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39. Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (2001)

 

The deduced amino acid sequences surrounding codons 266 and 268 of the human A and B transferases and corresponding sequences of evolutionarily-related genes are shown. The asterisks indicate the positions of codons 266 and 268. Human A transferase has leucine (L) and glycine (G) at those positions, whereas human B transferase has methionine (M) and alanine (A). The human O03 allele has leucine and arginine (R), and because of the arginine, the protein has no enzymatic activity. The cis-AB01 allele is an A-B transferase chimera and has leucine of A transferase and alanine of B transferase. The mouse AB gene has alanine at codon 268 as in human B transferase, but contains glycine, which is much smaller than methionine of human B transferase. This allows the transfer of both a GalNAc and a galactose in the in vitro transfection experiments using human HeLa cells as the host. However, A antigens are primarily synthesized in vivo. Pig A gene has alanine and glycine at codons 266 and 268. Because the glycine at codon 268 is the same as in human A transferase and the alanine at codon 266 is smaller than the leucine in human A transferase, the enzyme transfers only a GalNAc. Dog Forssman glycolipid synthase has glycine and alanine, the same two amino acids as the mouse cis-AB gene. However, possibly because valine at codon 269 is smaller than phenylalanine (F), the protein transfers only a GalNAc. Both murine and bovine α1-3 Gal transferases have histidine (H) and alanine. Because alanine is the same as alanine in the human B transferase and histidine is bigger than methionine, they transfer only a galactose.

40. Evolutionary Tree of ABO and Related Genes (2008)

01. ABO Blood Group System

Yamamoto, F., and Yamamoto, M. (2001). Molecular genetic basis of porcine histo-blood group AO system. Blood 97, 3308-3310. (http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/reprint/97/10/3308)
Yamamoto, M., Lin, X.H., Kominato, Y., Hata, Y., Noda, R., Saitou, N., and Yamamoto, F. (2001). Murine equivalent of the human histo-blood group ABO gene is a cis-AB gene and encodes a glycosyltransferase with both A and B transferase activity. J Biol Chem 276, 13701-13708. (http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/276/17/13701)


Keywords

Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Biomembrane Institute, IMPPC, IMPPC Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i Personalitzada del Càncer,  AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database

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