JAINISM
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Jai-Jinendra

 What is Jainism ?

Jainism is the earliest religion of the universe. The word Jina literally means one who has conquered ( inner passions) like desire and hatred.  Jainism is preached by Jina. Formely this religion was also known as nirgrantha  religion a religion of one who has got rid of all knots.

 

Jainism is one of the major religious traditions to originate in ancient India. Like Buddhism, Jainism developed at a time when people were questioning the established norms of social conduct and religious ideology. Jains do not believe in a creator, god who punishes or rewards. Instead the emphasis is on human responsibility, with each individual soul being responsible for its own spiritual progress. Jainism teaches equality of all souls, regardless of creed, caste or gender. The basic principles stress non-violence (ahimsa), care for life in all its forms and many-pointedness (anekantavada) which affirms that reality can be viewed from a number of different perspectives. Ahimsa & vegetarian  is the most widely known of these principles, familiar to many people through the teachings of  Mahatma Gandhi.

WE ARE BORN WITH NOTHING AND DIE WITH NOTHING BUT ONLY OUR GOOD KARMAS COME WITH US              

 

JAINISM

Jainism is the earliest religion of the Universe. The word Jina literally means one who has conquered (inner passions) like desire and hatred. Jainism is thus named,  for it is preached by Jina.  Formely this religion was also known as Nirgrantha religion, a religion of one who has got rid of all knots.

A Jina is variously mentioned by the Jains as Arhat, Arhant, Arihant, Tirthankara etc of these the word Tirthankara has a special significance. It implies one who is the founder of the four-fold order of monks and nun's and of lay followers, male as well as female.  A Tirthankara is its supreme law-giver.

Of the 24 Tirthankara who were born in this sacred land of India, Rishab was the first. He was not only the first Tirthankara who preached religion, he was also the first sovereign monarch of rule and taught people about household duties. Of the many things he taught, mention maybe made of the art of thrashing out grains, cooking and making earthen pots. Rishab after living worldly for many years renounced the world and took to penance and preaching. As he was the first of the Tirthankaras he is also known as Adinath or Adideva, foremost among the Tirthankaras. Mahaveer,was the last Tirthankara.

The Vows for Tirthankars:

As already mentioned that a Tirthankara is the founder of the four fold order of monks and nun's and of lay followers, male and female. Of these four, the sadhus or the monks are held in highest respect. They live a hard and strenuous life after renunciation. They observe the five great vows of Mahavratas. These are ahimsa (not to kill). Satya (not to lie), Achauryya (not to steal), Brahmmacharya (to abstain from sexual relation) and Aparigraha (to renounce all interest in worldly things) these vows are strictly to be observed by the monk's i.e. in speach, in mind and in deed until their death. They should be of kind disposition and of even mind towards all beings  Himsa implies not only killing but also toruchering or forcing a living creature to act against his will. Monk's not only observe this form of ahimsa themselves, but also do not advice anybody to do such acts which cause death or injury to any living organism nor approve of such acts, if others do it . This is the first great vow and is known as Ahimsa or Pranatipata Viramana.

Not to Lie is the second great vow this is knows as Satya or Mrishavad Viramana. Monks always what is true in case a truth uttered causes pain or death to a living being they should remain silent and anger greed fear and joke are the breeding grounds of untruth, monks should not yield to anyone of these. This vow is also to be observed by them completely  i.e. in speech, in mind and in deed. They themselves will not utter what is not true nor approve of it.

The third great vow is Achauryya or Abstention from theft. This is known as Adattadana Viramana. Monks are required to observe this vow completely so that they not only desist from appropriating things ungiven to them in villages or towns but also desist from picking up wild fruits in the forests. They themselves do not appropriate anything nor ask another to appropriate nor approve of it. Moreover, they are also advised to keep vigilance so that they may not take more, when accepting alms, than what they strictly require. To take more than one's requirement is also theft.

The fourth great vow is Brahmmacharyya or Maithuna Viramana abstention from sexual relation monks are required to observe this vow strictly and completely. They themselves will not sexual pleasures nor ask another to do the same nor approve of it.. If they had any experience of pleasure in their past domestic life, they will not now think of it and observe this vow strictly to the letter. As this vow is very difficult to maintain, they are advised not to sit on a cushion or a bed used by a women nor take palatable dishes which may rouse their passion and observe such other rules. They must lead a hard life.

