Appendix 29. ABH Antigen Expression & Cancer

ABH Antigen Expression & Cancer


In addition to the differential susceptibilities depending on the ABO phenotype, altered expression of ABH antigens in cancer has also been reported. Loss of A/B antigens was first reported in 1950s in human gastric carcinoma, and was subsequently demonstrated to occur in the majority of squamous and transitional cell carcinomas. Tumor cells with decreased expression of these antigens were shown to have a higher metastatic tendency.  Life expectancy of patients with blood group A or AB who had primary non-small-cell lung carcinomas negative for A antigen was shown to be significantly shorter when compared to patients with A antigen-positive tumors. 

Loss of A/B antigens has also been reported in prostate cancer, regardless of the histological grade or blood type. Vowden et al. used monoclonal antibodies directed towards A, B, H and Lewis y (Ley: Fuc α1->2 Gal β1->4 (Fuc α1->3) GlcNAc β1->) antigens and observed a loss of A/B antigen expression in all prostate tumors tested. They also identified type 2 (core structures are Gal β1->3 GlcNAc β1-> and Gal β1->4 GlcNAc β1-> for type 1 and type 2, respectively) H and Ley antigens in most tumors and proposed a link between type 2 structures and malignant transformation. Other reports confirmed the augmentation of type 2 H expression in poorly differentiated prostate adenocarcinomas, a loss of A, B, Lewis a (Lea: Gal β1->3 (Fuc α1->4) GlcNAc β1->) and Lewis b (Leb: Fuc α1->2 Gal β1->3 (Fuc α1->4) GlcNAc β1->) expression in all grades of adenocarcinomas, and strong expression of Ley in adenocarcinomas. In addition to Ley, sialyl Lex (sLex: NeuAc α2->3 Gal β1->4 (Fuc α1->3) GlcNAc β1->) was also found to be highly expressed in malignant prostate tissue although it is completely absent or minimally expressed in benign secretory epithelial cells. The appearance of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen: Gal β1->3 GalNAc α1->Ser/Thr) has also been reported in a majority of prostate carcinomas.

Appendix 30. ABO & Pancreatic Cancer

Molecular genetic basis of the blood group ABO system 


Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Biomembrane Institute, IMPPC, IMPPC Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i Personalitzada del Càncer,  AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database