the Norfolk chapter.


JBS member Earl Thornton (Dallas TX) was also President of the pro-segregation Oak Cliff White Citizens Council.  Thornton was also a member of U.S. Klans, Knights of the KKK, Inc. The HQ of the Oak Cliff Citizens Council was in Thornton’s electric company business office. [Laredo TX Times 4/2/61, p 5, Semi-Secret JBS Behind Texas Anti-Red Activity]

Per SAC Dallas to J. Edgar Hoover:  The Oak Cliff Citizens Council was “still heavily infiltrated with members of the U.S. Klans, Knights of the KKK, Inc.”  [FBI-HQ 105-34237-12, serial #18; Original serial in Dallas 105-484]. 


JBS member Martha L. McKinney (West Palm Beach FL) sent a “Members Monthly Message” to JBS HQ dated 09/61: 

“I think it would be a good idea if our RIGHT WING ARMED FORCES LEADERS took control of our Government out of the hands of the Bolshevik-Jew Communist and ran it with a hand of iron until every Communist in the State Department, the White House, and every branch of Government is thoroughly cleaned of Bolsheviks, Jews and Communists and their brothers.”


Before he joined the Birch Society as both a member and paid speaker under the auspices of its Speakers Bureau, African-American author and columnist George S. Schuyler wrote the following description of the White Citizens Council movement in the United States:

"THE WHITE Citizens Council which has branches or cells everywhere, controls by terror such states as Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and to a lesser extent, Virginia. It has castigated the Supreme Court in general and the Chief Justice in particular. It has defied and disrupted the operation of the laws of the land. It has used threats and vicious economic reprisals. It is as undemocratic as the John Birch Society and it exacts large sums of money from its followers. It has become a legal arm of Mississippi's Government. Why no furore to investigate the White Citizens Council?”  [George S. Schuyler: “Views and Reviews”, New Pittsburgh Courier, National edition; [Pittsburgh PA] 04-22-61, page 8].

Nevertheless,  the Birch Society welcomed members and officials of the White Citizens Council movement into its ranks as JBS members, JBS chapter leaders, JBS section leaders, JBS Coordinators, JBS National Council members, as well as paid speakers and writers for the JBS. 

Among the senior leaders of the pro-segregation Citizens Council movement who were also JBS members are:

William J. Simmons (Executive Director, Citizens Councils of America)

Louis W. Hollis (Executive Director, Jackson MS chapter of Citizens Council and Secretary of Citizens Council Forum)

Medford Evans (editor of Citizens Council national magazine, The Citizen).  Evans also served as a JBS Coordinator in Louisiana and Texas

NOTE: JBS National Council member Revilo P. Oliver addressed the 1966 National Convention of White Citizens Councils in Chattanooga TN and prominent JBS member Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker (Dallas) was the featured speaker at DOZENS of White Citizens Council events all over the country.


JBS Coordinator Medford Evans gave a speech in Lake Charles LA:

The South, as we know it, depends entirely on the institution of segregation.  The enduring vitality of the USA depends on legal segregation in the South.” [Lake Charles LA American Press, 4/13/61, p1, “Race Turmoil Called No. 1 Goal of Reds”; FBI-New Orleans 105-1499, serial #37]


JBS member William T. Clark was a JBS chapter leader in Jackson MS.  He told his local newspaper (Jackson MS Clarion Ledger) that:

Communists have been active behind the scenes in virtually every integration movement.  Those who promote integration, whether they know it or not, are aiding the Communists”  [FBI-New Orleans 105-1499, p. 63; “State John Birch Leader Calls Group ‘Ordinary Folks’”, Jackson MS Clarion Ledger, 5/7/61]

Clark protested integrated meetings held in his Episcopal Church and he wrote a resolution to have the Church Rector fired for allowing bi-racial meetings. The rector (Rev. Edward H. Harrison) was removed.

Then, in April 1964, William T. Clark became a charter member of a new conservative Anglican Orthodox congregation called Holy Trinity Church which was formed by former members of Episcopal parishes in the Jackson MS area. The new congregation was opposed to any racial integration within the church.


JBS Coordinator David Harmon (Milwaukee WI) was interviewed by the Minneapolis MN Star newspaper during a JBS event in Bloomington (a Minneapolis suburb).  Harmon declared that “even if most Jews are Communists, there are still a lot of good ones.” [Minneapolis MN Star, 5/20/61]


FBI report in June 1961:

On 6/19/61, a confidential source who has furnished reliable information in the past advised as follows.”

Source referred to 6/17/61 speeches by Bill Hendrix and Oren F. Potito. When the Original Southern Klans, Inc., went out of existence, Hendrix gathered together the remnants in southern Georgia and northern Florida to form an organization of his own. In August 1949, he announced the formation of a new Klan group to be called Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan which he led.

Hendrix stated that the United States Supreme Court is a bunch of ‘black buzzards’, the John Birch Society is a fine organization doing a laudable job of uncovering Communists in America; the Freedom Riders and their ilk are either communists or communist-inspired; the majority of the newspapers…radio and TV stations are owned and run by communists; the United Nations is being run as Russia desires it run and is a place where the diplomats meet to see what they can cheat the U.S. out of…(and) ‘the country is being lost to communists’ meaning Americans in high places who secretly are Reds.” … [FBI-HQ 100-356570, serial #366 and Tampa file 157-3].


JBS member Kent Courtney (New Orleans LA) sent an inquiry to the FBI in his capacity as National Chairman of the Conservative Society of America.  Courtney asked FBI Director Hoover for comment upon a recent publication by Courtney.

The FBI file copy of their reply contains this notation:

“Bufiles reflect Courtney is also publisher of The Independent American newspaper…Courtney’s paper indicates he is a rabble rouser and a hate monger.” [FBI-HQ 105-36811, serial #46]. 


JBS member “Mrs. Neely” (Gulfport MS) sent a “Members Monthly Message” to JBS HQ dated 09/61 which recommended that JBS recommended reading lists should include Carleton Putnam’s  1961 book, “Race and Reason: A Yankee View”.  Ms. Neely observed that: “I think every American should know about this book” because it “is the best documentation of Race I have ever read.”

Putnam, a life-long segregationist, originally wrote Race and Reason as a letter to President Eisenhower to protest the end of segregated public schools. Putnam’s book was heavily promoted by the Association of Citizens Councils of Mississippi along with other white supremacist organizations.

That same month, Mr. and Mrs. Curtis (Tyler TX) made the same recommendation to JBS headquarters:  Race and Reason by Carleton Putnam explodes egalitarian theory…Should be read by all.”  [Members Monthly Message, 09/61]

Robert B. Patterson, Executive Secretary of the Association of Citizens Councils (Greenwood MS) recommended that all Citizens Councils “see that all your local libraries have copies of this book available to the public.”  [Patterson memo, July 1961, addressed to “All Citizens’ Council Officers, Members and Friends”]


JBS member Mary T. Johnson (Arcadia CA) sent a “Members Monthly Message” to JBS HQ dated 10/61:

There seems to be an anti-Jewish movement going around, which could cause a split in the ranks. It might be wise to remind the members of our true aims as there should be unity in what we are fighting.  Dr. Stout and Kenneth Goff seem to be stirring up trouble in S. California.”


JBS member Frank Knox Aycock (Memphis TN) was an attorney in Memphis who also belonged to his local White Citizens Council chapter as of November 1961 along with the rightwing paramilitary group, Minutemen. [See: FBI-Memphis 62-1187 and FBI-HQ 62-107261 on Minutemen which is 12/5/61 SAC Memphis memo to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover on report by Memphis Special Agent William H. Lawrence.  Also see FBI-Memphis 157-179 on White Citizens Council.]


JBS member Henry N. Norton (Dobbs Ferry NY) sent a “Members Monthly Message” to JBS HQ dated 11/61: 

“Zionism should be outlawed. The extensive study of this evil…of Communism point to one root: Jewry.  We have to face up to it—evading it, whitewashing it, or ignoring it out of fear or cowardice will only aid the enemy. Truth must out!  This thing is the anti-Christ…Christ was not a Jew.  He also told us that the Pharisees (Jews) are ‘Vipers...Sons of Satan’ … we should avoid Satan and not associate with him; that is, keep the Jews out of Gov’t, Lodges, Nation.”


JBS member Paul B. Hurley (Minneapolis MN) was a co-founder and incorporator of the National Society for the Preservation of the White Race, Inc. He also served as President of the Minnesota Minutemen.

Hurley made arrangements for anti-semitic and racist speakers to appear in Minneapolis such as American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell, Kenneth Goff, and Gerald L.K. Smith.

Hurley’s organization endorsed (and distributed) the anti-semitic forgery, Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion.

In December 1961, the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI’s Minneapolis field office sent a memo to Director J. Edgar Hoover describing Hurley as an “extreme right-wing radical whom many people believe to be mentally unbalanced” and a distributor of anti-Semitic, anti-Negro, anti-Catholic and anti-Communist literature.” [FBI-HQ 100-422071 and FBI-Minneapolis 100-1246]


FBI memo from Special Agent in Charge of FBI-Richmond office to SAC Charlotte on 12/19/61, lists individuals in the Richmond VA territory “who in the past have had Klan connections” and who “were interested in the John Birch Society in Charlotte NC.”  One of the JBS members was also a follower of Gerald L.K. Smith. [Charlotte-FBI 100-9548, serial #86]


Armond T. Swisher and Parke Yandle (both from Charlotte NC) were JBS supporters. Swisher made financial contributions to his local Klan chapter and Yandle was a supporter of Gerald L.K. Smith’s Christian Nationalist Crusade.  [Richmond-FBI, 100-9991, serial #65].


JBS member Jonathan Cook McDonald (Houston TX) was reported to the Secret Service because of “oral statements in 1962” that the John Birch Society “had $25,000 which was available to pay someone to assassinate the President.” [FBI-Houston 62-2215; also in HQ 105-82555, section 18 and in Warren Commission document #7 – which is report by Houston FBI Special Agent Robert Gemberling, page 604.]


JBS member Robert A. Benson (El Monte and Hollywood CA) shared a document in the summer of 1962 with an acquaintance from Winter Park FL who described Benson as “definitely anti-semitic”.  The document stated “that the Jews are to take over the world, and that those in authority are either Jews or have ‘sold out to them’” [FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #213, page 25; original in FBI-Dallas 89-63; Also see FBI-Tampa 62-455]


JBS endorser, R. Carter Pittman (Dalton GA), was President of the pro-segregation States’ Rights Council of Georgia. Pittman told the Atlanta Constitution in October 1955 that:  “…the South has no racial problem and has had none for a half century.  Its racial problems were solved by segregation.”  Pittman also served on the White Citizens Councils Editorial Advisory Board.

In January 1962, Pittman spoke at a meeting of the Christian Crusade’s Anti-Communist Leadership School in Tulsa OK led by JBS member Billy James Hargis.  Pittman referred to the “massive evidence of Negro-White differences that demand segregation.”

He continued:

Individuals are not equal. The Caucasian race is many thousands of years ahead of the Negro race in the scale of civilization and white children are several school years ahead of black children in educability.” 

Consequently, integration of public schools, according to Pittman, has been “a futile and disgraceful experiment” because of the massive evidence of Negro-white differences that demand segregation.”  [New York Times, 1/30/62, “A Segregationist Advises Rightists]


JBS member Ronald Carnes (Gardena CA, chapter 899) sent a “Members Monthly Message” to JBS HQ dated 02/62:

“I am quite concerned over a recent trend in our Chapter. There seem to be several people who are very well informed concerning the Zionist question.  Unfortunately, this question always seems to come up in our meetings…Personally I am afraid to invite many of my friends to attend our meetings because of fear that this question will arise—that of Zionism. I would not wish to get any one into ‘hot water’ but I know I am expressing the opinion of several of our local members when I ask for a solution.”


JBS Director of Field Activities (Thomas Hill) sent a report to Los Angeles JBS Coordinator Harry Browne concerning information received by Hill from Ronald Carnes (Gardena CA) who was a member of JBS chapter 899.  Mr. Carnes expressed concern over “discussion periods of the Zionist question” at his chapter meetings along with circulation of writings by Gerald L.K. Smith.

Mr. Carnes stated that “several people came to this chapter as guests and were quite upset to see the material being circulated.” [Tom Hill to Harry Browne, 3/2/62]


JBS member Mary Dawson Cain (Summit MS) was a featured speaker at a White Citizens Council meeting. The local newspaper reported that:

Mrs. Cain, a strong segregationist, spoke at a Citizens Council meeting here.” Cain then praised two Laurel MS natives (opera singer Leontyne Price and Ralph Boston) and Cain claimed that “all he (the Negro) had accomplished had been done under racial segregation.”  (Laurel MS Leader-Call, 4/21/62, p5; “Editor Praises State Negroes Attaining Fame”)


JBS founder Robert Welch, wrote the following letter to Verne Kaub in April 1962:

“For, in the first place, Verne, I am probably as anti-Zionist as you are…In fact, I believe you will find right in the Blue Book that among the things on which I disagreed most heartily with Bob Taft was his support of aid to Israel by our government. 

I probably do disagree with you somewhat in our attitude toward the Jews in general.  For I feel that the ordinary Jewish citizen in America has been under more pressure, and more bamboozled to go along with the powerful Zionist minority, than have the Methodists, for instance, by the forces headed by Bishop Oxnam and his ilk…But with regard to Zionism you and I do not differ at all, except possibly in our view as to the importance of the Zionist part of the total conspiracy at the present time…

Actually, and I am sorry to say, we do not have too many Jews in the JBS.  This is partly because a smaller percentage of the Jewish people in America as a whole are true conservatives, than of the total population.  But it is even more because of the greater pressures and dirtier pressures, which are put on them, against standing up for what they believe…But when you get into the Zionist picture, I repeat that you cannot think any less of the whole government of Israel or of the whole Zionist conspiracy than I do; except that I think its relative importance in the total importance in the whole picture has greatly decreased over the past three decades. Someday…I should be glad to exchange views with you…as to what has really taken place since around 1905 when I think the Zionist conspiracy – and from then on for perhaps two decades – was practically the father of the International Communist Conspiracy.  Today, I personally think that the relationship is almost exactly reversed, and that the child had now so far outgrown the parent in size and strength and importance that the parent is in a relatively minor position.  But this does not make Golda Meier or Ben-Gurion or any of their extremist followers in this country any less culpable."  [4/4/62 letter from Robert Welch to Verne Kaub—Madison WI]


JBS member Fred Huntley (Berkeley CA) advertised Protocols of Learned Elders of Zion for sale during 9/62 recorded messages for his Anti-Communist Amateur Radio Network broadcasts AND he also placed ads in San Francisco ChronicleThe Protocols forgery purports to be the secret minutes of a plan for world domination by leading Jews of the 19th century.


JBS member Archibald B. Roosevelt (New York City) wrote a letter in reply to a letter he received from Verne Kaub (Madison WI).  Roosevelt referred to the political situation in New York state and his fear of racial riots occurring in the near future.  He then described the political situation in New York. Roosevelt believed that “professional do-gooders planned “to be elected by being extreme pro-negro…By extreme I really mean special privileges for the negro, who in most cases is certainly below the average white man in intelligence.”  [9/20/62 letter from Archibald B. Roosevelt to Verne P. Kaub, Madison WI].


JBS member Thomas Arthur Vallee (Chicago IL) was a Marine Corps veteran with a history of mental illness while on active duty. The Secret Service considered him an extremist critic of President Kennedy. Vallee was arrested by the Secret Service in Chicago on 10/30/62. A search of his vehicle revealed that he had an M-1 rifle, a handgun and three thousand rounds of ammunition. [Secret Service memorandum of Nov. 6, 1963 by Special Agent Thomas D. Strong, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p. 2 (JFK Document 008581) AND also see interview of former Chicago Police Officer Lawrence Coffey, Jan. 17, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p. 1 (JFK Document 004831).  Also in FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #1575 and FBI-Chicago 62-6115, 11/30/65.]


The New England JBS Coordinator (Philip K. Langan) informed JBS members about the opening of the Joe McCarthy Bookstore in South Boston which he recommended. Langan told JBS members that “If you would like to volunteer to work in the store for a few hours every week, please let me know at your earliest convenience.” The JBS sent publications to the new bookstore for sale. The store was operated by JBS member Speros Lagoulis – a close friend of  American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell.


JBS members/endorsers involved with the pro-segregation Citizens Council of West Palm Beach FL included Mary Davison, John Lanier, Ray McCabe and George McCants [FBI-HQ 105-24237-29, serial #25, p3; SAC Miami to Hoover, 12/6/62]. Davison was also a supporter of the American Nazi Party and KKK.


JBS founder, Robert Welch, gave a speech entitled “The Neutralizers”, that subsequently was published as a pamphlet.  In this speech, Welch explained what he claimed was a “Communist strategy that promoted divisiveness in all of their opposition”. Welch then continued his analysis by stating that his speech transcript was intended to “deal with the current application of that strategy to the John Birch Society.”  [Robert Welch, The Neutralizers, 1963, page 1].

According to Welch, the purpose behind his remarks was to describe the “ideological wedges” supposedly used by Communists. “The objective for which they are used is to pull members right out of the Society onto some one of several narrowly restricted courses for opposing the Communist menace; or to get members so pre-occupied with some one approach to the problem that, even if they remain in the Society, they become innocuous passengers at best and increasingly disruptive disputants at worst.”  [The Neutralizers, page 2]

Welch then discusses what he describes as “seven different ‘philosophies’ or ‘arguments’ or ‘programs’ which are used to bring about these various forms of neutralization.” [The Neutralizers, page 3].

The very first “wedge” (and apparently it is the most significant one since it is the lengthiest discussion by Welch) is captioned “Anti-Semitism”.  Pages 3 thru 11 are devoted to just this one “wedge” or argument or program.

Welch discusses an anti-semite whom he identified only as “Mr. A” whom Welch described as “he was well and widely known in the area as a leading and dedicated member” of the JBS who “was a frequent visitor at the meetings of about a dozen chapters” and this JBS member had “pulled some twenty to thirty of our hardest working and most determined anti-Communists right out of the Society, wrecked our chapter altogether and left a couple other chapters in a badly disorganized condition.” [The Neutralizers, page 3]

One has to wonder just what kind of people those 20 or 30 JBS members were to begin with – since they found the JBS so appealing but they were so easily lured away from the JBS by an anti-semitic pitch?  Welch, however, described them as merely “innocent but gullible patriots”.

See entry below regarding JBS member Virginia Shackelford of Tacoma WA.  Also see entry below for the June 1965 Report by the California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities.


