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ABO Blood Group Appendix 1

Appendix 01.Discovery of the ABO blood group system


This slide shows the results of an experiment that mixed the cellular and liquid components of blood. Landsteiner separated the cellular and liquid components of blood from both his colleagues and himself, and mixed them in different combinations. He then observed the agglutination of red blood cells (RBC) in certain combinations, as indicated by the plus (+) symbols in the table. He also observed the absence of agglutination in the other combinations, as indicated by the minus (-) symbols. When cellular and liquid components from the same individuals were combined, no RBC agglutination was observed. If RBC agglutination occurs in the human body, it was expected that capillaries would be clogged and adverse effects would be elicited. Therefore, Landsteiner’s experiment showed for the first time that blood transfusion has to be performed in a combination where no RBCs are agglutinated. This discovery subsequently led to the development of safe medical practices regarding blood transfusion. Additionally, the results also showed that individuals can be grouped based on agglutination patterns. In the table shown here, Dr. Pleen. and Mr. Zar. belong to one group, Dr. Sturl. and Dr. Erdh. belong to another, and Dr. St. and Mr. Landsteiner belong to the third group. In the following year, the fourth group was found by Landsteiner’s disciples, and these 4 groups became the ABO blood group system.

Appendix 02. Four major groups 

01. ABO Blood Group System

Appendix 01.Discovery of the ABO blood group system 

Appendix 02. Four major groups 

Appendix 03. Genetic basis of ABO blood grouping 

Appendix 04. ABH(O) substances 

Appendix 05. Immuno-determinant structures of ABH(O) antigens 

Appendix 06. The immuno-dominant sugars of the A and B antigens are GalNAc (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 

Appendix 07. The Biosynthetic pathways of the A and B antigens 

Appendix 08. Linkage analysis of the ABO genes 

Appendix 09. ABO blood groups and A and B transferase activity 

Appendix 10. History of the purification attempt of A transferase 

Appendix 11. A and B subgroups 

Appendix 12. A1 and A2 subgroups 

Appendix 13. A3, Ax, and B3 weak subgroups 

Appendix 14. Discovery of cis-AB 

Appendix 15. Two examples of cis-AB inheritance 

Appendix 16. Discovery of B(A) phenotype 

Appendix 17. Mapping of the ABO gene using the radiation hybrid panel 

Appendix 18. ABH and related antigens 

Appendix 19. The genomic structure of the human ABO gene 

Appendix 20. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the ABO and related genes 

Appendix 21. Comparison of gene organization between human and mouse ABO genes 

Appendix 22. Polymorphism in the ABO gene that was observed among different species and subspecies o

Appendix 23. The specificity of the murine enzyme 

Appendix 24. Porcine ABO gene 

Appendix 25. A variety of methods for the ABO genotyping

Appendix 26 ABO & Infectious disease-1

Appendix 27 ABO & Infectious disease-2

Appendix 28 ABO & Cancer Susceptibility

Appendix 29 ABH Expression in Cancer

Appendix 30 ABO & Pancreatic Cancer

Appendix 31 ABO & Diet

Appendix 32 ABO Blood Type Diets

Appendix 33 ABH Antigens in Neurobiology

Appendix 34 ABO & Personality