and B antigens were originally identified on red blood cells. However,
they were also later identified on other types of cells and in
secretion. For example, endothelial cells that form the linings of
capillaries express these antigens depending on blood type. Therefore,
the ABO blood group is important not only for blood transfusion, but
also for cell/tissue/organ transplantation. Also, blood, hairs, and
seminal fluid are important pieces of evidence at crime scenes.
Therefore, ABO blood typing has played an important role in excluding
suspects in forensic investigations. Additionally, A and B antigens are
not solely restricted to humans. Both the same and similar antigens
have been found in other species of organisms. For example, chimpanzees
express A and O blood groups, whereas gorillas express B blood groups.
In addition to primates, many mammals and vertebrates, plants, and
certain microorganisms have been shown to express the same or similar
antigens. The evolution of the ABO system is, therefore, of scientific
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