The fifth great vow is Aparigraha Viraman-renunciation of all interest in mundance things. Monks are required not to have attachment to anything-wealth property grains or house what ever it may be. They themselves should not keep such things nor ask another to keep them nor approve of it. By giving up all attachments to the objects of sound, sight, smell, taste and touch, in all ways and by all means they observe this vow.

Other Virtues:

Along with the above mentioned five great vows, monks strive after ten-fold virtues of a Yati or a self-controlled Ascetic, viz, Kshama (Forgiveness), Mardaba (Humanity,  Arjaba (candour), Nirlobhata (non-covetousness), Akinchanata (noverty), Satya(truthfulness), Sanyama (self-restraint), Tapasya (austerity), Soucha (purity) and Brahmmacharyya (chastity). There are constantly required to bear equanimity towards all beings friends and foes alike. They do not take food at night. They live on alms and do not use any kind of conveyance in their movements from one place to another. They do not keep money nor accept it even if they offered any. They have no property and have no belongings.

Regulations for Controlling Inner Nature:

As monks constantly have to control the fierce desires of their mind and flesh, sometimes expressed in words, three guptis or regulations with reference to controlling one's inner nature are prescribed. The first one is Mana Gupti or regulation by which mind is to be controlled. If at any time unseemly or evil desire arises in mind, they have to control it by excluding the evil thought and making room for a pure one. The second gupti is Bhasagupti or regulation of speech. It runs to the length of observing complete silence even. The third one is Kaya Gupti or regulation of one's bodily activity. Along with these guptis, monks have to observe five Samitis also. These samitis are: Iriya samitis or regulation of walking, Bhasa Samiti or regulation of speaking, esana samiti or regulation of begging , Adana-nikshepa Samiti or regulation of taking or keeping anything and utsarga samiti or regulation of disposing of any thing. To keep strict vigilance so that they may not kill or hurt a creature while moving is iriya samiti. To be restrained in speech and to speak the truth which is beneficial is bhasa samiti. To beg food which is pure and harmless and necessary for the maintenance of the body is esana samiti. To take care while receiving and keeping anything whatsoever is adananikshepa samiti. And to be careful when disposing of unnecessary things is utsarga samiti.

For Pure Thought:

To make room for pure thought and to drive out of evil ones, monks have to reflect, these reflections are twelve in number. Antiya bhavana or reflections regarding transitoriness of life, youth, wealth and property. This will help a monk to break all earthly attachments. Asarana bhavana or reflections regarding helpness against death and disease. This will encourage him to endeavor to make these cease by annihilating his karma. Sansara bhavana or reflections regarding the flimsiness of our relations. Really there are no such worldly relations as Father, Mother, Friend or Foe etc. It is we who establish these relations and live accordingly and are caught. That is the nature of this World. Thus he will cease to have any attachment to anybody or anything whatsoever. Ekatwa bhavana or reflections such as, 'I have been born alone' and 'I have alone to suffer for the deeds I do or have done'. Such reflections will stimulate his efforts to get rid of karma by his own initiative. Anyatwa bhavana or reflections regarding the relation of the body and the soul. These are not one. This body is matter while the soul is all-consciousness. He should not mistake one for the other, and allow himself to be controlled by the urge of the flesh. Asuchi bhavana or reflections regarding the constituent elements of this body. It is made of impure things like blood, flesh, etc. therefore he should not attach too much importance to this body. Ashrava bhavana or reflections regarding karma streaming into the soul. Every time he enjoys the pleasure of the senses he makes his karma to increase. These reflections will make him more careful and he will try to stop the influx of it. Sambara bhavana or reflections to stop the evil thought and to make room for the good one. Nirjara bhavana or reflections regarding the evil consequences of karma and the striving to destroy the previously acquired karma by austerity and meditation. Loka bhavana or reflections regarding the real nature of this universe. Judging from the standpoint of substance, it is eternal but from the standpoint of modification it is transitory. Thus all objects of the world come into existence and perish. This kind of reflection makes him understand the true nature of things, which is so necessary for the right knowledge. Bodhidurlabha bhavana or reflection that is difficult to acquire right seeing and right conduct in this world. These will strengthen his effort to attain them and live accordingly. Dharma bhavana or reflections that religion is the only isle on which to rest, and excellent shelter in this world full of agony. All other things lead to misery and suffering.

