Appendix 05. Immuno-determinant structures of ABH(O) antigens


The chemical structures of the A and B antigens are shown. Two major groups: Watkins and Morgan in London, and Kabat and colleagues in New York, contributed to the chemical characterization. These antigens are not protein antigens but oligosaccharide antigens. Certain sugar residues are bound by specific linkages to form special structures in these antigens. More specifically, the immuno-dominant structure of the A antigen is specified by the presence of a fucose residue and a GalNAc residue attached to a galactose by alpha 1,2- and alpha 1,3 glycosidic linkages. The galactose residue is also linked to the internal core structure. In the B antigens, the GalNAc residue in the A antigen is replaced by a galactose residue.  A structurally similar antigen was found to be abundantly present in O individuals, and was named the H antigen. The immuno-dominant structure of the H antigen lacks both the GalNAc in the A antigen and the galactose in the B antigen linked to galactose by alpha 1,3 linkage.

Appendix 06. The immuno-dominant sugars of the A and B antigens are GalNAc (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine) and galactose, respectively.

Appendix 01.Discovery of the ABO blood group system 

01. ABO Blood Group System


Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Biomembrane Institute, IMPPC, IMPPC Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i Personalitzada del Càncer,  AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database