JBS member William N. Ohly (Columbus OH) sent out a flyer which advertised a forthcoming seminar discussion that featured five members of the JBS National Council.  The flyer also provides the names of “A Partial List of Committee of Endorsers of the Society” as well as a list of “Endorsers of the Seminar”.

Altogether, there are over 100 names listed. Many of them were racial or religious bigots – including:

T. Coleman Andrews Sr., Thomas J. Anderson, Sumter L. Lowry, Thomas Parker, R. Carter Pittman, Hugh S. Ramsay, John U. Barr, Medford Evans, Tullius Brady, Archibald B. Roosevelt, Glenn O. Young.


The White Citizens Council of Dallas, TX headed by Charles A. Felker Jr. included several members of the John Birch Society. [FBI-HQ 105-34237-12, serial #34, 1/24/63 SAC Dallas to J. Edgar Hoover.]


JBS member Virginia Shackelford (Tacoma WA) contacted JBS HQ about anti-semitism she experienced within her local area JBS chapters.

2/2/63 = Seattle Times, p25 “Woman Quits Birchers on Jewish Issue”:

My membership was revoked by the national headquarters in Belmont MA, Mrs. Shackelford said.  Three of the five units in Tacoma, representing about 30 members, have dissolved within the past two months Mrs. Shackelford declared.  Mrs. Shackelford said she and the others left the society over the distribution of anti-semitic literature (primarily in the Kent area) and the failure of the national organization to order the practice halted.”

2/13/63, Tacoma News-Tribune: “Virginia Shackelford Out of Birch Society”:

Mrs. Virginia Shackelford, one of the most outspoken and prominent members of the JBS in the Pacific Northwest has been drummed out of the ultra-conservative organization.  The break she said today results from vigorous objection she raised with national headquarters over the distribution of anti-semitic literature by several members in the Kent area.  Mrs. Shackelford said her dispute with national headquarters started with a letter she wrote six months ago to Robert Welch the society’s founder protesting the pamphlets and other material of anti-semitic nature. In her letter, she said, Mrs. Shackelford requested that the persons in question be asked to resign.  Last Friday, she said, she received a letter from national headquarters in Belmont MA telling her that her membership had been revoked.”


JBS National Council member, Dr. Thomas Parker (Greenville SC), was an officer of the pro-segregation Greenville SC Citizens Council.  [FBI-HQ 105-34237-8, serial #31; 3/21/63 re: Citizens Council of Greenville SC]


JBS member Newton Armstrong told Thomas L. Kienholz of San Diego CA circa March 1963 that President Kennedy should be assassinated. Armstrong was described by FBI as being “obsessed by the belief that the United States Government was being taken over by Communists.” See: FBI-San Diego 62-1529, report by FBI Special Agent Robert S. Baker on 11/26/63 which is also on page 508 of Warren Commission Document #7, which is 12/10/63 report by Dallas FBI Special Agent Robert P. Gemberling. Also in FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #928 which is SAC San Diego report to FBI HQ dated 11/22/63.]


Stanley L. Drennan (Los Angeles CA) was a JBS member and a member of neo-nazi, National Socialist White People’s Party and the racist National States Rights Party (NSRP).

The Los Angeles FBI file on Drennan has numerous references regarding the FBI forwarding information to the Secret Service office in Los Angeles (starting in April 1963) for their investigation of Drennan and his associates as a consequence of FBI informant report that Drennan participated in a meeting of JBS members held at Poor Richard’s Bookstore in Hollywood (owned/operated by Francis X. Ranuzzi) during which plans were discussed regarding the murder of President Kennedy.

Drennan also was reported to the Secret Service for making statements that he had plans to assassinate President John F. Kennedy and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy along with members of Congress.  [FBI-Los Angeles 105-14379].  In addition, Drennan told Lt. Col. Robert K. Brown in the Spring of 1963 that NSRP members should arrange to murder JFK, his cabinet, and members of Americans For Democratic Action. Lt. Col. Brown told Atlanta FBI Special Agent Charles P. Rose about this conversation circa 12/2/63 when Brown was stationed at Ft. Benning GA. [See FBI-Atlanta 105-3193].


In July 1963, Robert Welch asked South Carolina U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond to accept appointment to the JBS National Council. Thurmond declined the offer but praised the JBS. The March 1964 cover of the Birch Society’s monthly magazine (American Opinion) had a portrait of Senator Thurmond on its front cover. 

Congressman John R. Rarick of Louisiana was invited by Robert Welch to be the featured speaker at a JBS National Council meeting. Rarick was a member of the Ku Klux Klan.

Jim Clark, the pro-segregation Sheriff of Selma County Alabama was a paid speaker under the auspices of the JBS Speakers Bureau. Clark started a fight with Annie Lee Cooper, a 54-year-old black woman standing in line to register to vote, that ended with Clark's deputies holding her down while Clark beat her with a billy club. Clark and his deputies used cattle prods on black youths at a civil rights demonstration to force them to march until some collapsed or vomited from exhaustion. Claiming that any attempt to gain voting rights by African Americans was part of a plan for "black supremacy," Clark wore a small button reading "Never" as a symbol of his opposition to black civil rights. He also filled his “Special Posse” with members of the KKK and National States Rights Party]  ]


Richard Randolph Hodge was a member of the JBS and the rightwing paramilitary group, Minutemen.  He was brought to the attention of the Secret Service on 07/30/63 because he had purchased 11 Browning light assault rifles and 4000 rounds of ammunition and he had made comments regarding the Communist takeover of the United States during the Administration of President John F. Kennedy.


JBS member William N. Ohly was brought to the attention of the Secret Service because he had written “abusive letters to the President” on 07/19/63 and again in July 1966.


Three JBS members [James F. Rea (Rolling Hills Estates CA) and Jacob M. Sacks (Palos Verde Peninsula CA) and Robert Cadle (Torrance CA) ] were arrested and charged with disturbing the peace in Torrance CA for shouting at and heckling speakers at a civil rights meeting on August 17, 1963.  All three pleaded guilty and they received a 10-day suspended sentence, plus a $225 fine, and 3 years’ probation.

See:  11/08/63, Los Angeles CA Times, “3 Birchers Sentenced—Get Tongue Lashing”; 10/31/63 Palos Verdes CA Peninsula News, “Peninsula Birch Members Admit Disturbing Peace” and 11/09/63 San Bernardino CA Daily Sun, pB-7 = “Judge Terms Three Birch Officers Adult Delinquents”.

Mr. Rea was a JBS Section Leader, supervising several JBS chapters.  During the 1980’s, Mr. Rea served as a “World Organizer” for the racist and anti-Semitic Aryan Nations and he was a regular contributor to the Aryan Nation’s newsletter, “Calling Our Nation”.  See:


In a 1982 article, Mr. Rea praised the Ku Klux Klan:


“The Ku Klux Klan has had in its ranks some of the finest patriots ever produced in America. The examples such as Gutzon Borglum should serve as evidence to disprove Jewish lies and distortions about this great organization and its members. Vitriolic hatred and smears put out by the Jewish-liberal press continually are attempts to destroy patriotism and nationalism.”


In an August 4, 1963 speech before the Fifth Annual National Convention of the Christian Crusade in Oklahoma City, (which, incidentally, was also attended by JBS founder Robert Welch) JBS member Edwin A. Walker declared that the Communists were behind "all racial disorder, all racial riots..." and he then added: "The best thing for niggers for their own good, is to be separated." [Chris Cravens, “Edwin A. Walker and the Right-Wing in Dallas, 1960-1966”, page 137, Master’s Thesis, Southwest Texas State University, 1991 which quotes the Managing Editor of Oklahoma Courier, a Catholic newspaper. The Courier journalist attended the Hargis Convention meeting.]

NoteWalker was the featured speaker at DOZENS of white supremacist events during the 1960's -- but this never bothered the JBS and in fact, the Public Relations Director of the JBS (John Rousselot) presented Edwin Walker with a plaque in 1963 which described Walker as our "greatest living American". [Los Angeles Times, 4/4/63, p36]


JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) traveled to Massachusetts to attend two events.  The first was on Saturday, August 17th at the home of Countess Rosalind Wood Guardabassi. The Countess was a prominent financial contributor to such bigots as Gerald L.K. Smith and the National States Rights Party. 

The second meeting was in Dedham MA on Sunday, August 18th at the home of JBS members Dr. and Mrs. Harold McKinney.

250 JBS members attended a reception for Walker “who is seeking financial aid for Southern segregationists”  [“Birch Society Hears Plea By General Walker”, 8/19/63, Boston MA Herald, page 22; FBI-Boston 100-32899, serial #278].

Robert A. Surrey (an aide to Walker and his business partner) served as a spokesperson for Walker during his trip.  Surrey (and his wife Mary) were both JBS members and they both were officers in the Dallas chapter of the American Nazi Party.


JBS member and Section Leader George Joseph King Jr. (Long Beach, California) was arrested for selling machine guns in August 1963. King was overheard discussing plans with other men to assassinate President John F. Kennedy. A Secret Service report CO2-26104 #6419, stated "King is extreme right wing, hates Jews, was arrested by ATF O'Neil for illegal possession of firearms. Emotionally unstable. Arrested 2-29-68 again.”

King was also a member of racist groups such as National Socialist White People’s Party, National States’ Rights Party, the American Nazi Party, and Wesley Swift’s Christian Defense League. He also belonged to William P. Gale’s California Rangers. [FBI-HQ 89-43,serial #472, 11/22/63 SAC Los Angeles to SAC Dallas.]


JBS member Rev. Ferrell Griswold (Birmingham AL) was also a paid speaker for the Birch Society. His speeches were almost entirely about what he claimed was Communist domination  and control of our civil rights movement.  He also served as a speech writer for the pro-segregation Alabama Governor, George C. Wallace.

In September 1963, Griswold sent a request to the FBI for 500 copies of an FBI publication entitled “Communism and the College Student”.  A notation on the file copy of the FBI’s reply to Griswold states that:

Griswold was interviewed by Agents of the Birmingham office on 09-26-63.  During that interview he advised he was a member of the local JBS and attends meetings of that group regularly…Rev. Griswold stated he is a segregationist and is frequently invited to speak on the subject of constitutional rights and communism at local meetings of the Klan and other conservative organizations.”  [FBI-HQ 61-7558, serial #1060]


Also in September, Griswold was a speaker at a United Klans of America rally at the National Guard armory in Birmingham AL. Griswold, and UKA Imperial Wizard Robert M. Shelton, and a third speaker (George Fisher) “alleged that the entire civil rights movement …is Communist inspired (and) the leaders of the various Negro groups active in the integration movement are Communists.” [FBI-HQ 157-370-4, serial #106]


JBS member William J. Simmons was the Executive Director of the white supremacist group, Citizens Councils of America.

FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover to Director of Naval Intelligence in Washington DC in FBI’s Association of Citizens Councils of Mississippi file] states that Simmons was “the subject of investigation by this Bureau in 1942” and  “Inquiry revealed Simmons formerly treated as psychopathic case and at that time was disgruntled at governments of U.S. and Britain for their failure to realize his ability as a potential intelligence officer. Investigation discontinued when subject enlisted in U.S. Navy 6-5-42.”]

Simmons was discharged from the Navy as a security risk because of his association with nazi groups in Europe

Interview of Simmons in the Summer 1963 issue of The Yale Political, entitled “A View From The Southcontains the following Q&A:

Pg 8: Q: “To what extent does the position of the Citizens Councils on separation of the races pre-suppose the inferiority of the Negro race?

A: “It presupposes a difference that is very obvious to people who have lived along them all their lives.”

Pg 20: Q: Do you think that the right to vote is a civil right which should be accorded to the Negro?

A: Well, actually, voting is not a right; it’s a privilege which is earned by qualifying under the laws of the state.”

Pg 22:  Simmons was asked to expand on what he meant by “very obvious racial differences”:

Well there are differences in mental performance” which he attributed to inherent biological differences. He also asserted that Negroes have different morals and are promiscuous by nature


JBS member Cora Lacy Fredrickson (Dallas TX) was also a member of the Indignant White Citizens Council and the Friends of (Edwin A.) Walker Group.

On 10/24/63, Ms. Fredrickson’s anti-UN placard hit Adlai Stevenson’s head after his Dallas speech. She was released by the Dallas Police Dept. at Stevenson’s request. She forfeited $25 bond. [See 5/1/64 report by Detective L.D. Stringfellow of the Dallas Police Dept. Criminal Intelligence Section and Dallas TX Morning News, 01/15/64]


The Chief of Police of Denton, Texas contacted the U.S. Secret Service to make a report about a JBS member (not named) who was also a previous member of the Ku Klux Klan in Arkansas along with the racist, anti-Semitic National States Rights Party.  The Police Chief decided to contact the Secret Service because this JBS member declared that he was planning to cause some incident to embarrass President Kennedy during his November visit to Dallas. [Secret Service file CO-2-33,95].  Note:


JBS member Herman Escar Sheffield (Houston TX) acknowledged that he may have made “a joke” about the Birch Society hiring someone to kill President John Kennedy.  [FBI-Dallas 89-43, 12/18/63 report by FBI Special Agent Robert Gemberling, pages 276-277; also in FBI-HQ 62-109060, section 35, serial #2143 and Warren Commission Exhibit #2096]. According to Mrs. M.E. Payne of Houston, Sheffield told her in 1962 that the Birch Society planned “to hire a crackpot to kill the President” [HQ 62-109060, serial #2009, pages 11-12; 11/25/63]


James Milton Parrott (Houston TX) was a member of the John Birch Society and the rightwing paramilitary group, Minutemen.  George H.W. Bush made a report to the Houston TX FBI office which indicated that Parrott had talked about killing President John F. Kennedy.  Previously, in 1961, the Secret Service received information that Parrott had stated that “he would kill President Kennedy if he got near him.”  [Dallas-FBI 89-43 and FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #819, 11/22/63]. “During interview 07-29-66, Parrott gave the appearance of an emotionally, if not mentally, disturbed person.” [FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #4154; 08/01/66]


The FBI received a letter from an African American living in San Antonio TX.  This individual identified himself as an ex-waiter at a club in downtown Dallas.  JBS member Edwin A. Walker was a member of this club. 

This black ex-waiter informed the FBI that “I over hear a plot by Gen. Walker to say we will kill Kennedy if he come to Dallas.” The waiter told the FBI that Walker “caught me” listening to the conversation and Walker then used the n-word and threatened the waiter “and told me to get out Dallas before they put the KKK on me.”  The waiter then mentioned that he was fired and he left Dallas. [FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #996, 11/22/63 letter to Hoover]


JBS member James Watson Lassister (Austin TX) reported to the FBI and then to the Secret Service because he was overheard to say that “someone should shoot the President and Vice-President”.


Louisiana JBS member, Orville Merle Lange Hovland, was brought to the attention of the Secret Service because he made the comment that neither President John Kennedy nor President Lyndon Johnson would finish their terms.


JBS member John W. Johnson (Silsbee TX) quoted by co-worker as stating about murder of President Kennedy: “I am sure glad he got killed.  That S.O.B. would mow us down if he got a chance.” [FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #236 which is SAC San Antonio to FBI Director Hoover, 11/29/63; also see FBI-San Antonio 89-67].


JBS member Jack McConnell (Las Vegas NV) was in Rochester MN for medical exams at the Mayo Clinic. During his time in Minnesota, McConnell told Roy Addington and Jack Jensen (both from Iowa) that “If my doctor tells me I am as sick as I know he is going to tell me, I am going to shoot a Kennedy and I don’t know which one is the worst, Jack or Bob.”  [FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #467, 11/29/63 memo regarding 11/18/63 conversation.]


JBS member Robert R. Walker (Garden Grove CA) told his ex-wife during first week of November 1963 that “President Kennedy should be shot for treason” and Walker also stated that “if he knew he could get away with it, he would shoot President Kennedy himself.” [FBI-HQ 62-109060, serial #559, SAC Los Angeles to FBI Director Hoover, 11/27/63;  Also in FBI-Los Angeles 89-75].


JBS member Mrs. Day Bonderson aka Mrs. J.W. Bonderson (Dallas TX) was a member of her local White Citizens Council. She declared on 12/2/63 that “President Kennedy was a traitor and his death was ‘good riddance “  Copy of FBI memo sent to US Secret Service on 1/27/64.  [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #61].


JBS member, Thurman L. McCormick (St. Louis MO) was a co-founder of Association For Segregation and States’ Rights, Inc. in Missouri.


One Klan organization has been closely associated with the John Birch Society.  The Pine Bluff, Arkansas chapter of the Birch Society is controlled by members of the Association of Arkansas Klans. This chapter has been led by an active member of the Pine Bluffs klavern of this Klan, and most of the male members of the chapter are Klansmen. The program of the John Birch Society is furthered by these Klansmen through their duplicate membership.”  [FBI monograph, “Klan Organizations, Section III, 1958-1964, page 54]


JBS member Horace Harned was in Mississippi State Legislature for 24 years plus he served on the pro-segregation Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission from 1964-1970. Harned also served on the pro-segregation Citizens Councils Executive Committee.

During one interview he commented that: “I was the most informed member of the Sovereignty Commission by virtue of being a Birch Society member.”  In conjunction with Citizens Councils, he helped set up private schools to escape from Supreme Court decisions against public school segregation.  [Jackson MS Clarion-Ledger 2/25/07 audio interview link connected to article on Horace Harned]


JBS section leader James Kernodle (Kansas City, MO) was the incorporator of the Association For Freedom of Choice, Inc. The Executive Director of that Association was JBS member Thurman L. McCormick who declared that “Negroes as a class are naturally inferior just as God made them” and integration activities were “part of the Communist conspiracy.”  Another JBS member in the group was Theodore J. Lyman [See Kansas City Star, 2/26/64 and 4/16/64 and FBI-Kansas City 100-11488, serial #61]


JBS member Marilyn R. Allen (Salt Lake City UT) wrote to JBS headquarters to express her view that only white Christians should have Constitutionally protected rights. [Robert Welch’s personal assistant, D.A. Waite, replied to Allen by letter dated 1/9/64].

In 1946, Marilyn Allen published “God Made Me Free” which was about a Jewish-Communist conspiracy to rule the world.  That same year, she also published “The Jewish Protocols and their Application to Present Times” and “Judaic-Communism versus Christian Americanism

In 1948, Allen published “A Call to Action: We Have Got to Clean House Now” which argued that all Communists whether native-born or foreign-born and whether Jew, gentile, or Negro should be deported from the United States.  That same year she publishedFortify Alaska Quickly or Face Sudden Destruction which warned that Alaska was about to be overrun by Asiatic Russian Jew Communists.  Another pamphlet she published that year was “Zionist War-Mongering in the USA”

In 1962 Allen published “A Parasite’s Paradise” which declared that only a Communist, a Jew, a Negro, an alien or a racketeer could become a big shot in America.  A native white Christian American was a nobody.

