Appendix 10. History of the purification attempt of A transferase


The purification of A/B transferase has been attempted since 1970.  Sources rich in A/B transferase activity such as human milk and plasma were used. Although the attempts had some success in identifying the fractions that were enriched with enzyme activity, they were not pure. In 1990, Henrik Clausen, a colleague of mine at the now defunct Biomembrane Institute, obtained two fractions of pure proteins from human lungs that seemed to be the soluble form of A transferase. The reverse-phase chromatography used at the last step of the purification procedures denatured the isolated proteins, and no enzymatic activity was observed. The partial amino acid sequences of one of the proteins revealed that the protein was the cystic fibrosis antigen protein.  Apparently, one or several of the patients whose lungs were used for the purification seemed to have suffered from the disease. The partial amino acid sequences for the other proteins were not found in the DNA and protein sequence databases. If the activity was not lost during the last step, the specific activity was calculated to be high (5.7 units/mg).

Appendix 11. A and B subgroups

Appendix 01.Discovery of the ABO blood group system 

01. ABO Blood Group System


Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Biomembrane Institute, IMPPC, IMPPC Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i Personalitzada del Càncer,  AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database