In addition to the analysis of primate ABO genes, we also cloned cDNAs from porcine and murine ABO genes (Yamamoto and Yamamoto, 2001; Yamamoto et al., 2001). We demonstrated that the murine gene is well-conserved within the species and encodes an enzyme with both A and B transferase activity in the in vitro assay (although A antigens are primarily synthesized in vivo). Pigs (porcine genes) exhibit AO polymorphism. Our study showed that the most, if not all of the structural gene is missing in type O pigs, and therefore, inadvertent expression of an A antigen in xenotransplanted tissues/organs from O pigs will be unlikely. Based on our studies, we constructed an evolutionary tree of ABO and related genes. Those related genes included α1-3 Gal transferase genes that synthesize α1-3 Gal epitope from mouse, pig, and cow samples, and a Forssman synthase gene that had been cloned from dog by that time. The murine and porcine ABO genes clustered with the human ABO genes, rather than with the α1-3 Gal transferase genes and the Forssman synthase gene.
F., and Yamamoto, M. (2001). Molecular genetic basis of porcine
histo-blood group AO system. Blood 97, 3308-3310.
Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Biomembrane Institute, IMPPC, IMPPC Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i Personalitzada del Càncer, AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database