In 1963, Allen published “The Knife Cuts Both Ways” which blasted racial integration and the civil rights movement and the “Kosher-Negro anti-Christian, pro-Communist Guv-mint” That same year, Allen also published “Open Letter on the ADL of B’nai B’rith” which claimed that ADL served International Zionist Jewry (aka Synagogue of Satan) as a secret police and spy network intent upon elimination of Christianity.


JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) met with Royal V. Young Sr. at Captain Shreve Hotel in Shreveport LA.  Young was Imperial Dragon of the Original Knights of the KKK.  Dale Forrest Carpenter also spoke to Walker that week. Carpenter was a Klan leader in the Louisiana Ku Klux Klan. [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serials #76-#77, 2/15/64]


JBS member Rev. Ferrell Griswold (Birmingham AL) was a speaker at a United Klans of America banquet at the Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel, in Birmingham AL which met under the name “Alabama Rescue Squad.” 

Other persons attending the event who were speakers included attorney Matt Murphy (whose clients were mostly KKK and National States Rights Party members) and UKA Imperial Wizard Robert M. Shelton. [FBI-HQ 157-370-4, serial #118; 2/9/64 SAC Birmingham teletype to J. Edgar Hoover]. 

A subsequent FBI-Birmingham report (serial #123 dated 2/19/64, pages 7-8), summarizes informant report about Griswold speech:  “He claimed the Negro civil rights movement is completely dominated by Communists.


JBS magazine, American Opinion, described Steve Foote as “an excellent speakeravailable through the JBS American Opinion Speakers Bureau.

In early 1964, the Christian Defense League was incorporated with Steve Foote as its Western Regional Director. CDL was a white supremacist organization whose membership pledge included:  I believe that Jesus is the Christ; I am of the white raceandI will uphold, defend and perpetuate my faith, my race, and my country…”


JBS member Delmar Dennis (Meridian, MS) told his local newspaper that he joined the White Knights of the KKK of Mississippi in March 1964, less than one month after it was organized.  He served as its Chaplain and as Province Titan. Dennis declared during his newspaper interview: “I am definitely a segregationist…”  [Carthage MS Carthaginian, 12/14/67, p1].


JBS member Thurman L. McCormick (Kansas City MO) helped found the Association for Segregation and States’ Rights, Inc.

The April 16, 1964 Kansas City Star quotes McCormick as stating: “Negroes as a class are naturally inferior just as God made them” and any attempts toward integration were “part of the Communist conspiracy.”


Countess Rosalind Wood Guardabassi (Prides Crossing MA and Palm Beach FL), raised funds for JBS member Edwin A. Walker in May 1964. 

The Countess was a financial contributor to Gerald L.K. Smith’s Christian National Crusade (she contributed over $10,000) and she  also contributed to Pedro del Valle’s Defenders of the American Constitution. She supported Gov. George Wallace for President and contributed $10,000 to his campaign.  She also gave financial support to the National States Rights Party. [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #94 and Boston MA Herald, 7/4/65, p6]


JBS member and JBS chapter leader Robert E. Hatfield (Dallas TX) went on trial in May 1964 for spitting on UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson after his October 24, 1963 UN Day speech in Dallas.  Hatfield was fined $200.  Hatfield subsequently resigned from the JBS but in his letter to Robert Welch, Hatfield referred to a “Jewish-UN campaign to put me behind bars”. Hatfield was also a member of the racist “Indignant White Citizens Council” in Dallas.


Joseph McDowell Mitchell became the Mid-Atlantic Field Representative for the pro-segregation Citizens Councils of America covering Virginia, Maryland and Washington DC.  In July 1963, he resigned as City Manager of Newburgh NY to accept a Coordinator position with the John Birch Society which he subsequently turned down.  In 1964, Mitchell supported Gov. George Wallace for President and he appeared on a Citizens Council Forum program (weekly radio and TV broadcast) to discuss the Wallace campaign in Maryland.

During his time as a White Citizens Council field organizer, Mitchell declared that “our philosophy is the same as that of the John Birch Society, but the Birch Society refuses to deal with the race issue.”. [Norman Kilpatrick, “Council Divided Over Birch Society”, 1965, Southern Regional Council paper.]


American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell commented about JBS:

The Birch Society is sort of a kindergarten for the Nazi Party. In the last year we have taken over a majority of Birchers in three cities.”  [Seattle WA Post-Intelligencer, 6/1/64]


Former JBS member and Coordinator Kent H. Steffgen became the California Field Organizer for the pro-segregation Citizens Councils of America. He organized the Greater Los Angeles Citizens Council in Pasadena on June 30, 1964 and he led the organizational meeting for the Alameda County (California) Citizens Council on 10/26/64 in Oakland CA.  [FBI-HQ file 105-34237-47, serial #2X2 which is 10/27/64 SAC San Francisco to Hoover. Original copy is in FBI-San Francisco 157-381. Also see: The Citizen, June 1964, p 8, “Citizens Councils Expand Activities in California!”]

Steffgen joined the JBS staff after graduating from University of California-Berkeley. He served as a Coordinator for the Los Angeles area and, subsequently, as JBS Coordinator for Missouri, Kansas, And Nebraska.  His 1966 book, “The Bondage of the Free” was recommended and sold by the Birch Society’s American Opinion bookstore chain. [See Los Angeles Times articles published June 25, 1964 and June 30, 1964]

Another JBS member (and JBS organizer) Clyde G. Reynolds, an insurance broker from San Marino CA, was President of the Los Angeles Citizens Council


JBS member Mrs. George R. Klenck (Ontario CA) was also member of the anti-semitic Christian Defense League. In August 1964, the CDL distributed a “Christian Buyers Guide” as a method to encourage boycotting all but white Christian merchants.


A JBS member in Dallas TX told a reporter for the Dallas Morning News that she was planning to attend an American Nazi Party function in Dallas on 9/30/64.  She was associated with other Dallas-area JBS members including Joe Grinnan, Edwin Walker, and Robert Surrey.  [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #142].


JBS member and Section Leader John H. Sutherland (St. Louis MO) created the St. Louis MO Area White Citizens Council.


JBS member Floyd G. Kitchen (Maplewood MO) was Secretary of the St. Louis MO White Citizens Council.  He also headed the St. Louis Property Association whose organizational meeting was addressed by J.B. Stoner and Allen O. Kern who represented the anti-semitic and racist National States Rights Party.  Stoner was a former Klan organizer and Hitler admirer.  Floyd Kitchen became Missouri state chairman for the American Independent Party when it endorsed the 1968 Presidential candidacy of George Wallace. He also was a Missouri elector for Wallace.


The FBI Special Agent in Charge of the Little Rock AR field office sent a 7-page memo dated 10/13/64 to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. This memo discussed three klaverns of the Association of Arkansas Klans in Little Rock, Texarkana and Pine Bluff.  The Pine Bluff klavern had a membership of 20-25 persons and it met once a week in different business locations.

Page 4 of this memo reports that:

Members of the klavern were responsible for forming a John Birch Society chapter in Pine Bluff, and a klavern member is leader of this chapter.  Approximately eight to ten people attend the monthly meetings of the John Birch Society chapter; of the men who attend, all are klavern members with the exception of one man. Members of the klavern completely control and dominate the John Birch Society chapter in Pine Bluff. They, however, only conduct John Birch Society business. Likewise, the members of the klavern further the John Birch Society program through the klavern.”


JBS member Bob Gill aka Robert E. Gill (San Francisco CA) was an organizer of the San Francisco chapter of White Citizens Council [FBI-HQ 105-34237-47, serial #2X1; 10/26/64 SAC San Francisco to J. Edgar Hoover.]


JBS member, Maj. General Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) was the main speaker at an event sponsored by the Americans for the Preservation of the White Race at Whitworth College in Brookhaven MS. 


JBS members Kent and Phoebe Courtney (New Orleans, LA) are quoted in New York Times article about the 1964 Presidential election results:

Mrs. Kent Courtney, editor of The Independent American said at her office in a converted frame house in New Orleans, ‘We’ve got niggers living in the next block to us and that’s all right but we’re against the civil rights bill because it destroys private property rights and freedom of choice.’ ”   Kent Courtney “predicted a new flood of support for the radical right, as well as for the segregationist Citizens Councils, if the equal job opportunities section of the law is enforced.”  [Donald Janson, “Rightists Buoyed by the Election: Open New Drives”, New York Times, 11/23/64, page 1]


The FBI received a letter from a self-identified New Hampshire JBS chapter leader which inquired about the status of FBI Assistant Director William Sullivan who was scheduled to speak in New Hampshire.

The file copy of the reply sent to this JBS member has the following notation:

Bufiles reflect that in 1963 correspondent’s name appeared on the mailing list of the Council For Statehood, an organization to eliminate by force, if necessary, all Jewish people in Government and business positions and to eliminate all Jewish people who are Communists.” [FBI-HQ 62-104401, serial #2404, 12/21/64 incoming letter from JBS chapter leader in New Hampshire and FB reply].


JBS member Mary M. Davison (West Palm Beach FL) characterized by FBI as:

“She has been active in Klan-type and racial organizations and secretly is in sympathy with the American Nazi Party.” [FBI-HQ 157-758, serial #77]

Davison was the leader of Council For Statehood which was founded as result of 12/4/62 meeting in West Palm Beach FL by a group calling themselves “Freemen”. A subsequent meeting on 12/11/62 changed the group name to Council For Statehood.  The general purpose of the organization “is to eliminate, by force if necessary, all Jewish people who hold high positions in business and Government and eliminate all Jews who are communists.” [FBI-HQ file 157-1232, serial #3, 1/7/64 memo from SAC Miami to J. Edgar Hoover, page 3.]


The Special Agent in Charge of the Little Rock FBI field office contacted HQ to report that the leader of the KKK chapter in Pine Bluff, Billy R. Von Tungelin was also a JBS member and, “is one of the most avid KKK members in Pine Bluff. Bill is more interested in the KKK and using the John Birch Society for the benefit of the KKK. As a result, most of the men in the Pine Bluff chapter of the JBS are KKK members and the KKK members completely operate the JBS chapter.” [FBI-HQ file 157-9-25, serial #17, 12/18/64]


JBS member David Syme (New York) organized the first chapter of the pro-segregation White Citizens Council in New York state.  Syme joined other New York JBS members Jack Ross (JBS section leader) and Gerard F. Greene Jr. in supporting the campaign of segregationist Alabama Governor George Wallace for President.  All three were also electors for Wallace.


When American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell was in Dallas in November 1964, Edwin Walker reportedly made available to him, to act as Rockwell’s secretary while he was in town, Beth [Anderson] Rachal who does volunteer work for Walker.” Rachal was a member of the White Citizens Council. [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #165]. 


An FBI informant reported on a United Klans of America klavern meeting on 1/18/65 in Durham NC.  The report discusses plans by the local UKA to begin a recruitment drive. According to the report:  “It was also reported that four representatives of the (name deleted) Klavern had been to a meeting of a John Birch Society group…It had been previously announced to the Klan that there were some members of the Birch Society that were interested in combining with the Klan.” The JBS members rejected joining the Klan because of the “bad reputation” of the Klan. [FBI-Charlotte 100-9548, serial #134]


FBI report about 01/20/65 United Klans of America meeting in Durham NC stated that:

Four representatives of the Klavern had been to a meeting of a John Birch Society group…It had been previously announced to the Klan that there were some members of the Birch Society that were interested in combining with the Klan.”  [FBI-Charlotte 100-9548, serial #134].


JBS member Mary Dawson Cain (Summit MS) was editor/publisher of the pro-segregation Mississippi weekly newspaper, The Summit Sun. Cain endorsed the Christian Conservative Leadership Council in Jackson MS which was organized to spread its segregationist coalition movement throughout the state…” (Hattiesburg MS American, 2/27/65, p14).  When Cain ran for Governor of Mississippi, she observed:  "There’s not a candidate in this race who is not an ardent proponent of the theory of segregation.  It is not an issue.”

In 1956, Mary Cain joined the Mississippians For States Rights founded by Judge M.M. McGowan. This group was a re-birth of the 1948 Dixiecrat movement. The Chairman of this new group was W.B. Fontaine of Jackson MS. Fontaine explained the organizing principle of this new group: There is no such thing as an acceptable civil rights program. Civil rights laws are foreign to the concept of English law, the basis for our government, and are connected with socialism.” Cain associated herself with this principle, and she observed:  “There is nothing for us in either party; nothing to lose but our chains; and nothing to gain but our self-respect.” [Laurel MS Leader-Call, 5/31/56, p1 and 7; “States Rights Group Sets Up Organization].


JBS member and JBS Bookstore operator, Grover L. Bertram (Baltimore MD) was a member of the pro-segregation Maryland Petition Committee. MPC’s President (Herbert Mertz) declared that:  “Those who work for integration, work with Communism”.

In July 1965, Mr. Bertram described Martin Luther King Jr’s leadership of the March 1965 voting rights campaign in Selma AL as King “leading an army of degenerate trash” and King (according to Bircher Bertram) was driving all Americans “straight into the horror of Communist hell on earth.”  [Baltimore MD Evening Sun, 7/30/65, pB-1]

South Carolina Congressman, L. Mendel Rivers, was an ardent segregationist and he was a featured speaker at MPC events.  During one of his speeches he observed that:

No white child should be forced to sit beside a colored child in school…NAACP is loaded with Communists.”

Rivers voted against every civil rights bill, and he signed the Southern Manifesto in 1956 to express his opposition to racial integration of public places. Rivers attempted to have Charleston SC federal judge Waities Waring impeached because Waring ruled that blacks had to be allowed to vote in the Democratic primary and segregated schools were unconstitutional.

Not surprisingly, Cong. Rivers endorsed the Birch Society.


Mr. Bertram’s description of civil rights workers as “degenerate trash” is a common trope used by racists to describe all their perceived opponents. For example, Rev. Ferrell Griswold, a paid JBS speaker and an aide to Gov. George Wallace of Alabama, referred to civil rights workers as “filth from north septic tanks” during one of his speeches. Griswold also told a racist joke during his December 1, 1965 Glen Burnie MD speech and he described the 1965 voting rights bill as “the product of a Communist plot”. [Baltimore MD Sun, 12/2/65, p. C5, “Birchites Hear Aide to Wallace and Baltimore MD Sun, 1/5/66, p. C8].  See other references to Griswold in this chart.


JBS member Noah Sarvis (Miami FL) was President of the Florida Conservative Club which he described as an organization composed of members of the John Birch Society. On March 10, 1965, Sarvis arranged for Richard Cotten to give a speech in Miami to his Club. Cotten frequently was the featured speaker at events sponsored by racist and anti-semitic organizations.  On 02/25/65, JBS founder Robert Welch sent a memo to all JBS Coordinators, JBS Section Leaders and JBS Chapter Leaders advising them to avoid publicizing or promoting Cotten because of Cotten’s extremist viewpoints and his association with highly suspect groups such as rightwing paramilitary group Minutemen and anti-semitic group, Paul Revere Associated Yeomen (New Orleans).  [See: FBI-Los Angeles 157-1132, serial #11, 3/8/65 and FBI-Miami 157-1268 on Richard Cotten and Minutemen; Also see: Los Angeles CA Times, 5/18/65, page A6 – Column by Paul Coates on Richard Cotten].


JBS member Mary Dawson Cain (Summit MS) arranged for former JBS member Richard Cotten to speak under the sponsorship of Cain’s organization, Women For Constitutional Government (WCG) along with the pro-segregation Forrest County (MS) Citizens Councils. Cain was President of the WCG. (Hattiesburg MS American, 3/13/65, p9). 

Cotten was a virulent anti-semite and racist. The FBI’s Los Angeles and Miami field offices described Cotten as “very anti-Negro and anti-semitic” and they described his publication, “Conservative Viewpoint as a hate newspaper”.  [FBI-Los Angeles 157-1132, serials #27, #41 and #45].


JBS member Rev. Delmar Dennis (Meridian MS) used his home for United Klan of America obligation ceremonies. On July 28, 1965, Dennis accepted a position within the UKA as its Exalted Cyclops. 

The FBI Special Agent in Charge of the Jackson MS field office wrote in a summary memo about Dennis that he was “widely known in rural Mississippi as an ardent segregationist...He founded the First Southern Methodist Church in Mississippi, which church was founded for the sole intent of maintaining racial segregation."

Dennis was also:

• Chairman, Citizens Council Lauderdale County MS

• Chairman, Citizens Council of Meridian and Chairman of its Public Affairs Committee

• On Board of Directors, White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund (a Ku Klux Klan fundraising group)


JBS member and Coordinator Medford Evans was an organizer of the pro-segregation Tri-State Citizens Council of Texarkana AR and “Dr. Evans talked of the success of the Citizens Council in Alabama in thwarting the efforts of Martin Luther King in registering Negro voters.”  Evans “said the bodies of the three civil rights workers found near Philadelphia MS could have been planted there by the U.S. Government.” [FBI-HQ 105-34237-25, serial #45 3/1/65 SAC Little Rock to Hoover re: Tri-State Citizens Council of Texarkana AR]


JBS founder Robert Welch described JBS National Council member Revilo P. Oliver as “an authentic genius of the first water, and quite possibly the world’s greatest living scholar.”  [JBS magazine, American Opinion, 03/65].

Oliver also served as the primary author for the Birch Society’s annual August “Scoreboard” issue of American Opinion which estimated the degree of “Communist influence and control” in almost all countries of the world.

When Oliver ultimately resigned from the JBS in July 1966 because of remarks which most observers interpreted as anti-semitic, Welch expressed his regret: "...we have accepted his resignation from the Council with a considerable and natural reluctance. For he is an earnest anti-communist, as well as one of the world’s greatest scholars in the fields of classical languages and literature.”  An "earnest anti-communist"?

By contrast, consider this evaluation of Revilo Oliver which was made by former FBI informant Herbert Philbrick (of I Led Three Lives fame), based upon Philbrick’s contacts with Oliver in 1959 and 1960.