There is another regulations of conduct for the monks such as going through the twenty-two hardships like hunger, thirst, cold, heat etc.

The Sadhvis or nuns also observe the same strict vows and rules of conduct as the monks. It is these monks and nuns who practice self-control and having given up all desires and earthly possessions become the spiritual teachers.

Male lay followers of the path are knows as Shravakas and female lay followers as Shravikas. They are not required to renounce the world but are expected to discharge household duties by honest means and live a progressively pure life. They are to be magnanimous, calm, placid, upright, kind, impartial appreciative of good qualities, of others humble, grateful, and doing good to others. Twelve kinds of rules of conduct are prescribed for them.

Sthula pranatipata viramana or the vow of not injuring an inoffensive creature intentionally. Sthula mrishabada viramana or the vow of not uttering a lie which hurts or injures others. To deny trust, to give false evidence before a law court, to pass others' property as one's own or another's' may be treated as the breach of this vow. Sthula adattadana viramana or the vow of not stealing.  Theft of somebody's things or evasion of tax payable as revenue are instances of the above. Sthula maithuna viramana or vow of not enjoying sexual pleasures with any woman except one's own wife. Even with her one must enjoy with restraint. Parigraha parimana or the vow of keeping property including wealth, grains and animals, not exceeding a certain limit which he fixes for himself. He is required not to amass wealth indefinitely. Dik parimana or the vow of limiting the sphere within which one is free to move for trade or other purposes. Bhogapabhoga parimana or the vow of limiting  the things to be used by one like food, clothes, etc. Things like food, flowers, ointments which can be used only once are bhogya and things like houses, clothes which can be used repeatedly are upabhogya. Anarthadanda viramana or the vow of not indulging in sinfl acts, not required for one's own or family's maintenance. To give arms and poison, to instigate birds or animals to fight, to give suggestion concerning sinful acts to others, to cherish evil thoughts in one's mind and to indulge in alcoholic and emotional inebriation are breaches of this vow. Thus this vow is of great practical import. Samayika or the vow of performing the samayika kriya. It consists in sitting down at one place for at least, forty-eight minutes concentrating one's mind on religious activities like reading sacred books, praying or meditating. For the duration of this time on vows to give up doing and causing to be done evil thoughts, words and deeds and thus becomes of even mind towards all beings and nearly comes up to the moral standard of a monk. Desabakasika or the vow of setting new limits everyday within the limitations already set by the sixth and the seventh vows in accordance with one's daily requirements. pausadha or the vow to live for a day the life of a monk. Consists in fasting and giving  up all earthly activities for a day or for a day and a night taken together. For the duration of that time one concentrates on religious activities. It is called pausadha  as it promotes and nourishes one's religious life. And lastly, atithi sambibhaga or the vow of serving monks and nuns, a deserving person or a poor by food and clothes, etc., and to help them, if required, to the best of one's abilities.

Of these twelve vows, the first five are Anuvratas, somewhat easier in comparison with the Mahavratas which are specifically meant for the monks; from the sixth to the eighth, they are gunavratas so called because they purify the guna or merits of the preceding five anuvratas and the remaining four are called sikshavratas. Sikhavratas are preliminary for entering into the ascetic life of the monk. By performing these twelve vows a lay follower may live a righteous life and advance towards a filler and perfect life.

The aim of Jainism is to attain the freedom of the soul by freeing it from the shackles of karma. But unless one knows what is soul, what is karma, what are the attributes of the soul, how it is forced by the incoming karma to traverse the cycle of life and death and suffering and the way of getting out of this cycle by exhausting karma, how can one free his own Self? to know all these one has to know the constituent elements of the universe, their relations, why and how the soul finds itself in bondage and the ways and means of becoming free  again. This knowledge is embodied in the Nava Tattwa or nine principles. These are Jiva (soul), ajiva (non-living substances), Ashrava, (influx of karma), bandha (bondage of karma), Punya (virtue), Paap (sin), sambara (arrest of the influx of karma), Nirjara (exhaustion of karma), and Moksha (liberation). But in reality the principles of Ajiva and Jiva comprehend the whole world. The other seven principles simply explain how the soul is defiled by coming into contact with karma, and ways and means of becoming free from it.

