05. A and B transferases

 

Once the chemical structures defining the ABO blood system were determined, Watkins and Morgan, and separately Ceppellini, proposed a hypothesis on the biosynthetic pathway of these antigens. They postulated that A and B antigens are produced from the same precursor as an H antigen, which is abundant in individuals with blood group O. A and B antigens are formed by the action of glycosyltransferases encoded by functional alleles at the ABO genetic locus (The Central Dogma of ABO). Namely, the A allele encodes A transferase, which transfers a GalNAc to the H antigen. This synthesizes the A antigen. Similarly, the B allele encodes B transferase, which transfers a galactose molecule to the H antigen to synthesize the B antigen.

In addition to A and B transferases, there are other glycosyltransferases with α1-3 Gal(NAc) transferase activity/specificity. These include α1-3 Gal transferase to synthesize α1-3 Gal epitope (Gal α1-3 Gal β1-4 GlcNAc-), isogloboside 3 synthase to synthesize iGb3 ceramide (Gal α1-3 Gal β1-4 GlcCer-), and Forssman glycolipid synthase to synthesize the Forssman antigen (GalNAc α1-3 GalNAc β1-3 Gal α1-4 Gal β1-4 GlcCer-). Whether these glycosyltransferase genes are evolutionarily related to ABO genes was an important question.

06. A transferase cDNA cloning

01. ABO Blood Group System

 Keywords

Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Biomembrane Institute, IMPPC, IMPPC Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i Personalitzada del Càncer,  AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database

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