A 1961 FBI HQ memo concerned Oliver's claim that he relied upon information provided to him by Philbrick which Oliver included in an article he wrote for American Opinion magazine in 1959 and Oliver also included in his speeches which discussed alleged communist infiltration of the Dept of Health, Education and Welfare:

"Herbert A. Philbrick...advised this date he has met Dr. Revilo P. Oliver on two occasions at Urbana IL in late 1959 or early 1960 when Philbrick delivered lectures there. Oliver has written Philbrick on one or two occasions. Philbrick stated he has never given Dr. Oliver any information concerning Communist infiltration of DHEW, stating he knows no one in this Department and has had no information concerning Communist Party activity in the U.S. Government since at least 1944. Philbrick approximately one half year ago heard statements attributed to him that DHEW was infiltrated with CP members...He denied emphatically that he ever made such statements orally or in writing. He considers Dr. Oliver to be an extremist in anti-Communist feelings and violently anti-Semitic."

How was it possible for Philbrick to determine in 1959-1960 that Oliver was "violently anti-semitic" but it was not possible for Mr. Welch to recognize Oliver's racism and anti-semitism until 1966?

As Oliver correctly pointed out to JBS National Council members in a letter he wrote concerning the 1966 speech which resulted in his resignation from the JBS:

There was no significant statement in that speech that I had not made, months or years before, in the pages of American Opinion, without eliciting the slightest objection or adverse criticism from Mr. Welch.”

The November 1964 issue of the JBS magazine American Opinion featured an article by Oliver which declared that different races were not equal and the U.S. Government was “engaged in an insane, but terribly effective, effort to destroy the American people and Western Civilization by subsidizing, both at home and abroad, the breeding of the intellectually, physically and morally unfit.”


FBI reported that the Charlotte NC Police Dept arrested a JBS member who had two rifles, two shotguns, and one pistol in his car along with flammable material for fire bombs. This Bircher had threatened “to kill all the Communists”


A May 1965 FBI memo observed that the “White Citizens Council held a meeting in Huntsville, Alabama on 4/26/65 with selected members of the John Birch Society.” [FBI-HQ 105-34237, serial #25; also in FBI-Birmingham 105-241]


Robert Welch frequently recommended Alan Stang's 1965 JBS-published book entitled, It's Very Simple: The True Story of Civil Rights:

"This book, because of its thoroughness, its comprehensive coverage of the whole 'civil rights' story, and its meticulous documentation, is the best single searchlight we have for exposing the 'civil rights' fraud." [Robert Welch, JBS Bulletin, May 1966]

According to Alan Stang, the “civil rights movement was not only planned by the Communists, but was begun, is staffed, and is conducted by the Communists—and has only one real purpose: the destruction and communization of America.”

In May 1965, the Special Agent in Charge of the Boston FBI Field Office forwarded proof sheets of the Stang book to FBI Headquarters, two months before its scheduled publication. An evaluation of the book was prepared for Assistant Director W.C. Sullivan by F.J. Baumgardner.

The concluding "Observations" paragraph states:

"The details of the book do not support the strong conclusions reached by the author. We have had available to us all the material which Stang has plus considerable additional data from our investigations and we could not arrive at such conclusions. The impression is received that Stang may have well started with his conclusions and then developed the information and manner of presentation which he hoped would prove his point. This work must be viewed in the light of the author's apparent close connections with Robert Welch and the John Birch Society."  [FBI-HQ 100-106670, serial #1412, May 28, 1965, and FBI-HQ 100-106670, serial #1525, June 24, 1965, both F.J. Baumgardner to W.C. Sullivan].


JBS founder Robert Welch was one of the featured speakers at the Congress of Conservatives convention at the Sheraton Hotel in Chicago IL.  During his speech, Welch again declared that the aim of the civil rights movement is a ‘separate Negro Soviet Republic to be carved right out of the United States.’” [FBI-Milwaukee 100-13570, #61; Milwaukee WI Sentinel, 5/1/65, p1 = “Welch Says Nation is Run By the Insane].  See “Note #2” in entry for 09-65 for details regarding Welch’s falsehood re: Negro Soviet Republic.


Robert Welch cited as a reliable source of information, “the long and prophetically accurate December 1956 Special Report of the American Flag Committee.” 

That Special Report supposedly predicted that the year 1965 was the year targeted by Communists for agitation for Negro voting rights. Welch devoted 5 pages of the JBS Bulletin to this Report.

The American Flag Committee was organized in August 1950 and run by W. Henry MacFarland Jr. of Philadelphia PA. 

In July 1955, J. Edgar Hoover sent a memo to the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI’s Philadelphia field office which described the American Flag Committee: “The AFC is an anti-semitic hate group.”  [FBI-HQ 105-11214, serial #77, 7/29/55].

MacFarland toured the country with Gerald L.K. Smith. He was a featured speaker at Smith’s Christian Nationalist Crusade Convention in August 1948.

MacFarland was also a speaker at events sponsored by the National Blue Star Mothers of America (cited as subversive by the U.S. Attorney General).

MacFarland also cooperated with Conde McGinley’s anti-semitic New Jersey newspaper, Common Sense as well as working with the neo-fascist National Renaissance Party run by James Madole of New York. 

Two of MacFarland’s previous organizations (Nationalist Action League and Committee for Nationalist Action) were included on the U.S. Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations.  MacFarland’s bi-monthly publication, National Progress, merged in June 1949 with McGinley’s “Common Sense”.

One FBI report pointed out that:

Bufiles reveal that Conde McGinley is a prolific writer of hate-type literature principally on anti-Semitic and anti-Negro nature. He is known to be most cooperative with the Nationalist Action League which has been cited by the Department of Justice as a Fascist organization.” [FBI-HQ 105-9621, serial #574; 10/2/62 M.A. Jones memo to C.D. DeLoach).

A report by the Philadelphia field office of the FBI quoted MacFarland stating that the U.S. “should ultimately be made a white Christian nation” because “our increasingly heterogenous society is approaching the fate of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire where the confused medley of nationalities produced nothing but chaos.” [FBI-HQ 105-7857, serial #9, page 2; 3/15/50 Philadelphia FBI report].


JBS writer James P. Lucier’s employment history includes working for two segregationists (1) South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond and (2) the editor of the Richmond VA News-Leader, James J. Kilpatrick.  In an article which Lucier wrote for the JBS magazine (American Opinion), he observed that:

The vote is being pushed into Negro hands which, in some areas, have every reason from ignorance to avarice, to destroy the Republic”. Lucier also rejected the idea that “American ideals” included “the notion of racial or social equality” because “the best system is undemocratic voting”.  Constitutional amendments which enfranchised former slaves and prohibited poll taxes, Lucier opined, “run counter to the spirit of the body of the document and to the Bill of Rights”. [James P. Lucier, American Opinion, 06/65, pages 17-30 in his article entitled “Civil Rites: Who Should Vote?”]

From 1963 to 1966, Lucier wrote 14 articles for American Opinion. In 1963, he warned about the spread of socialism among the “cannibals and savages of newly independent African nations.” The reason they were becoming socialist according to Lucier, was because it “was easy to convince cannibals and savages that socialism will supply abundance without necessitating the earning of it.”

Lucier also commented that black African leaders had “learned to grasp only the concept that one eats one’s enemies.”

See 1966-00 entry for additional JBS reference to “savages in newly independent African nations. This type of racially bigoted rhetoric is another reason why bigoted whites gravitated toward the JBS.


JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) was the featured speaker at a Klan meeting at Scott’s Restaurant in Bivins TX, across the Texas state line from Ida, LA.  Gen. Edwin Walker is to be the guest speaker at 3pm. In attendance at this meeting will be the head of each Klavern and his assistant in the state of Louisiana, east Texas, and Arkansas.” [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #204]


The June 1965 issue of Gerald L.K. Smith’s racist and anti-semitic newspaper, The Cross and the Flag” declared:

Attention John Birch Society members: Remain loyal to your local John Birch Society, and even though the John Birch Society may not deal with all the issues in which you are interested, they are doing much good and most of the leaders understand the Jewish question even though they do not discuss it in their meetings.”


JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) gave a June 1965 speech to the American Conservative Club in Harrisburg PA. Walker declared that:  “I think I can match three good Americans in the KKK for every one in the Americans For Democratic Action or the Anti-Defamation League.”


JBS member, Kent Courtney (New Orleans LA) was the featured speaker at a 6/5/65 “Conservative Rally” in Natchez MS sponsored by Americans for the Preservation of the White Race, Inc.


JBS speaker Sheriff Jim Clark (Selma AL) was the principal speaker at the pro-segregation Manatee FL Citizens Council meeting on June 24, 1965. [FBI-HQ 105-34237, serial #477, SAC Tampa to Hoover on 7/13/65].


In 1965, the California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities updated its 1963 Report on the John Birch Society. 

"According to reliable sources, we would estimate that the Society has grown so rapidly that it has attracted a lunatic fringe that is now assuming serious proportions. We find very little anti-Negro sentiment among the members, but we do find a growing incidence of anti-Semitism, although the Society as a whole is far from anti-Semitic."  [California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, 13th Report, June 18, 1965, page 174; Also see: Los Angeles Times, “John Birch Society Hit In New Study”, 06/20/65, page B-1]

Obviously, there cannot be a "dangerous increase" or a "growing incidence" of something unless it previously existed and was noticed.


JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) spoke at a rally in Baton Rouge LA sponsored by “United Conservatives” which actually was a front for the racist Citizens Councils of Louisiana (CCL). Other speakers at this event were John Rarick and Ned Touchstone. Touchstone was the editor of the CCL newsletter, The Councilor” FBI files describe Touchstone as a KKK member and a “rabid segregationist.” [FBI-HQ 105-44536, serial #35]. 

“John R. Rarick has been identified by our informants as a Klan member in Louisiana.” [FBI-HQ 56-3970, serial #5, 9/16/66].


The July-August annual “Scoreboard” issue of the JBS magazine (American Opinion) estimated the degree of “Communist influence and control” in all countries in the world. The analysis in this annual issue was written by JBS National Council member Revilo P. Oliver.

This is also the same Revilo Oliver who described “Mississippi, the state which has the largest percentage of Negroes in its population and where relations between the two races were conducted on a sensible basis…”  [American Opinion, July-August 1965, p74]

In the section of the article which discusses the United States, the estimate of Communist influence and control is 60-80% -- which represented an increase from the previous year’s estimate of 50-70%.  One example of such alleged “Communist influence and control” is discussed by Oliver with respect to college campuses:

On most campuses Communist cells, under a dozen names, are multiplying more rapidly than fleas on a dog, and at least one college has begun to give academic credit for rioting.  You have only to drive through any campus to see the zombies—what Mr. Tom Anderson has aptly described as an ‘aggregation of unwashed, zoot-suited, bearded, black and white beatniks, anarchists, and slobs’ together with their females. And if you step into any classroom, the chances are that you can see at work and hear some ‘intellectual’ his congested little mind festering with loathing of our country, our race, and our civilization.”  [American Opinion, July-August 1965, page 71].  An asterisk regarding the “academic credit for rioting” comment refers readers to: “As reported in The Councilor, March 5, 1965.”

The Councilor publication which the JBS cites as a reputable source, was the official publication of the segregationist organization, Citizens Councils of Louisiana, Inc. The Editor of that magazine was Ned O. Touchstone. Touchstone owned and operated several weekly newspapers in Texas and Louisiana. He also was Chairman of “Freedom Bus North” a Shreveport, Louisiana project which provided one-way bus or train tickets for blacks to be sent to northern states. The free transportation was sponsored by the segregationist Louisiana Association of Citizens Councils.

In March 1965, Touchstone declared that the Citizens Councils of Louisiana planned to put up 800 billboards across the U.S. showing Martin Luther King Jr. attending “communist training school” – which is a reference to Highlander Folk School in Monteagle TN. 

In reality, King was at Highlander one time for a one-hour speech and the photo of him at that event was taken by Edwin H. Friend. Friend was the official photographer for the United Klans of America chapter in Georgia. Friend was hired by the Georgia Commission on Education, a state agency whose purpose was to preserve segregated public schools in Georgia.

On November 23, 1965, Touchstone was the keynote speaker at a Knights of the KKK rally in North Biloxi MS. In 1967, when Touchstone ran for State Superintendent of Education in Louisiana his campaign literature pointed out that: “Mr. Touchstone will work with George Wallace and other segregationists for a peaceful return of good will between the races through separate schools.” [Ruston LA Daily Leader, 10/27/67, p3]

In July 1966, J. Edgar Hoover responded to an inquiry about the Citizens Council of Louisiana. A notation on the FBI file copy of its reply describes Ned Touchstone as a member of the KKK and “He is a rabid segregationist who has condemned and tried to embarrass the Federal Government whenever he has the opportunity. ‘The Councilor’ has been printed and distributed by the National States Rights Party.” [FBI-HQ 105-44536, serial #37; 7/27/66 Hoover reply to inquiry in Citizens Councils of LA file). 

The FBI characterization of the National States Rights Party was:  “…the NSRP is composed of past members of klan-type organizations and notorious anti-semites” and its publication, The Thunderbolt, “continues to publish articles attacking Negroes and persons of the Jewish faith.” [Quoted from “Appendix which FBI attached to memos and reports on the NSRP].  A typical Thunderbolt article:  “…racial integration of we White people is a Jewish directed scheme of mongrelize the White race, so that the almighty Jew can sit upon a throne to rule a world populated by a mass of mullato like zombiesWhen we take power, we will remove all Negroes, Jews and Orientals form the United States.”  [4/62 issue]

Incidentally, in 1966 Revilo Oliver resigned from the John Birch Society after he made a speech which most observers (including Robert Welch) considered objectionable.  Welch sent an explanation to all JBS National Council members regarding Oliver’s departure:

“…We do not subscribe at all to Dr. Oliver’s ‘racial superiority’ theories, nor to his views concerning the degeneracy of the human race…Despite our long and growing disagreement with Dr. Oliver over the subject matter of this letter, we have accepted his resignation from the Council with a considerable and natural reluctance.  For he is an earnest anti-communist, as well as one of the world’s greatest scholars in the fields of classical languages and literature.”

Welch had previously described Oliver's writing style as deserving “nothing but praise and hunger for the superb style of a Dr. Revilo Oliver, with his striking understatements and felicitous turns of phrase which so greatly increase the effectiveness of all he writes." [JBS Bulletin, 9/63, page 119]

Perhaps Welch had the following Oliver observation in mind:

Despite the best efforts of Communists in the news services to cover up and confuse, most people have learned a little something of what happened when a horde of termites from all over the country, led by half crazed ministers and professors, swarmed over the small town of Selma, Alabama in typical demonstration of Communist activism (see American Opinion, May 1965, pages 1-10).”  [American Opinion, July-August 1965, page 74.]

After Oliver left the JBS, he felt un-constrained by Welch’s approval of “striking understatements and felicitous turns of phrase” so he decided to write for an overly neo-nazi magazine, Liberty Bell, published by George P. Dietz (a former JBS member)

"My article on Nigger Superiority in the May issue of Liberty Bell was in print before events in Los Angeles gave it an emphatic confirmation.  Niggers naturally loot and destroy when they see a good opportunity...for tribal festivities."  [Liberty Bell magazine, June 1992]

In 1990, Oliver wrote:

“There could be no clearer proof that the Jews’ mystery religion, a spiritual syphilis, has rotted the minds of our race and induced paralysis of our will to live.” [Liberty Bell, 11/90, “A Cringing Lord”]


JBS member Dr. John R. Andrew (Stone Mountain GA) was a JBS chapter leader in Emory GA until he resigned that position in 1965 to run for political office.  However, the Emory chapter still met in his home.  On August 23, 1965, Dr. Andrews was the featured speaker at a United Klans of America rally in Atlanta.


JBS member Mary Dawson Cain (Summit MS) Cain joined Association of Christian Conservatives (ACC) which was organized and led by Elmore Greaves. (Hattiesburg MS American, 8/4/65, p1)

The ACC was a coalition of the leaders from Americans for the Preservation of the White Race, the White Citizens Councils, Women for Constitutional Government, and the John Birch Society. Their purpose was to oppose voting law changes.

Greaves was also a member of Americans for the Preservation of the White Race and the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi and he was a JBS endorser.

In January 1965, Greaves declared:

Although I am not a member of the Ku Klux Klan, I am in sympathy with its philosophy as I understand it. That is, I believe in the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the principle of white supremacy.”  [01/11/65 Jackson MS Daily News, page 2]. 

Greaves lied about his Klan membership and, in fact,  Greaves was the co-founder and State Chairman of the White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund, Inc. (a front group created by the White Knights of the KKK of MS).  It was formed at a White Knights cabinet meeting on 01/31/65 and its purpose was to pay for the defense of 18 persons charged with the 1964 murders of civil rights workers Schwerner, Goodman, and Cheney in Philadelphia MS. Greaves reported to Imperial Wizard Samuel H. Bowers.


JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) spoke at an event at the Henry Grady Hotel in Atlanta.  In answer to a question after his speech, Walker declared:  “There will be a KKK in the USA longer than there will be an LBJ”.


JBS founder and leader Robert Welch gave a speech in Phoenix AZ, during which he declared that:

Racial killings in the South are perpetrated by Communists to warn Negroes not to oppose the civil rights movement, Robert Welch asserted yesterday…and such racial atrocities will continue in order to dramatize a terrific propaganda drive inspired by the Reds in support of a Negro Soviet Republic.” [9/20/65 Phoenix AZ Republic, pA4, “Welch Blames Reds in Killings”; FBI-Phoenix 62-795, serial #133]. Also see 16-page Welch pamphlet “Two Revolutions At Once” published in May 1965.

NOTE #1: 

There is no way to be polite about this. Robert Welch was an exceptionally well-educated man who was born in North Carolina. Nobody but an ignorant fool or a racist could claim that southern racial killings were perpetrated by Communists.

All of the most prominent racial killings in the South were the result of bigoted white supremacists – often at the direction of local Klan leaders and sometimes involving local law enforcement.

One example of this was subsequently confirmed by testimony from Rev. Delmar Dennis, a JBS member who infiltrated the most violent Klan in our nation’s history – the White Knights of the KKK of Mississippi whose Imperial Wizard was Samuel H. Bowers. 

Dennis’s testimony made it possible to convict Byron de la Beckwith for the murder of civil rights leader and NAACP official Medger Evers. Dennis said he heard Beckwith brag about the killing at a 1965 Klan rally near Jackson, MS.


January 1957 = Willie Edwards Jr. (Montgomery AL).  Several Klansmen forced Edwards out of his supermarket delivery truck whereupon he was tortured and then told (at gunpoint) to jump off a bridge over the Alabama River.  His body was discovered three months later.  Nineteen years later, three Klansmen were indicted for the murder.

May 1963 = William Lewis Moore (Attala AL).  The prime suspect in the murder was Floyd L. Simpson.  Bullets that killed Moore were traced to Simpson’s rifle and Simpson’s car was seen in the vicinity of the murder.  Simpson refused to take a polygraph exam or tell investigators his whereabouts at the time of the murder.  Simpson was a member of United Klans of America, Klavern 13 (Ft. Payne AL).  A Grand Jury of 17 white men and 1 black man refused to indict Simpson.