Living Being (Jiv -Soul)

The first principle of jiva. The main characteristic of jiva is chetana (consciousness). Other characteristics of jiva are infinite knowledge, vision power and bliss. Jivas have separate existence and they are infinite in number. Jivas are of two kinds: Mukta (free) and Sansari (wordly). Those who have attained nirvana by destroying the shackles of karma and passed beyond rebirth are free. They are also known as Siddhas (perfect) and are endowed with infinite knowledge, vision power and bliss. The worldly souls are the embodied souls of those who are subject to the cycles of life and death, and have not yet attained the dinal liberation. They are born as devas (gods), manavas (men), narakas (beings of hell) and tiryakas (birds, beasts, insects, plants etc.), and when the sands of their lives run out, they die and are born again.

Jivas are, again, divided according to the number of sense organs they possess. The highest are those which have five senses: touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing. The lowest have one sense only: touch. As jivas with one sense organ (ekendriya) cannot move, they are called sthavaras (beings devoid of power of movement), sthavara beings are subdivided into five categories: prithwi kayas or jivas of earth-body, apkayas or jivas of water body, agnikayas or jivas of fire-body, vayukayas or jivas of air-body, and vanaspatikayas or jivas of tree-body. Earth and stone, every kind of water, every kind of fire, every kind of air, and every kind of trees are full of jivas of earth-water-fire-air-tree bodies. The beings possessing two to five sense organs can move and are known as trasa jivas dwindriya beings possess the sense organs of touch and taste (worms, leeches, etc) Trindriya beings possess the sense organ of smell along with the above two organs (ants, lice, etc). Chaturindriya jivas possess the sense organ of hearing along with the above. In this category we may mention human beings, animals, birds gods and beings of hell. According to the Jaina scriptures, there are seven hells. Those who commit gross sins enter into hell after their death and have to undergo unimaginable sufferings. Those who perform meritorious work enter into heaven and enjoy pleasures limitless. There are twelve heavens besides the abodes of lower-gods and vimanas of the higher ones. Beings with one sense organ to four sense organs so not possess mind and are known as amanaska. Beings with five sense organs possess mind and are known as samanaska, though there is a great difference in the development of their minds.

Living Being (Jiv -Soul)  

The second principle is Ajiva. In one respect it is fundamentally different from that of Jiva, that is to say, it is devoid of consciousness. There are five entities of ajiva: Dharma, Adharma, Akasa, Pudgala and kaala. These five entities like jiva are eternal.

Principle of Dharma:

Dharma is the principle of motion. If this principle of motion never existed, it would not have been possible for a jiva, or pudgala to move. Dharma is no corporeal, devoid of all sense qualities and pervades the whole Loka. Loka is that portion of the universe where jiva and Ajiva can exist. Beyond this loka, is aloka or empty void. In aloka, as there is no principle of motion, nobody can go.

Principle of Adharma:

Adharma is the principle of rest. It helps a moving jiva or pudgala to stop, if it desires to stop. Adharma is also no corporeal, devoid of all sense qualities and pervades the whole loka.

Akasha is space. It gives room for jiva and pudgala to exist. This pervades loka and aloka and is non-corporeal and devoid of all sense qualities.

Atom (Paramanu) or any combinations of atoms is called pudgala. Atom is the smallest indivisible particle of which the whole material world is composed. The material objects are infinite in number form, taste, smell, touch, sound are the characteristics of this pudgala or material substance. Though the atoms cannot be perceived by our sense organs, they too have the qualities of form taste, smell, touch and sound.

According to one view, kaal or time is an imaginary thing; it has no real existence. Relative time is determined by changes or motions of things. The smallest individual potion of this relative time is samaya and combinations of such infinitesimal samayas are variously classified as moment, month, year, etc. According to another view, time, too, has a real existence and consists of innumerable time atoms(kalanus). Time comes as an agency in the changes of jiva and pudgala. It is also non corporeal and devoid of sense qualities.

