Appendix 33. ABH Antigens in Neurobiology
ABH Antigens in Neurobiology
In humans, ABH antigens are expressed in primary sensory neurons of the posterior root ganglia in the nervous system. However, little is known about the roles these antigens may play. The situation is similar with mice. However, there have been some advances.
We have previously shown that mice have an ABO gene (cis-AB gene) that encodes an enzyme with both A and B transferase activity using heterologous transfection experiment in the human cancer cell line HeLa. However, in vivo, A antigen is found, primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, and B antigen is rarely detected. H antigen is expressed by primary sensory neurons in both the main and accessory olfactory systems while A antigen is expressed by a subset of vomeronasal neurons in the developing accessory olfactory system.
St. John et al. have used both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches to manipulate expression of these carbohydrates in the olfactory system and demonstrated the following: (1). In null mutant mice lacking the α1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) and the H antigen, there was a delay in the maturation of the main olfactory bulb glomerular layer (2). Ubiquitous expression of A antigen on olfactory axons in a gain-of function transgenic mice caused mis-routing of axons in the main olfactory bulb glomerular layer and led to exuberant growth of vomeronasal axons in the accessory olfactory bulb.
Although not perfectly, these results provided the first in vivo evidence suggesting a role for specific cell surface carbohydrates in the development of the olfactory nerve connectivity.
Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Biomembrane Institute, IMPPC, IMPPC Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i Personalitzada del Càncer, AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database