September 1963 = Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robinson, Cynthia Wesley (Birmingham AL)

As a result of the 9/15/63 dynamite bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham AL, these four young black girls were killed. Four United Klans of America members were convicted of their murder: Robert E. Chambliss, Herman Frank Cash, Thomas Edwin Blanton Jr. and Bobby Frank Cherry.

May 1964 = Henry H. Dee and Charles E. Moore (Meadville MS). Two members of the most violent Klan in U.S. history (White Knights of the KKK of Mississippi) abducted Dee and Moore, beat them unconscious and then dumped them into the Mississippi River where they drowned. Klansmen James Ford Seale and Charles Marcus Edwards were arrested for murder.  Edwards provided a signed confession.

June 1964 = James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner (Philadelphia MS)

Klan organizer Edgar Ray Killen was convicted for the 1964 killings -- known as the Mississippi Burning murders.  Also involved with the Neshoba County Sheriff, Cecil Price.

July 1964 = Lt. Col. Lemuel Penn (near Athens GA). A carload of Klansmen opened fire at the car in which Penn and two other Army Reserve officers were returning to Washington DC.  Two Klan members were tried on first-degree murder charges (Cecil William Myers, Joseph Howard Sims).  Later civil rights charges were brought against them along with four other Klansmen.  Myers and Sims were convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

March 1965 = Viola Gregg Liuzzo murdered in Alabama. Four Klan members were arrested and three were convicted of violating her civil rights.

January 1966 = Vernon Dahmer (Hattiesburg MS).  Klan members firebombed Dahmer’s home and grocery store. Dahmer died from injuries he received. Three Klan members were convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.

June 1966 = Ben Chester White (Natchez MS).  James Jones, Claude Fuller and Ernest Avants were members of a faction of the White Knights of the KKK called Cottonmouth Moccasin Gang.  Fuller shot and killed Mr. White, then Avants fired his shotgun into White’s corpse.  Jones admitted his role in this crime.

Members of the extreme right National States Rights Party were often involved in violent incidents including murders of blacks in the south.

For additional info, see: 



For anyone who still doubts the involvement of Klan members in racial violence and murders, check out the following 1967 House Committee on Un-American Activities report (use search terms “violence” and “murder”)


ALSO:  Review the following 1958 FBI training monograph:



With respect to Welch’s “Negro Soviet Republic” argument in 1965, the CPUSA discarded that idea many years earlier. J. Edgar Hoover pointed out in his January 1960 testimony before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee that the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party USA held in New York City on December 10, 1959 had discarded that position:

"The Negro resolution adopted by the convention discarded the party's historic position advocating 'self-determination' meaning that Negroes should be given the right to form a separate nation in the Southern States…The 1959 convention resolution hence represents a party admission that its position concerning Negroes is bankrupt. Time itself has shown that the party is not interested in the welfare of the Negro, but only in using him as a tool to advance party interests." [J. Edgar Hoover: An Analysis of the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party USA; Statement made to Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 1/17/60, page 7; Also see: FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1960 – for same comment.]

Even the KKK newspaper, The Fiery Cross, recognized this change of Communist strategy!

"With the CPUSA steadily declining in open membership, the official doctrine was changed from creating a separate Negro state in the U.S. to one of full integration. (Ben) Davis [National Secretary CPUSA] had argued for this change in order to obtain maximum Negro support. The party line change became official in 1959." [The Fiery Cross, "Communist Exploitation of the U.S. Racial Crisis", August 1964, page 1]

Statements made by Robert Welch and the JBS regarding alleged “Communist” strategy and objectives along with purported “Communist” involvement in violence and murders (particularly in our southern states) conformed to the arguments favored and promoted by most white supremacist organizations in the U.S. – which is precisely why those organizations (and their leadership) considered Welch and the JBS to be their ALLIES in their fight to preserve segregation and Jim Crow laws, customs, and practices.

Welch and the JBS cheerfully advanced the basic predicates and stereotypes of white hate groups who sought to always blame victims of discrimination and bigotry for every problem or controversy which arose.


The method utilized by the JBS to camouflage the racist origins and purposes behind JBS arguments was to hire African-American speakers to spread JBS mythology about our civil rights movement and its leadership. 

The JBS employed a group of African American speakers such as Julia Brown, Lola Belle Holmes, Leonard Patterson, Alvin D. Smith, Rev. E. Freeman Yearling, Rev. Henry Mitchell, Donald L. Jackson, Gerald W. Kirk, and Rev J.L. Ward. 

Most of the time these folks spoke under the auspices of the JBS front-group, Truth About Civil Turmoil (aka TACT).  None of these folks devoted any time during their speeches to discussing the actual discrimination or oppression or harassment which black Americans faced in their everyday lives. Instead, these folks received $100 per speech to dismiss or de-value all such evidence while asserting that our civil rights movement was “a fraud” and everyone working within our civil rights movement was essentially advancing “Communist” objectives.  [See for example advertisement in Lewiston ID Morning Tribune, 3/11/70, p5, “Tonight Hear Charles E. Smith Speaking on the Topic: ‘Civil Rights is a Fraud” [FBI-Butte 62-1672, serial #173] and “TACT To Sponsor Civil Rights Speaker Nov 12” in Fremont County Chronicle News of St. Anthony Idaho, 11/5/70, page 5; FBI-Butte 62-1672, serial #175].

For specific details regarding the total dishonesty of JBS speakers Julia Brown and Lola Belle Holmes – see chapter 6 of my JBS Report here:




JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) was the featured speaker at the Pasco County Fair Grounds in Dade City FL. The event was sponsored by the Pasco County Supporters of Constitutional Government which was described by FBI as sponsored by United Florida Ku Klux Klan and “served as the recruiting ground of the UFKKK in Pasco County. [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #217]


JBS member General Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) meeting with Robert M. Shelton, Imperial Wizard of United Klans of America:

During the week of October 18, Robert M. Shelton, was flown to Shreveport, Louisiana by James L. Frazier Jr. of Tuscaloosa AL in Frazier’s personal airplane. Shelton spent six or seven hours in a hotel room with General Edwin Walker and talked to him about the United Klans of America and various other topics.  Shelton offered General Walker the position of Grand Dragon of the United Klans of America for the State of Texas. Later, General Walker mentioned to someone that he was interested in the Klan position offered by Robert Shelton and that he would contact Shelton.”  [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #222, 10/25/65, page 2]


JBS member, William J. Story, was a candidate for Governor on the Virginia Conservative Party ticket. Story was an Assistant Superintendent of schools in Chesapeake VA.

During an interview on WTOP-TV program “City Side”, Story was described as follows:

Story, an opponent of racial integration, refused to join the two major party candidates for Governor…in denouncing the Ku Klux Klan.  He explained that he had never attended a Klan meeting and added that ‘I don’t know anything about what they’re trying to do.  I do not intend to sit in judgment on the righteousness of the various organizations in Virginia.’ ”   [Washington DC Evening Star, 10/05/65, p C-3, “Story Proud to be in Birch Society”]

In his position as South Norfolk School Superintendent in September 1955, Story proclaimed that he would never let the NAACP have use of “any colored school building in South Norfolk for any purpose or under any circumstances.”  [See: Norfolk Journal and Guide, 9/24/55 article “You’ll Never Use These Schools South Norfolk Tells NAACP”, FBI-Norfolk 105-236, serial #11].  Story permitted use of a white school building for a meeting of the segregationist group, Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties in September and October.


JBS member, Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) met with United Klans of America Imperial Wizard Robert Shelton in Shreveport LA at which time Shelton “offered General Walker the position of Grand Dragon of the UKA for the State of Texas.” [FBI-HQ 157-370-2, serial #345; also: 157-370-4,serials #328, 340X, 341, 377, 383]. “Later General Walker mentioned to someone that he was interested in the Klan position…” [FBI-HQ 157-370-4, serial #341, 11/1/65 SAC Birmingham to J. Edgar Hoover re: United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, page 1.]


JBS member, Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) was the main speaker at the Pasco County (FL) Federation for Constitutional Government – which the FBI described as a front for the United Florida Ku Klux Klan of Dade County FL. [FBI-HQ 116-165494, serial #109]


Eugene Tabbutt was the Chief of the United Klans of America “Bureau of Investigation”.

“Tabbutt stated that [in October 1965]...he met in Audubon NJ with 50 leaders from various John Birch Society chapters at their request. Tabbutt stated they asked him about the United Klans of America…Tabbutt stated the Birch leaders told him they were ‘fed up’ with meetings, petitions, and letter writing and wanted action. According to Tabbutt, the Birch leaders promised to furnish 750 Birchers for the UKA. They told Tabbutt they were going to check him with Robert Shelton, Imperial Wizard of the UKA. Tabbutt told those at the meeting on October 16, 1965 that within six months, the UKA will have 10,000 Birchers joining the UKA.”  [FBI-Philadelphia 105-4158, serial #903, 10/22/65 “United Klans of America, Inc. – New York Realm”, pages 2-3]


The October 1965 issue of the JBS magazine “American Opinion contains an article by Robert H. Montgomery entitled “From The North”. This article opens by discussing “successive waves of immigration” which arrived in Boston. Montgomery argues that the former European migrants (Irish, Jews, Italians, etc.) “did not expect welfare handouts” and were willing to work hard and accept responsibility for their destiny.

Montgomery then uses language (and adopts arguments) which are identical to what can be found in overtly racist publications.

Now we are experiencing something new.  We have an influx of newcomers (let us call them Savages to distinguish them from the great majority of respectable and respected Negroes) who do not intend to take care of themselves but intend that we shall take care of them.  Arrogantly they hamstring our police and tell us how to manage our schools and what special privileges they should enjoy because of their color.  Our initial mistake was to establish an insane welfare program which subsidizes idleness and sexual immorality. This had great appeal to the lowest sort of Negroes who heard about it in the South. One could be idle and breed illegitimate children there too, but in the South one could not make of it a lucrative occupation. So Savages came North.”   [Robert Montgomery, “From the North”, American Opinion magazine, October 1965, pages 69-70].  See other listings in this chronology where JBS members use the term “savages to describe African-Americans.


Eugene Tabbutt was the Chief of the United Klans of America “Bureau of Investigation”. 

During an October 1965 Klan meeting in New Jersey:

“It was observed at this meeting that a check in the amount of $7500 from some members of the John Birch Society of New Jersey was given to the Klan as an indication of their desire for membership in the Klan and their denouncement and proposed renunciation of the John Birch Society of New Jersey.”  [FBI-Philadelphia 105-4158,serial  #1055, page 3, 12/2/65 LHM by Buffalo NY FBI office captioned “United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan”. Same info in FBI- Philadelphia 105-4158, serial #942, 11/3/65 Buffalo LHM re: “Ku Klux Klan, New York State”, page 3]


Ralph E. Pryor Jr. was the Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan in Delaware.  He observed that:

Birch Society members make good Klansmen. They’re coming in in droves in this area. I predict the Klan will replace the Birchers in 4 years at least in the Hartford-Cecil area.” [Baltimore MD Evening Sun, 11/19/65, “The Klan and the Birch Society”; FBI-Baltimore 100-22382, serial #111].


Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma AL (a frequent JBS-sponsored speaker via its Truth About Civil Turmoil committees) was the featured speaker at the San Diego White Citizens Council meeting on 11/16/65. Clark described civil rights movement as “immoral and Communist-inspired”.  [FBI-HQ 105-34237-46,serial #7;  Original in FBI-San Diego 157-196.]


JBS member Edwin A. Walker (Dallas TX) made the following comment which was published on page 5 of the November 15, 1965 issue of Conde McGinley’s New Jersey newspaper, Common Sense”.

"I'll bet you will find more good Americans in the Ku Klux Klan than in the Americans For Democratic Action."

The House Committee on Un-American Activities described Conde McGinley’s newspaper as "almost exclusively a vehicle for the exploitation of ignorance, prejudice and fear" and as "a clearinghouse for hate propagandists throughout the country."  [“Preliminary Report on Neo-Fascist and Hate Groups”, 12/17/54, House Committee on Un-American Activities”, pages 10 and 11.] http://debs.indstate.edu/u588n4_1954.pdf

The FBI description: “‘Common Sense’ is a notorious anti-Semitic hate sheet published by the Christian Educational Association.”  AND  “Common Sense depicts Communism as Judaism and devotes its pages almost entirely to attacks on the Jewish and to a lesser extent the Negro minorities in the United States.  Sympathy for the former Nazi Government in Germany is also shown in the paper.” [In the “Appendix” to FBI memos which discuss Christian Educational Association]


JBS member Rev. Delmar Dennis was Chairman of the White Citizens Council in Lauderdale County MS as well as Chairman of the Public Affairs Committee of the White Citizens Council chapter in Meridian MS. In November 1965, Dennis attempted to organize a pro-segregation group in his community, called the Patrick Henry Society.

Dennis also served on the Board of Directors of the White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund which was a Klan front group that was used to raise funds for the defense of Klan members indicted for crimes against civil rights workers.


JBS speaker Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma AL was the principal speaker at St. Louis Metro Area White Citizens Council meeting. This group was originally created by JBS member John H. Sutherland in September 1964.  Sutherland also was a JBS section leader for 3 JBS chapters. Bircher Floyd G. Kitchen was Secretary. [FBI-HQ 105-34237-42, serial #7, 11/17/65 SAC St. Louis to J. Edgar Hoover, originally in FBI-St. Louis 157-582].


Sheriff James G. Clark of Selma AL was a prominent segregationist who was a frequent speaker under the auspices of the Birch Society’s Speakers Bureau.  He often spoke at meetings of the JBS front group TACT (Truth About Civil Turmoil).  In November 1965, Robert Welch invited Clark to be a featured speaker at a JBS National Council dinner on December 4, 1965.

In response to a voting rights drive in Dallas County AL, Sheriff Clark recruited Ku Klux Klan members and Klan sympathizers who then joined with Alabama Highway Patrolmen to assault and threaten civil rights workers.


An FBI informant reported on the weekly meeting of the Durham NC klavern of United Klans of America at the Lucky Diamond Club.

Prior to the meeting of the Durham Klavern a representative indicating he represented the John Birch Society, driving an out-of-state station wagon, possibly from Maine, talked to some of the Klansmen as they arrived at the meeting place.  This representative was recruiting for the JBS.” [FBI-Charlotte 100-9548, serial #159]


JBS founder Robert Welch made the following comments about the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith in the December 1965 JBS Bulletin:

Let’s suppose you happen to believe, for instance, that the Anti-Defamation League, always under the guise of protecting the Jews from anti-Semitism--and certainly with that intention on the part of many of its leaders—has actually done more to cause and promote anti-Semitism than any other group in America.  Suppose you go even further—as do some of my Jewish friends—and suppose that ADL was originally designed by Communists for that very purpose…then why on earth help them, to carry out this nefarious scheme, by yourself reacting in exactly the way the Communists have planned and wanted?”


In 1966, JBS magazine (American Opinion) had cover portrait and OBIT article on JBS speaker, Professor Charles Callan Tansill.  In 1936 Tansill left American University in Washington DC after defending Hitler. In 1956, he left Georgetown University for expressing anti-black sentiments.


JBS magazine, American Opinion, commented that British protectorate Bechuanaland was “scheduled to become independent in September 1966.  The result, of course, will be what always happens in Africa when the savages are turned loose.”

From CIA World Factbook



Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than five decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa.”


Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in tourism-related services, subsistence farming, and cattle rearing. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,100 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in sub-Saharan Africa.”


JBS member Augereau G. Heinsohn Jr. (Sevierville TN) was a founding member of the JBS.  He served on its National Council starting in January 1960 and he also was a member of the JBS Executive Committee. 

Heinsohn asked Robert Welch to publish his commentary “Free Lunch and Boobus Americanus” and Welch did so.  As can be seen by the following Heinsohn excerpt, as well as from other entries in this chronology, racially bigoted language was not considered unacceptable within the JBS.  Many of the wealthy white southerners who became senior JBS officials routinely presented themselves as the only true victims of racial discrimination:

“Personal freedom is rapidly vanishing in America.  A citizen can no longer enjoy the full fruits of his own labor and be protected in the possession thereof from the mewling bureaucratic thieves who seek to distribute his wealth to spear-toting Bantu three-toed Caribs with thumbs on their feet, assortments of Communist gorillas, and every foreign thug or domestic indolent who comes begging.” [See other entries regarding similar language used by Revilo P. Oliver and James P. Lucier.]


JBS member and Section Leader John H. Sutherland offered Russell G. Byers (St. Louis) $50,000 to murder MLK Jr or to arrange the murder.  [Memphis TN Commercial-Appeal, 3/22/98, “Ray Expected Pay For Killing King, Investigators Conclude”].


Anarchy U.S.A” is a 76-minute 1966 documentary film produced by the John Birch Society.  It claims that the civil rights movement in the United States is part of a Communist conspiracy to encourage a violent revolution which will result in the creation of a separate “Negro Soviet Republic” in the “Black Belt” of the South (a term which the film claims was created by Communists). 

In reality, “black belt” refers to the cotton belt - which “region derives its name from the black soil which is prevalent in contrast to the red clays to the north and south.” [Thomas C. Cochran and Wayne Andrews: Concise Dictionary of American History, Scribner’s, 1962, page 99].  The film implies that “black belt” refers to a new country based upon skin color.

Another distortion in the film pertains to a slogan used by Fidel Castro, i.e. “Venceremos!” which, in Spanish, means “We will win” but the film suggests that the slogan was translated into English by African American Communists and then set to music to become the anthem of our civil rights movement as “We Shall Overcome”.  Actually, this music originated from an 19th century old Baptist hymn entitled “I’ll Be All Right” combined with the text of the 1901 gospel hymn “I’ll Overcome Someday by Methodist preacher Charles Albert Tindley.  [Jon M. Spencer: Protest and Praise—Sacred Music of Black Religion, Fortress Press, 1991, page 84].

The film then connects our civil rights movement to Communist revolutions in Algeria, Cuba, and China and the film claims that the same strategies used to produce Communist regimes in those places were being used in the U.S. –so it’s all part of a sinister conspiracy to create a Negro Soviet Republic.

However, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover testified in 1960 that the Communist Party USA discarded its “Negro Soviet Republic strategy at its 17th National Convention in 1959.

"The Negro resolution adopted by the convention discarded the party's historic position advocating 'self-determination' meaning that Negroes should be given the right to form a separate nation in the Southern States…The 1959 convention resolution hence represents a party admission that its position concerning Negroes is bankrupt. Time itself has shown that the party is not interested in the welfare of the Negro, but only in using him as a tool to advance party interests." [J. Edgar Hoover: An Analysis of the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party USA; Statement made to Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 1/17/60, page 7; Also see: FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1960 – for same comment.]

In addition, the FBI falsified almost every major predicate of JBS ideology concerning our civil rights movement and its leadership.


JBS National Council member Revilo P. Oliver (Urbana IL) was the principal speaker at a banquet for the 11th Annual Leadership Conference of the pro-segregation Citizens Councils of America in Chattanooga TN. Walker was introduced by JBS member Medford Evans. [Chattanooga TN News-Free Press, 1/3/66, p3, Citizens Council Leadership Parley To Hear Dr. Oliver. [FBI- HQ 105-34237, sub 24, serial #39]

JBS founder Robert Welch expressed regret that Oliver left the Birch Society in July 1966 because Oliver “is an earnest anti-communist, as well as one of the world’s greatest scholars in the fields of classical languages and literature.”

After Oliver left the JBS, he revealed his true sentiments when he started writing for the overtly neo-nazi magazine (Liberty Bell) published by George P. Dietz (himself a former JBS member).

The June 1992 issue of Liberty Bell magazine contains an article by ”earnest anti-communist” Oliver which includes the following observation:

"My article on Nigger Superiority in the May issue of Liberty Bell was in print before events in Los Angeles gave it an emphatic confirmation. Niggers naturally loot and destroy when they see a good opportunity...for tribal festivities."


Floyd G. Kitchen was a member of the John Birch Society as well as being the Executive Director of the segregationist St. Louis Metropolitan Citizens Council.  Previously, he was Secretary of that Council.  In 1966, Kitchen also was Chairman of the American Conservative Party which supported the Presidential candidacy of segregationist Gov. George C. Wallace of Alabama.  Kitchen arranged for J.B. Stoner of the racist National States Rights Party to address the St. Louis Property Owners Association.

According to the Report of the House Select Committee on Assassinations – on Martin Luther King Jr., Floyd Kitchen directed the activities of Glen Shrum who was active in the pro-segregation American Party in St. Louis in late 1967 or early 1968. Shrum was another JBS member who was active in his local White Citizens Council. Shrum also was a member of the rightwing paramilitary group, Minutemen and he attended meetings of the racist National States Rights Party. [See: Volume VII of Report by House Select Committee on Assassinations, on Martin Luther King, Jr., pages 297 and 302.  Also see: FBI-St Louis 157-582 on the St. Louis Metropolitan Citizens Council, serial #63, 2/15/66 and FBI-HQ 62-117290, section 16].


The April 1966 issue of the JBS magazine, American Opinion, lists the following bigots as among its Associate Editors or Editorial Advisory Committee:

George W. Armstrong Jr.

[Armstrong’s father was a virulent anti-semite and racist who used his wealth to support virtually every bigoted organization, politician, and movement in the United States.  Armstrong Jr. ran his father’s businesses along with the Judge Armstrong Foundation which circulated numerous anti-semitic and racist publications.]

Medford Evans

[Evans was a JBS Coordinator who was a life-long white supremacist and he also served as an official of the White Citizens Council movement.]

Revilo P. Oliver

[JBS founding member and on JBS National Council. Oliver’s bigoted sentiments were so blatant that he resigned from the JBS in 1966].


JBS member Betty Meeker was fired from her Whittier CA teaching position after 13 day public hearing. She was accused of instructing her 5th and 6th grade students that (1) Vice President Hubert Humphrey was a socialist, (2) Martin Luther King Jr. was a Communist and she cited a June 12, 1962 article in the Congressional Record inserted by JBS Public Relations Director John Rousselot and (3) Negroes were “inferior”.


JBS member Revilo P. Oliver (Urbana IL) was a founding member of the JBS and he served on its National Council starting in January 1960.  He also was the primary editor of the annual JBS “Scoreboard” issue of its magazine, American Opinion – which estimated the degree of “Communist influence and control” within all countries.

On July 2, 1966, Oliver gave a speech entitled “Conspiracy or Degeneracy?” at the annual Boston MA gathering of the New England Rally for God, Family and Country—which was largely a JBS function. In a portion of his speech which discussed Zionist influences within the Communist Conspiracy, Oliver contemplated “the beatific vision” of “all the Jews being vaporized at dawn tomorrow.”

The conspiracy that is destroying us, we are told, is a conspiracy of Communists or of Illuminati or of Jews. Now most of the authors who offer us one or another of those three identifications expound their view in a manner that is less than cogent. Most of them either overstate or oversimplify their case, and some of them, I am sorry to say, give the impression that they are no more intelligent than 'Liberal intellectuals.' Most of the writers on this subject are either so fascinated by their own discoveries or so anxious to convince a maximum number of readers that they imply that the conspiracy they identify is the root of all evil -- that is if it were abolished, mankind -- all mankind, mind you -- would enter, instanter, on a Golden Age of peace and domestic tranquility and happiness. If only by some miracle all the Bolsheviks or all of the Illuminati or all the Jews were vaporized at dawn tomorrow, we should have nothing more to worry about.  The trouble with that beatific vision, of course, is that every educated man knows that it just can't be so." [Revilo P. Oliver, Conspiracy or Degeneracy, 1966].

Because of these remarks, Oliver resigned from the Birch Society. JBS founder Robert Welch expressed regret that Oliver left the Birch Society because Welch believed that Oliver “is an earnest anti-communist, as well as one of the world’s greatest scholars in the fields of classical languages and literature.”

After Oliver left the JBS, he revealed his true sentiments when he started writing for the overtly neo-nazi magazine (Liberty Bell) published by George P. Dietz (himself a former JBS member) and Oliver also involved himself with the neo-nazi organization, National Youth Alliance later known as National Alliance.


Thomas J. Davis, Eastern Regional Manager of Public Relations for the JBS (White Plains, NY), gave a speech at Wesleyan Methodist Church in San Antonio TX on 08/09/66 entitled “The Jewish Community and the John Birch Society”. 

According to Davis, the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith was guilty of promoting bigotry and anti-semitism for profit.  Quoting Davis:

The Anti-Defamation League is a ‘Gestapo-type’ organization that operates a vast intelligence network in the U.S. for the purpose of smearing anyone who dares oppose its philosophies and goals.”

“The ADL’s methods are aimed not only at the John Birch Society, but also are alien to the system under which the American people live.  It seeks to destroy all anti-Communist and patriotic effort, together with the free institutions of our society and government.”

“The ADL is a ‘Himmler’ agency; it spies on other Americans and compiles information with which to attack them, if they don’t happen to agree with the ADL.”  [San Antonio TX Express, 8/10/66, p12-A, “Bircher Scores Jewish League”; FBI-San Antonio 100-9455, #138]

12/65 JBS Bulletin = Robert Welch stated that ADL “has done more to cause and promote anti-semitism than any other group or force in America”.  Welch used innuendo to suggest that ADL was created by Communists “for that very purpose”. 


FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover served as member of ADL 50th Anniversary Honorary Committee on January 31, 1963

Page 257 of  Hoover’s 1958 book Masters of Deceit:

Some of the most effective opposition to communism in the United States has come from Jewish organizations such as B’nai B’rith, the American Jewish Committee, the Anti-Defamation League, and a host of other Jewish groups.”

J. Edgar Hoover on ADL to all FBI Field offices [1/17/68 FBI HQ airtel to FBI field offices

The Anti-Defamation League, 315 Lexington Avenue, New York City, maintains regional offices throughout the United States. As you know, this organization, like the Bureau, is opposed to groups and individuals espousing bigotry, prejudice and extremism. It seeks to bring the true facts concerning such groups and individuals to light.

In the furtherance of these worthy objectives, the Anti-Defamation League receives considerable information of interest to this Bureau and has been very cooperative in the past in referring such data to us. You are immediately to make certain that you have established liaison with the head of the Anti-Defamation League regional office. in your territory and explain the jurisdiction and interests of this Bureau.  For your information, there is attached a list of Anti-Defamation League regional offices.”


Hoover reply to inquiry about ADL has following notation on file copy:  “There is no indication that the ADL of B’nai B’rith is other than a legitimate Jewish fraternal order.” [FBI-HQ 105-9621, serial #476 dated 6/17/60.]


During a meeting of San Francisco JBS chapter QHOS, one JBS member declared that13 Jews control United States policies. On other occasions, JBS members said that “European Jews” were responsible for the 1956 Hungarian revolt andNiggers are not ready for integration”. [California State Controller Alan Cranston, “The John Birch Society: A Soiled Slip is Showing: A Report”, July 28, 1966]


During a meeting of the KKK in Sophia NC, the JBS film “Anarchy USA” was shown. Per FBI memo on the meeting:

On 9/26/66 a social gathering of Klansmen and Klanswomen was held at the Sophia Unit meeting hall. There were 75 to 100 persons present and the entertainment was the showing of film on the Watts Riots· This film had been furnished by the John Birch Society and members of Citizens Council from Winston-Salem, NC. brought the film over and showed it.” [FBI-Charlotte 100-9548, serial #176].


JBS Coordinator George W. Wilson (Charlotte NC) was a segregationist who sponsored anti-integration petition by Mecklenburg Grievance Committee – per Charlotte Observer, 10/27/66, p16-C, “Integration is Target of Petition”  The Grievance Committee was later known as Pupils Protective Association


JBS member Warren T. Baldwin (Bayport NJ) was one of 20 people arrested for conspiracy to attack three privately owned camps in NY, NJ, CT.  Baldwin was former Suffolk County NY Coordinator for JBS along with being a member of the right-wing paramilitary group, Minutemen, and a member of Peter Fechter Brigade.


JBS member Kent Courtney (New Orleans LA) endorsed segregationist and KKK member Ned Touchstone in his race for Louisiana Educational Superintendent.


01/09/67 report by Boston Police Dept sent to FBI-Boston re: 1/7/67 meeting of American Nazi Party at Mid-Town Motor Inn reported that:

Mention made that more good Nazis were coming out of the John Birch Society than any other outfit.”  [FBI-Boston 100-32899, serial #382, sect 5, page 121; original in FBI-Boston 157-32].


JBS members Earlene and Louise Thomas and Robert and Mary Surrey (Dallas TX) worked with JBS member Edwin A Walker. Earlene and Louise contributed $100 per month to Dallas chapter of the American Nazi Party. ANP leader George Lincoln Rockwell was in frequent contact with Mary Surrey and Earlene Thomas. Robert Surrey processed subscriptions for Rockwell’s newsletter, The Rockwell Report and he also sold ANP books. [FBI-Dallas 157-218, serial #248].


A secret Klan meeting in Amelia VA showed the JBS film “Anarchy USA” [FBI-Richmond 1000-9991, serial #95].


JBS member (not named, but from Tampa FL) acknowledged during an interview by FBI Special Agent Walter B. Granger on 03/06/67 that she was a member of the JBS and her local White Citizens Council chapter. 

She told interviewing Agent that FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover made “an error” in chapter 19 of his 1958 book, Masters of Deceit, when he “characterized the Anti-Defamation League and B’nai B’rith as good organizations.”  The interviewing Agents observed that she “may be suffering from some mental aberrations since she appeared to be somewhat incoherent and non-specific in her allegations concerning Communist activities…”  [See: FBI-Tampa file 94-131 (which is also in FBI-HQ file 62-110243) which is 3/6/67 SAC Tampa report to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover.  Also in FBI-HQ 62-109069, serial #4709].


James G. Clark was a segregationist who served as Sheriff of Selma County Alabama.  He was a paid speaker under the auspices of the Birch Society’s American Opinion Speakers Bureau. On May 9, 1967 Clark was the main speaker before the pro-segregation Greater Los Angeles Citizens Council.


Donald Poteat was Executive Secretary of Citizens Council of Charleston SC. He was the principal segregationist speaker at 5/20/67 meeting of American Citizens Council in Greensboro NC.  Meeting was attended by members of John Birch Society, American Nazi Party, and Ku Klux Klan.  Also see entry for May 1968.


JBS members George M. Colitto and Martin Mikulik were arrested, along with 3 other men, for plotting to kill Herbert Aptheker, director of American Institute of Marxist Studies.  The group was also planning to bomb an antipoverty group in the Bronx NY called Better Organization for the Mid-Bronx.

Colitto and Mikulik were originally charged with attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, possession of explosives and weapons law violations.. Original charge of attempted murder was subsequently reduced to allow each person arrested to plead guilty to lesser charges.  [New York Times, 08/24/67, p1, “Arsenal Uncovered By Raids in Bronx”, Los Angeles CA Times, 08/24/67, page 1, “Arsenal Seized With 4 Men in Terror Bombing”].


The White Citizens Council in Columbia SC held meeting on 9/17/67 to discuss 1968 Presidential election and support for segregationist George Wallace.  The 17 persons present at the meeting represented United Klans of America, the White Citizens Council, the South Carolina Independent Party and John Birch Society. [FBI-Columbia 105-33, serial #6]


JBS member Reid Stubbs (Charlotte NC) operated a JBS bookstore. He attended a 10/17/67 United Klans of America rally in Concord NC.  Stubbs donated 100 phonograph records to the Klan containing his song “Wallace 68” and Stubbs stated that “whatever money was received for these records could be used for their defense fund”.  Stubbs also invited J.R. Jones (the Grand Dragon of the United Klans of America in NC) to appear on his radio program on station WPEG-FM in Concord NC.  Jones did appear on 10/8/67 at 9pm. [FBI-Charlotte 100-9548, serial #205]


After he surfaced as an FBI informant against the Klan in Mississippi, JBS member Rev. Delmar Dennis told the Special Agent in Charge of the Jackson MS field office that there were “numerous resignations by other members” of the John Birch Society in the Meridian MS area because they were Klan sympathizers!

Dennis also served on the Board of Directors of the White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund.  JBS member Bill McIlhany, authored the book, "Klandestine", about the experiences of Rev. Dennis, and McIlhany correctly described the Defense Fund as a "KKK-fundraising front".

According to McIlhany, the editor of the JBS magazine (American Opinion) never reviewed Klandestine in American Opinion but “he published an article in AO praising Elmore Greaves, who ran the KKK-fundraising front I described in Klandestine, the so-called White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund.”


The JBS publishing house (Western Islands) published a book by Prince Michael R Sturdza aka Mihail Sturdza aka Zad Rust, entitled The Suicide of Europe: Memoirs of Prince Michael Sturdza”.

During the 1930’s-1940’s Sturdza was a member of the Romanian Iron Guard movement aka Legion of Michael the Archangel.  Before World War II, Romania had a population of several hundred thousand Jews. More than 400,000 were deported to death camps under the regime of the Romanian Iron Guard. In fact, Romania was directly responsible for the murder of more Jews than any country other than Germany.

This movement believed that the problem of poverty in Romania was due to Jews having "colonized" Romania, and thereby prevented Christian Romanians from getting ahead economically. Their solution to this perceived problem was to drive the Jews out of Romania, which the Iron Guard claimed would finally allow Eastern Orthodox Romanians to rise up to the middle class.


James E. Kernodle (Kansas City MO) was a JBS section leader and also leader of local George Wallace For President campaign in 1968  (per Kansas City Star, 6/13/69, “Lake Still Off Limits to Negroes). Kernodle was first President of Kansas City MO White Citizens Council.


JBS member and Section Leader John H. Sutherland (St. Louis MO) was a financial contributor to George Wallace’s campaign for President. Sutherland was also active in the pro-segregation Southern States Industrial Council and he helped craft SSIC’s annual Declaration of Policy which opposed school integration. [FBI-St. Louis 157-582]


George C. Wallace’s campaign for President began during a meeting held in a Montgomery AL Country Club on January 16th.  Among the leaders who met were JBS members Kent Courtney (LA), and Floyd G. Kitchen (St. Louis, MO). The meeting was organized by Wallace speech writer Asa E. Carter, the head of the North Alabama Citizens Council and founder of the Original Ku Klux Klan of the Confederacy.  Assisting Carter was Selma AL Sheriff Jim Clark – a paid speaker for the JBS who also spoke at White Citizens Councils events.

The next month, Wallace addressed the 12th Annual Leadership Conference of the Citizens Councils of America in New Orleans.

Another speaker at the Leadership Conference was W. Jones Lane, a member of the Georgia House of Representatives. He spoke about “Jew merchants” who controlled the civil rights movement.

A third speaker was Leander Perez Sr., a major leader within the white supremacist movement in the U.S. 

Perez asked:  “Do you know what the Negro is? Animal right out of the jungle. Passion. Welfare. Easy life. That's the Negro.” AND he also declared that the American Civil Rights Movement was the work of "all those Jews who were supposed to have been cremated at Buchenwald and Dachau but weren't, and Roosevelt allowed two million of them illegal entry into our country."

Perez was ex-communicated by the Catholic Church in 1962 for his anti-black screeds and for his statement that “The Catholic Church is being used as a front for clever Jews.”

In 1960, Perez was quoted as saying: “They are the most dangerous people in this country—the Zionist Jews”. [New Orleans LA Times-Picayune, 08/60]

When Perez died in 1969, the American Nazi Party newspaper, White Power, published an article entitled “White Power Salutes Leander Perez Sr.” This article stated that Perez gave “generous aid to the Party and congratulated it for daring to do what big-mouthed, but cowardly, conservatives shudder to even think about.”

The Wallace candidacy was, to a large extent, organized by JBS members and JBS endorsers. For details of the connections of JBS members to the Wallace campaign, see the end of part one of my online report “Racism and the John Birch Society” here:




JBS member George Boyle attended United Klans of America rally 4/27/68 in Rising Sun MD.  [FBI-Philadelphia 105-4158, serial #1811, 5/1/68 memo which is copy of 4/29/68 report by Detective from Baltimore County Police Bureau Intelligence Unit.]


JBS member Robert Surrey (Dallas TX) was also an officer of the National Socialist White People’s Party in Dallas. Surrey attended an organizational meeting for Assembly of Racist Movements (ARM) in Lexington KY on April 18, 1968 sponsored by White Party of America (headed by neo-nazi Karl R. Allen Jr.). 

After the ARM conference, Surrey established their Speakers Bureau and he contacted influential, wealthy contributors in Dallas to secure funding for the WPA and the ARM coalition. JBS financial contributor H.L. Hunt made a $150 contribution to Karl Allen and asked him to come to Dallas to make a presentation regarding his new movement.


A United Klans of America klavern in Highland Springs VA (unit #77) led by Richard Matthew Burton showed the JBS film, “Anarchy USA” on 5/11/68. [FBI-Richmond 100-9991, serial #96]


During Robert Welch’s speech at Liberty Amendment National Convention held at Disneyland Hotel, in Anaheim CA on 6/24/68, Welch declared that segregationist Alabama Governor and Presidential candidate George Wallace should pick JBS member and California State Senator John G. Schmitz as his Vice-Presidential running mate.

Numerous white supremacists supported Wallace’s Presidential campaign including Imperial Wizard Robert M. Shelton (United Klans of America) and Imperial Wizard Samuel H. Bowers (White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi) along with JBS members Edwin A. Walker, and JBS National Council member Laurence Bunker.  Scores of other JBS members and endorsers supported and became organizers, electors, and financial contributors for the Wallace campaign – as revealed in numerous entries of this Chronology.


Four JBS members were featured speakers at a rally by the Confederate Knights of the KKK held near Wadesboro NC (Anson County NC).  George Dorsett (local Klan leader), Farrell Ostwalt, Frank Rossess and Reid Stubbs. [FBI-Charlotte 100-9548, serials 220 and 224]


The pro-Hitler National Renaissance Party (NRP) chapter in Staten Island NY was comprised of 7 current or former members of the JBS. [FBI-NYC 100-144597, serial #317, 7/25/68].

FBI characterization of NRP:

“…the NRP is an anti-Semitic, anti-Christian, anti-Negro and neo-Fascist organization…The Un-American Activities Committee of the United States House of Representatives in a Preliminary Report dated December 17, 1954, stated ‘National Renaissance Party activities and propaganda are clearly subversive and un-American.’ ”  [In “Appendix to FBI memos which discuss the NRP]


JBS member Bard Logan (San Antonio TX) was the Texas State Chairman of the American Independent Party.  The AIP supported Alabama Gov. George Wallace for President.  Logan estimated that 15 of the 31 members of the AIP Executive Committee in Texas were JBS members.  [New York Times, 9/22/68, p56, “Birchers in Texas Head Wallace Bid”]


JBS member Bard Logan (San Antonio TX) was the Texas State Chairman for the 1968 George Wallace for President campaign. Wallace ran as the American Independent Party (AIP) candidate. In his capacity as State AIP Chairman, Logan selected Vance J. Beaudreau as the District Chairman of the AIP in the Rio Grande Valley area of Texas. Beaudreau also was one of three members of the AIP Credentials Committee as well as a member of the Texas AIP Executive Committee.

Beaudreau was active in the Texas chapter of the American Nazi Party (ANP) in 1965-1966 and he was arrested in March 1965 in University Park TX for circulating Nazi hate literature in support of Gene A. Guinn for Dallas City Council.  Guinn’s candidacy was endorsed by the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party.

Beaudreau also was a bodyguard for ANP founder/leader George Lincoln Rockwell when Rockwell visited Dallas.


A Wallace for President meeting in Johnston County NC quotes comments made by J.R. Jones, the Grand Dragon of United Klans of America-North Carolina as follows:

Jones stated that the UKA throughout the state of North Carolina…plans to unite with the John Birch Society and with the White Citizens Councils to actively nominate and promote candidates for all offices in future elections so that it will eventually promote the interests of the American Independent Party if there is any future hope of electing George Wallace for President in 1972.”  [FBI-Charlotte 100-9548, serial #225]


Clinton and Elizabeth Wheat (Los Angeles CA) were JBS members.  However, ultimately, they left the JBS because they concluded it “was dominated by Jews”

G. Clinton Wheat acknowledged to a KLAC-radio reporter that he was a KKK member. [See transcript of KLAC-Radio 90-minute documentary on the California KKK entitled “Hotbed of Hatred”]

Mr. and Mrs. Wheat often held meetings at their Los Angeles home (233 S. Lafayette Park Place) which included notorious racists and anti-semites like Wesley Swift and William P. Gale.  The Wheats also hosted meetings in their home for racist and anti-semitic groups like American Nazi Party, National States Rights Party, Christian Defense League, and Church of Jesus-Christ Christian.

Clinton Wheat headed the California chapter of "The Committee of One Million Caucasians To March on Washington in 1964" which was formed in February 1962 by James R. Venable and Herbert Butterworth.  Venable was the leader of the National Knights of the KKK in Georgia. Butterworth was the Public Relations Director for United Klans of America.

When Clinton Wheat was interviewed by FBI Agents in February 1965, he told them that he had moved to Oregon because “he was tired of the Niggers and Jews in Los Angeles.” [FBI-HQ 157-1727, serial #3; 2/23/65 SAC Portland to J. Edgar Hoover.] 

Clinton Wheat was an ex-convict who served time in a Louisiana prison for armed robbery and murder. He subsequently received pardons in the state of Texas for robbery. He also received a commutation of a life sentence for a Los Angeles burglary and for a Los Angeles murder. See FBI-HQ files 157-1727 and FBI-HQ 157-1586 and FBI-Atlanta 157-664 and FBI-Los Angeles file 157-843.]


Robert Welch announced the appointment of retired Brig. General Clyde J. Watts of Oklahoma City to the JBS National Council.  Watts was the attorney who represented JBS member Edwin A. Walker in various legal matters and Watts represented the Birch Society during the historic precedent-setting defamation lawsuit brought against the publishing arm of the Society by Chicago lawyer Elmer Gertz.  The JBS lost that lawsuit.

Watts also served on the JBS Speakers Bureau.  The subjects of his JBS-sponsored speeches were:  “False Public Images” and “4th Dimensional Warfare”.

In December 1966, Watts was named as Secretary and General Counsel for the Defenders of the American Constitution (DAC) which was co-founded and headed by retired Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Pedro A. Del Valle. 

In May 1964, J. Edgar Hoover sent a memo to the Special-Agent-in-Charge of the FBI’s Washington field office and he characterized DAC as follows:

“Del Valle is President of Defenders of the American Constitution, an extreme right-wing organization that was founded in 1959.”   [FBI-Baltimore field office file 100-21392, serial #18, 5/14/64 Hoover memo to SAC, FBI-Washington field].

In 1950, Del Valle wrote a complimentary statement for the cover page of Robert H. Williams’ anti-semitic pamphlet, Know Your Enemy.  The FBI file on Williams described his writings as follows:

A review of all publications of Williams indicates he is violently anti-Semitic in that he operates on the premises that since some Jewish people are Communists, all Jews are Communists.”   [FBI-HQ file 105-10091, serial #78; 7/11/52 memo from Assistant Director L.B. Nichols to J. Edgar Hoover.]  A 1951 report by the Americanism Commission of the American Legion (Illinois Department) described Williams as “an independent dispenser of vitriolic un-American anti-Semitism hate literature…”

Del Valle was a shareholder in, and President of, Conde McGinley’s mis-named “Christian Educational Association”.  The CEA published a newspaper entitled, Common Sense.  For details concerning Common Sense, see the following House Committee on Un-American Activities report entitled “Preliminary Report on Neo-Fascist and Hate Groups”.


 The following description of Common Sense appears on page 10:

Common Sense represents itself as “the Nation’s anti-Communist paper.” Subscriptions are sought from ‘loyal and patriotic Americans’ in order to ‘help save our Republic.’ Such patriotic claims provide poor disguise, however, for some of the most vitriolic hate propaganda ever to come to the attention of the committee. Common Sense defines communism as ‘Judaism’ and devotes its pages almost exclusively to attacks on the Jewish and to a lesser extent the Negro minorities in our Nation. Sympathy for the former Nazi regime in Germany also is injected into this propaganda…”

For a detailed discussion of Del Valle and his beliefs and associations, see Kevin Coogan’s article, The Defenders Of The American Constitution and the League Of Empire Loyalists: The First Postwar Anglo-American Revolts Against The ‘One World Order’ ” here:  




JBS founder Robert Welch made the following comments in his 1969 pamphlet “If You Want It Straight” which was subsequently reprinted in the May 1993 JBS Bulletin:

“In our opinion, for instance -- and we might add, in the opinion of many of the best informed and most courageous Jews themselves -- the so-called Anti-Defamation League, which ostensibly was founded to prevent or diminish anti-Semitism, has actually done more over the past few decades to promote anti-Semitism than all of the Gerald L.K. Smiths and Richard Cottens put together. For the ADL's power and prosperity as an organization has depended on an increase rather than a decrease of anti-Jewish feelings. And in subtly provoking this increase, they have, of course, mightily helped the Communists which has certainly been the purpose of some of those involved."  and 

"For many years, the Communists, using the ADL as a front, tried by extremely intensive and expensive propaganda to have the American people simply take for granted that the JBS was a racist and anti-Semitic organization." [Robert Welch, JBS Bulletin, May 1993 - "If You Want It Straight" which reprints a speech made by Welch in 1969. "Promote" italicized in original document for emphasis.]


JBS Coordinator and JBS speaker Medford B. Evans was also an official of the national White Citizens Council movement.  He also was the Editor of the WCC national magazine. Evans endorsed the “Racial Studies Committee” which argued that black Americans had a low IQ. [See: article “Group Claims Negro IQ Lowin San Antonio TX Light, 6/30/69; Also contained in the CIA file on Medford Evans.]


JBS leader, Robert Welch, recommended Edward L. Delaney’s privately printed memoir entitled “Five Decades to Dawn”. Welch advised his members that Delaney’s book was available for purchase at JBS bookstores around the country as well as directly from JBS HQ in Belmont MA and its satellite office in San Marino, CA.

Welch described Delaney’s book as an “informal but comprehensive and truthful history by a man who not only reported it and wrote it, but lived it, on four continents for fifty years.”  Welch declared that only a few old-timers like himself knew who Delaney was, but “here is a man who, but for his unwavering dedication to the truth, would have been justly famous as one of the greatest foreign correspondents of all time.”  [Robert Welch, JBS Bulletin, August 1969, page 30.]

Welch “forgot” to mention a few relevant facts concerning Delaney.  Also Welch’s comments present a major dilemma for the JBS conception of a political spectrum (see details below).

Edward Leopold Delaney was born in Olney, IL on December 12, 1885.  In his early adult life he worked as an actor including in Australia. By the 1920’s he returned to the U.S.  During the early 1930’s he worked in various European countries. 

As a result of his involvement with ultra-rightists in the U.S. (including followers of Rev. Charles E. Coughlin), Delaney was recruited in 1940 by the German national agency known as Reich-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft (RRG).  RRG was nationalized by the Nazi Government in 1933 under the leadership of the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda headed by Joseph Goebbels.

During 1940 and 1941, while in Berlin, Delaney started making pro-Nazi short wave radio broadcasts under the alias of E.D. Ward. He also used the alias of Charles Flicksteger. Delaney also made pro-Nazi broadcasts from Prague, Czechoslovakia and other German-occupied territories.  He was arrested in Prague on May 20, 1945 and later returned to the U.S. where he was arrested by the FBI on August 8, 1947.  On July 26, 1943, Delaney was indicted for treason in absentia by a Washington DC Grand Jury because of his pro-Nazi broadcasts.  However, on October 27, 1947, the charges were dropped due to lack of evidence.

For additional background info, see the following column by World War II correspondent, William L. Shirer:


A former Time magazine employee in Europe told the FBI that he saw Delaney at a party given by an official of the German Foreign Office during 1941 and he described Delaney as “an ardent Nazi sympathizer and was much opposed to Jews and to President Roosevelt.”  [FBI-NYC 61-597, serial #37, page 31] which is a Summary Report about Delaney which was written by Baltimore FBI Special Agent Edward G. Gough [FBI-Baltimore file 61-59, dated July 10, 1945].

Another person interviewed by the FBI about Delaney “advised that the subject was a frustrated man, always trying to make money and not quite doing it and always blaming it on the Jews. He stated that everything he said had something to do with the Jews and that he heads his letters from New York City as ‘Jew York’ and speaks of Rosenveldt and his Jewish cohorts.”  [FBI-NYC 61-597, serial #37, page 33; Also see page 36 for another example of Delaney’s virulent anti-semitism].

Robert Welch’s recommendation of Delaney’s book presents a serious epistemological problem for the Birch Society because the JBS is on record declaring numerous times that Nazis properly belong on the LEFT-side of a political spectrum along with socialists and Communists and, consequently, assorted Nazis and Hitler-admirers or other national socialists have absolutely nothing in common with the Birch Society because the JBS is anti-statist and anti-collectivism and opposes all forms of bigotry.

Nevertheless, Delaney is another example of a Nazi sympathizer whose viewpoints were harmonious with ultra-conservative right wing individuals and organizations in the U.S. including rabid anti-semites like Charles E. Coughlin.  After World War II, Delaney was an ultra-conservative lecturer and author in southern California and even Robert Welch thought  Delaney was a relevant source of reliable anti-Communist information!


Robert Welch urged his members to send letters and telegrams to Washington to urge confirmation of Judge Clement Haynsworth as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.  During the 1952 election cycle, Haynsworth supported an independent elector slate in South Carolina.  The leadership of the independent electors was self-avowedly segregationist. They described the NAACP and Americans for Democratic Action as “un-American organizations”.  When Haynsworth was nominated by President Nixon to become an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court, the U.S. Senate’s only African American Republican member reviewed Haynsworth’s record and concluded that it “convinces me that his treatment of civil rights issues is not in keeping with the historic movement toward equal justice for every American citizen.” 

Haynsworth’s most consequential opinions as a Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals judge involved interpretation of the 1954 Supreme Court de-segregation decision in Brown v. Board of Education. Haynsworth’s decision in the Prince Edward County, VA case continued racial separation in local schools. The following year, the US Supreme Court reversed the Fourth Circuit Court’s decision.


An informant contacted the Hyattsville MD FBI office on 10/8/69 to report that he was approached by individuals who were JBS members in Charles County, Maryland and he characterized them as a white racist group.” 

The Special Agent in Charge of the FBI-Baltimore field office described this informant as someone who “formerly had furnished information of excellent value to the FBI…”

The informant reported that this group was “in possession of 24 M2 carbines, 2 M3 machine guns, 2 Maxum heavy machine guns, one rocket launcher and approximately 20,000 rounds of various type ammunition.” 

The informant reported that the group “has discussed killing black power leaders” and others.  Per the FBI memo: The group has expressed vehement opposition to anything which they consider un-American, including black power advocates, communists, and other radical type organizations.  They are opposed to Negroes as a group.”  [FBI-Washington DC field office, WFO 100-38767, serials #107 and #108; Same info in FBI-HQ file 157-15382].


JBS member Omar C. Miller (Lutz FL) whom fellow JBS member Ben Klassen described as a strong nazi supporter” hosted nazi meeting in his home in February 1970.


JBS member Rev. Ferrell Griswold (Birmingham AL) served on the National Advisory Board of the National Youth Alliance (NYA).  The NYA was originally formed out of the pro-segregation Youth For Wallace movement which promoted George Wallace’s 1968 campaign for President. 

The National Advisory Board of NYA also included such virulent racists and anti-semites as:  Louis T. Byers, Richard B. Cotten, John G. Crommelin, Pedro A. Del Valle, and Revilo P. Oliver. 

From 1965-1968, Louis Byers was the John Birch Society Coordinator for Western Pennsylvania and New York (Pittsburgh and Buffalo areas). He also organized Pennsylvania for the 1968 George Wallace Presidential campaign.

Revilo Oliver was a founding member of the John Birch Society and he served for 6 years on its National Council.  He also was the primary editor of the annual August “Scoreboard” issue of the JBS magazine, American Opinion which purported to estimate the extent of “Communist influence and control” in all nations of the world.  Richard Cotten was also a former JBS member.

The FBI file on the NYA is categorized as “Racial Matters—White Hate Group”. The FBI described NYA as follows:

NYA is currently controlled by individuals who militantly promote white racialism and anti-Zionism and who suggest violent revolution ultimately as the means for implementing their racial and political ideas in America.” [FBI-NYC 157-3447, #127; same information appears in FBI files, Washington Field 157-2278 and HQ 157-12589]

NYA members were adherents of the ideas of Francis Parker Yockey. Yockey authored the 1948 book, “Imperium: The Philosophy of History and Politics”. Yockey’s book extolled the virtues of northern European civilization and warned against its adulteration by Jews, Negroes, Orientals, and other culture distorters.” [FBI-NYC 157-3447, serial #103 which is a 3/31/70 Summary Report by the FBI-Washington Field Office. The original is in  FBI-WFO 157-2278]

In October 1970 the NYA was re-organized and chartered in the State of Virginia with William L. Pierce (former Information Officer of the National Socialist White People’s Party (formerly known as American Nazi Party) as the registered agent and Director of the corporation.  He also was Editor in Chief of NYA’s newsletter, “Attack!”. 

Other Directors included Robert Allison Lloyd III (the former Executive Officer of the National Socialist White People’s Party) who became NYA’s National Organizer and Louis T. Byers who was a co-founder of NYA and originally its National Organizer but he subsequently became President of the NYA National Advisory Board.

Charles R. Muncaster was the Alabama Chairman of NYA.  His father Robert G. Muncaster, was a JBS member.  Robert received a sentence of three years when he was convicted on the charge of interfering with draft laws and his son, Charles, was found guilty in 1970 of draft evasion.


JBS member Mrs. Eleanor Kramer (Largo FL) was appointed Group Leader of White Power Group #1 of Nationalist White Party.


Ardie McBrearty (Gentry AR) was a JBS member who left to form the United States Taxpayers Association (USTA) in 1974. He was also associated with the racist and anti-semitic Aryan Nations (aka Christian Identity movement).

The USTA was dedicated to repealing the 16th amendment, OSHA laws, consumer protection statutes, gun control laws, and other “unconstitutional” legislation.  Other members of USTA included Francis Gillings, a California Posse Comitatus member. [USTA activities were chronicled in Tax Strike News published in southern California by A.J. Lowery and edited by his wife Anita Kerns]. 

In the early 1980’s McBrearty became a Christian Identity movement adherent and he was recruited by Robert J. Mathews to set up the security system for The Order.  On 4/12/85, McBrearty and 23 other Order members were indicted by Federal Grand Jury in Seattle on charges of racketeering and conspiracy.  McBrearty testified against his co-defendants.  He was sentenced to 40 years in prison.  He also was indicted on charges of sedition (Ft. Smith AR trial) but acquitted in 1988. 


The JBS published or recommended books which contained themes that originated with bigots. For example, when the JBS went all-out to promote and distribute Gary Allen's classic, None Dare Call it Conspiracy, William Loeb, the ultra-conservative publisher of the Manchester NH Union-Leader newspaper ran an editorial on 5/5/72 describing Gary's book as "anti-semitic nonsense" because Allen’s book suggested that all of our troubles were due to a conspiracy of international bankers—and most of those named in the book were Jewish.

The Loeb editorial produced numerous hostile replies.

One of those replies was from a New Hampshire JBS member who denied that the JBS was anti-semitic but then she declared that "to deny that the Conspiracy is being directed by international bankers--Jews mainly...is being naïve in the extreme, as well as totally ignorant of the depth and extent of the REAL conspiracy." [Marguerite M. Woodman letter to editor, published in 6/29/72 issue of Manchester NH Union-Leader].

The prominent Washington DC conservative newspaper, Human Events, also refused to run an ad for Allen’s book because they considered it to be promoting anti-semitic themes.

Other conservative critics included Edgar Bundy, Father Daniel Lyons (National Catholic Register) and the conservative newspaper, Human Events. 


Thomas J. Anderson (Nashville TN) was a founding member of the Birch Society and he served on its National Council starting in January 1960.  In 1972 he wrote:

“The Blacks never have thanked the Whites for buying them into slavery.  Except for that they’d still be in the Congo. And almost anybody will admit that even Chicago is better than Lusambo.

What stable and civilized republic in all history was predominantly or even substantially Negro?  None.  What high culture have Negroes anytime, anywhere produced themselves?  None.  What high culture, once achieved, ever remained a high culture once it became substantially mixed with Negro bloodlines?  None.  What Negro Republic or free civilization now or ever has shown the necessary attributes of character, self-control, self-reliance, self-responsibility, and self-help to build and maintain a great civilization?  None.”

[Thomas J. Anderson, “Tom Anderson Says Blacks Should Be Grateful to Whites”, The Councilor, 7/21/72, page 1].

The Councilor was the official publication of the racist Citizens Council of Louisiana. Ned Touchstone was its Editor. Touchstone was described by FBI as a KKK member and as a “rabid segregationist” [FBI-HQ 105-44536, serial #37 dated 7/27/66].  In November 1965, Touchstone was the keynote speaker at Mississippi Knights of the KKK rally in North Biloxi MS. He sold racist and anti-semitic publications through his National Biographic Society


JBS member Dean Kennedy (Eugene OR) was Chairman of Citizens Law Enforcement and Research Committee.  He was a Hitler admirer who dropped out of the JBS complaining that it was infiltrated by the Illuminati” [“The Posse Rides’, Eugene OR Register-Guard, 2/22/76, pp 1D and 3D]. 

In a letter to the County Sheriff, Kennedy wrote:

The toadies that grovel at the feet of the parasitical banking fraternity occupy the seats of power in the land; in government, industry, and the academy…They and their masters are PARASITES and must have a host to live upon…Is it possible that we, men of the West, members of the only race that has had the intelligence and discipline to master the many powers of nature [are] too stupid to preserve our race and civilization?”

Kennedy also headed his local chapter of National Association to Keep and Bear Arms (NAKBA) which embraced the Posse Comitatus movement. Kennedy contributed articles to NAKBA newsletter, Armed Citizens News.


Two weekly meetings of Unit 27 of the United Klans of America klavern near Matoaca VA discussed the Birch Society. The second meeting on 2/13/74 opened “with a discussion of the meetings to be held in Richmond VA by the John Birch Society and also meetings to be held at the home of Reggie Mann of Chesterfield County, Virginia by the same group.” [FBI-Richmond 100-9991, serials #108 and #109]


JBS National Council members Dr. Thomas Parker (SC) and Thomas J. Anderson  (TN) were officers in the American Party.  Parker was Vice-Chairman of the South Carolina state party and Anderson was the National Chairman of the Party.  Both men were delegates to the national Party Convention held in Salt Lake City in June 1976. The official platform of the American Party included U.S. recognition of the apartheid regime of Rhodesia


Former Congressman John R. Rarick (St. Francisville LA) wrote articles for the Birch Society magazines, American Opinion and Review of the News. Rarick also was a featured speaker at a Los Angeles dinner of the JBS National Council.

By 1963, Rarick joined the Original Knights of the KKK in St. Francisville LA.

In 1964 Rarick became Exalted Cyclops of his klavern of the Original Knights of the KKK during the time when he still served as a District Judge.  This position made him the President of his Klan unit. The OKKK subsequently became known in February 1965 as the Anti-Communist Christian Association.

In 1965, Rarick was a speaker at a rally in Baton Rouge LA sponsored by “United Conservatives” which actually was a front for the racist Citizens Councils of Louisiana. [FBI-HQ 105-44536, serial #35].

In May 1966, “District Judge John R. Rarick, an outspoken conservative and segregationist has announced his resignation to seek the 6th Congressional District seat held by Rep. James H. Morrison.” [Ruston LA Daily Leader, 5/17/66, p2; “Judge Resigns to Seek Post”]

In July 1966, Rarick served as the Coordinator for the law enforcement portion of a seminar at the annual New England Rally for God, Family and Country which was an event organized primarily by JBS members. Speakers included JBS members or endorsers such as: Frank Flick, Revilo Oliver, Glenn  O. Young, Clarence Manion, Mary Cain, and Ezra Taft Benson.  A notation on the FBI memo discussing this Rally mentioned that: “On 11/9/65 a source of the New Orleans office advised that John R. Rarick, a local judge from St. Francisville LA was known to have attended a meeting of the Original Knights of the KKK.”  [FBI-HQ 94-58099, serial #3]

“John R. Rarick has been identified by our informants as a Klan member in Louisiana.” [FBI-HQ 56-3970, serial #5, 9/16/66]. 

Rarick was also a member of the Board of Directors for Ned Touchstone’s anti-semitic and racist newspaper, The Councilor – which was the official organ of the White Citizens Councils of Louisiana.

Just prior to the August 1970 primary election in Louisiana for the 6th Congressional District seat, Imperial Wizard Robert M. Shelton of Alabama visited Louisiana “and told a Klan rally that the nation needed more men like Rarick and Wallace.” (George Wallace). [Ruston LA Daily Leader, 8/17/70, p13].

In 1971, Rarick used the Congressional Record to enter his article entitled “Anti-Defamation League—Supersubversive Group—Gestapo of the Establishment” [Congressional Record, 1st session, 1971, pages 44974-44983].


JBS member David E. Lane (Denver CO) joined the KKK in 1979. He organized the Denver unit of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.  In late 1981, Lane became Colorado State Organizer for the anti-semitic and racist organization Aryan Nations.

Lane opposed racial integration which he saw as part of a Zionist conspiracy aimed at exterminating the Aryan race.  Lane was also involved with the Christian Identity movement, and he was a proponent of Wotanism which is similar to Odinism.

Lane met Robert Mathews in July 1983 at the Aryan Nations World Congress. On September 22, 1983 Lane was among the 9 founding members of The Order aka Bruder Schweigen which dedicated itself to delivering “our people from the Jew and bring total victory to the Aryan race.”  

The Order was responsible for stealing over $4.1 million in armored car robberies and it killed two people plus detonated bombs, counterfeited money, and organized paramilitary training camps .

Lane was convicted for racketeering, conspiracy and violating the civil rights of radio talk show host Alan Berg who was murdered on June 18, 1984.  Lane was also among 14 men prosecuted for sedition in Ft. Smith AR but was acquitted.

Lane died in the Federal Correction Complex in Terre Haute IN while serving a 190-year prison term for his part in the 1984 murder of Alan Berg.


JBS member Robert Jay Mathews (Phoenix Arizona) joined the John Birch Society at age 11.  After dropping out of high school in his senior year, Mathews formed the Sons of Liberty, an anti-communist militia dominated by survivalists and fellow Mormons. Sons of Liberty had at its peak approximately 25 members.

In 1980, Mathews joined the National Alliance, a white-supremacist group founded by William Luther Pierce (1933-2002), a former Oregon State University physics professor and officer in the American Nazi Party.  Mathews read two books, published by the National Alliance, which had profound effects upon his life: Which Way Western Man? by William Gayley Simpson which told of an insidious plot by the Jews to destroy the "white Christian race," and The Turner Diaries by William L. Pierce, a novel about the supposed violent takeover of America by white supremacists who then form an elite paramilitary underground, called The Order, and take control of the whole world, eradicating all Jews and non-whites.

In February 1982, Mathews began attending services at the Church of Jesus Christ Christian inside the Aryan Nations compound in Hayden Lake, Idaho. The founder of the church and the leader of the Aryan Nations was Richard Girnt Butler (1918-2004), whose message combined an interpretation of Christianity with Nazism and the dream of a whites-only homeland centered in North Idaho.

Shortly thereafter, Mathews founded the White American Bastion, a splinter group organized to attract white Christian families to the Northwest. In September 1983, he gave a short speech at a National Alliance convention in Arlington, VA reporting on his efforts to recruit farmers and ranchers into the "white racialist movement."

While at the convention, Mathews renewed acquaintance with Robert Allan Martinez, a former Ku Klux Klansman from Philadelphia.

In late September 1983, Mathews invited eight men, whom he felt held beliefs similar to his own, to his property in Metaline Falls Idaho: Kenneth Loft, his neighbor and best friend; David Eden Lane, a former Ku Klux Klansman from Denver, CO and also a JBS member; Daniel R. Bauer, Denver Daw Parmenter II, Randolph George Duey, and Bruce Carroll Pierce from the Aryan Nations, and Richard Harold Kemp and William Soderquist, recent recruits from the National Alliance.

The group Mathews founded that night became known variously as The Order, The Silent Brotherhood, and the White American Bastion. The Turner Diaries became their bible. The Order's fundamental aim was violent overthrow of the "Zionist Occupation Government," or "ZOG” a euphemism for the United States government, which they believed was controlled by a Jewish cabal.


JBS member George "Irish" Matousek (Michigan) was a long-time white supremacist and militia enthusiast according to the Bay City (MI) Times. Matousek was an adherent of the theology of Christian Identity, which identified Jews as the spawn of Satan and people of color as "muds”. 

Matousek was also a close friend of the rabid Identity preacher James Wickstrom. As a well-known member of the Michigan Militia in the 1990s, Matousek led a failed effort to pass an anti-gay referendum. When former militia member Scott Woodring murdered a state trooper, Matousek told a reporter that if the authorities kept "playing games" with his supporters, "it's going to cost them their lives."


JBS member James Kelso (Grand Forks ND) was a moderator in 2002 for neo-nazi website Stormfront. In 2003 he joined neo-nazi group National Alliance and in 2004 Kelso was an assistant to KKK official David Duke.  Kelso lived with Duke for 2 years.  In 2009. Kelso helped create “White News Now”


Former JBS CEO G. Vance Smith letter to all JBS National Council members:

"During the 14½ years that I served as CEO, (JBS President) Jack McManus lived in his Wakefield, Massachusetts home. He did some speaking and some writing using the title of “President,” but he was never involved in the business side of the organization. That went okay until the year 2000

But then Jack started speaking at religious conferences where he was both video-and audio-taped. His message on conspiracy and the books he promoted sounded very much like those given at Birch functions. (He was even introduced as president of the Society and publisher of [JBS magazine] The New American at some of these events.) Except he concluded for these audiences that the real enemies were the Masons and the Jews behind them. Jack is very proud of everything he has ever written, and I’m certain he would happily send you copies of ‘Know Thine Enemy' and other speeches he gave on those subjects.

When the Society’s officers and Executive Committee learned of Jack’s newly expressed views and agenda, they became very concerned that the Society’s fundamental principles would be compromised, and that individuals like Morris Dees could possibly attack the Society and cause it irreparable damage. Attempts to persuade Jack to modify his non-religious conclusions and cease such public activity were only mildly successful. So with his concurrence we took steps to ‘wind down’ his role within the Society.” [11/07/05 G. Vance Smith letter to all JBS National Council members.]


Former JBS member Jason T. Ready aka J.T. Ready (Gilbert, AZ) was the founder of the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps as well as the founder of a nativist organization called Americans First.

The late William Norman Grigg (the former senior Editor of the JBS magazine) wrote very insightful blog posts about Ready which reveals why the JBS attracts bigots like J.T. Ready: 





Ready founded a private organization in June 2010 called the U.S. Border Guard and he believed that deadly force was justifiable to prevent illegal border crossings.

Ready was the featured speaker at a September 2007 rally in Omaha NE sponsored by the neo-nazi National Socialist Movement.

In December 2007, Ready posted a message on the New Saxon website using his moniker “Viking Son” which stated:

"The truth is that negroids screw monkeys and rape babies in afreaka. Then stupid white man who licks kosher jew rear lets negroids in. … Stop Negroid immigration and integration now!!! Nature will take care of the rest."

In May 2010, Ready posted this message on the New Saxon website:

“The jew itself knows it is a parasite. I have had them admit as much to me and laugh in my face… But a parasite cannot carry on in its parasitic nature if it is exposed for what it really is. Their whole house of cards comes tumbling down for all to see. Like in 1933 Germany. Just because it has two legs, does not change its nature any less than a six-legged parasite stops sucking blood. There have been many pogroms when the host people stops being victims of these vampires. Another pogrom is approaching.”


William Norman Grigg, the former Senior Editor of the JBS magazine (The New American) wrote a scathing article for his personal blog which reported upon the controversy within the Birch Society over the anti-semitic remarks by its former President, John F. McManus. Grigg described McManus as having “spent decades promiscuously violating the JBS's standards and principles regarding anti-Jewish bigotry.”

Grigg used his blog to explain how the controversy over McManus developed (below).

Note:  Art Thompson is the current CEO of the John Birch Society. Both he and the former CEO (G. Vance Smith) agreed that Jack’s comments were anti-semitic in tone and content.

The source of those accusations is a large and enviably well-documented dossier compiled by Art Thompson, who had become alarmed over Jack's anti-Jewish agitation no later than 2000. Jack's side career as a Jew-baiter made him (and the JBS) vulnerable to blackmail during the 2005 management struggle. When an effort was made to blackmail Jack, I resigned my job in disgust and, to an extent, his defense -- not because I sympathized with his bigoted views, but because I couldn't countenance the use of criminal means to settle a leadership dispute.  At the time I knew nothing about Jack's views beyond the clips I had been shown by his critics in the previous JBS administration, and the fact that he had used the repellent expression "slimy New York Jew" in a conversation. After Art Thompson was appointed CEO, Jack asked me to re-join the staff.”

“It wasn't until [JBS member] Don Fotheringham used his website to publicize the Art Thompson-created dossier on Jack that I learned that he had spent years propagating anti-Semitic nonsense, while pulling down a pretty decent salary to be the figurehead president of the JBS. He did so in prolonged, conscious defiance of the Birch Society's principles. This is why he was -- at Art Thompson's initiative -- removed from his position as JBS president.”

Jack is committed, as a matter of covenant, to a minuscule and deeply authoritarian schismatic para-Catholic cult founded by unabashed anti-Semite Leonard Feeney.  In 1959, Feeney -- a defrocked priest still referred to as ‘Father’ by his followers -- insisted that  ‘the Jews, as an organized force, are the implacable, declared enemies of Christianity — of its tenets, its traditions, its moral code, its very culture. We think it is vital, too, for American Catholics to realize that the Church has always known this fact about the Jews, and, to the extent of her influence, has counseled and decreed regulations for curbing their malice.’ “ 

More commentary by William N. Grigg on John McManus:


Prior to his ‘promotion’ to the JBS Council several years ago -- an arrangement in which he resigned as President and took a pay cut in order to minimize the damage he was doing to the Society -- Jack had been urged to discontinue his involvement with the Saint Benedictine Center in Richmond, New Hampshire, where he (and other speakers) had unbosomed themselves of anti-Jewish sentiments.

What is genuinely amazing here is this: Jack has never stopped attending programs sponsored by that group. In fact, he was a featured speaker at an SBC function just weeks ago. This isn't surprising, once one understands the fact that Jack's religious obligations to the SBC are more important to him than his professional obligations to the JBS. Art Thompson pointed out as much in 2000: This is Jack's religion -- and the anti-Jewish nonsense is a central tenet therein.”

The transcript of two audio recordings by Art Thompson, the current CEO of the Birch Society appear below:

First Art Thompson voice mail message to former JBS CEO, G. Vance Smith:

Vance, this is not simply an aberration. This is [Jack McManus’] religion to be anti-Semitic and anti-Mason. That’s all there is to it — through and through, up and down, sideways. [Art stammers for a second or two and then says]: [My daughter] says that [Jack’s church has] a website called St. Benedictine something or other and she’s downloaded some stuff called ‘Neutralizers’.  It’s basically: everybody but a Moslem is a neutralizer and a liberal and out of salvation because they are not Catholic. And it’s all Masonic and Jewish control…. So you know it’s amazing the more you dig the more widespread you realize all this is, and it’s been probably a problem for us for years and we didn’t even know it."

Second Art Thompson voice mail message:

“Vance, I’m having a full set of that meeting at St. Benedictines sent to me by Hal [Shurtleff]. The disturbing aspect of it is that he is getting them from Mangieri. Apparently, somebody in Mangieri’s area went to [the conference] and got a full set of the tapes and uh gave them or two full sets of the tapes and gave them to Mangieri. And so Hal was already one step ahead of us and already asked Mangieri to get those. So he’s going to send them to me and I left you out of the loop uh just uh because. And then as soon as I get them I’ll forward them to you. And uh even Hal is thinking uh. He says I’m trying to do these things without making it look like I’m uh you know uh sending up any red flags to Jack [McManus] as to what’s going on. So, Hal realizes the gravity of all this. He’s suddenly come to realize that there is a serious problem there. At any rate, the disturbing aspect is that this stuff is just going out all over the place and uh to our staff to our members you name it. Uh so, that’s the gist of it.”



John U. Barr

Olive Simes

Sumter L. Lowry

Tullius Brady


James L. Harrison – Palmetto FL = in White Citizens Council and American Independent Party

L. Allen Greer – Sarasota FL = Vice-Chairman of American Independent Party in 1969

Claude Boring – Florida = Florida State Coordinator for JBS.  Boring stated that “Insiders” are all Jews.

The following JBS members/endorsers were financial contributors to Gerald L.K. Smith's racist and anti-semitic Christian Nationalist Crusade:

George B. Fowler - Holyoke MA

Dr. Hugh S. Ramsay – Bloomington IN

Edwin L. Wiegand - Pittsburgh PA

Robert B. Dresser - Providence RI

Olive Simes – Boston (and stockholder in Robert Welch Inc)

Franklin Farrel Jr. – New Haven CT [Also a contributor to National States Rights Party in 1963]

Edgar A. Scheubert – Chicago IL

Paul H. Talbert – Beverly Hills CA (JBS National Council member)

Subpages (1): JBS-NEWMAN-2
Ernie L.,
Dec 6, 2020, 12:47 PM
Ernie L.,
Apr 5, 2021, 10:44 PM