Principle of Ashrava:

The third principle is Ashrava. The causes which lead to the influx of good and evil karma for the bondage of the soul are called ashrava. In short, ashrava may be described as attraction in the jiva towards sense objects. Mithyawata (ignorance), abirati (lack of self- restraint) kasaya (passions like anger, conceit, deceit and lust), pramada (unmindfulness) and yoga (activities of mind, speech and body) are the five caused for the influx of good and evil karma and hence they are known as ashrava. As himsa, untruth, stealing, sex indulgence and attachment to the worldly objects are causes of the influx of karma, they may also be regarded as ashrava.

Principle of Bandha:

The fourth principle is Bandha. Bandha is the attachment of karma pudgala to the soul. Karma pudgala is a particular type of pudgala which, being attracted by ignorance or by the action of body, mind and speech and by its reaction of attraction and repulsion, attaches itself to the soul and shrouds it. In its essential nature, the soul is pure, transparent, conscious and non-corporeal. Therefore, logically, it cannot be bound by corporeal and unconscious pudgala. But still from eternity, it has got this bondage by forms of karma pudgala. In Jaina philosophy this karmic body is known as karmana sarira. As the jiva is encased in this karmana sarira from time eternal, different kinds of impulses and reactions sprout from it. Attracted by these impulses and reactions new karma pudgalas are constantly flowing in and attaching themselves to the karamana sarira of the jiva has pass through the cycles of births and deaths, experiencing pleasure and pain.

Karmic matter attaching itself to the soul assumes four forms. These are : prakritti bandha, sthiti banda anubhnva bandha and pradesha bandha.

When karma pudgala attaches itself to the soul, it will obscure or weaken in various ways the original attributes of the jiva. This is called prakritti bandha. Prakritti bandhas are arranged under eight heads according to the particular attribute of the soul that it obscures: jnanabaraniya or that which covers up the soul's power of infinite knowledge, dharshanabaraniya or that which clouds its power of infinite vision, vedaniya or that which obscures the blissful nature of the soul and thereby procedures pleasure and pain, mohaniya or that which generates delusion in the jiva in regard to its own true nature and makes it to identity with non-self, aayu that which determines the span of life in one birth, thus obscuring its nature of eternal existence. naama or that which obscures the non-corporeal existence of the soul and produces body with its limitations and qualities, faculties, etc.. gotra or that which obscures its character of equanimity and determines the caste, family or social standing and antaraya or that which obstructs the natural energy of the soul and prevents it from attaining liberation. It also prevent a living being to do something good and enjoyable.

When karma pudgala adheres to the soul the duration of attachment is determined at that time according to the intensity or dullness of jiva's passions. This kind of attachment is called sthiti bandha

When fruits the karma pudgala will produce is determined at the time of adherence by the various degrees of reactions of the passions. The attachment that is pregnant with the power of producing such fruits is called anubhava bandha or rasa bandha.

The quantum of karrma pudgalas that are drawn towards the jiva for attaching themselves with it is determined by the intensity or dullness of the jiva's action. This kind of attachment of varying magnitude is called pradesha bandha. 

 PUNYA AND PAP

The fifth principle is Punya. Punya is nothing but influx of karma pudgala due to the good activities of mind, body and speech with the potentiality of producing pleasant sensations and good results. Such karma pudgalas can be acquired by giving food, drink, shelter, bedding and clothes or by purifying thought, or by paying homage to the preceptor. Physical and mental happiness, health, charming body, riches, property and fame are the results of good karma.

Principle of Papa:

The sixth principle is Papa. It is just the reverse of punya. Papa is the influx of Karmas pudgala due to evil activities of mind, body and speech with the potentiality of producing unpleasant sensations and evil results. Such karma pudgalas are acquired by himsa, untruth, theft, unchasity and attachment to objects, and anger, conceit, deceit and lust. It is not possible for the soul besmeared with evil karma pudgala to free itself. It is forced to roam in the cycle of births and deaths for eternity acquiring new fetters of bondage. Diseases, ugliness of form, lower animal births, or birth in hell, poverty are the results of evil karma.

As papa and punya are the diverse results of the fourth principle, some exponents of Jaina philosophy do not treat them as separate principles and according to them them main principles are only seven instead of nine.

Principle of Samvara:

The seventh principle is Samvara. The method which arrests fresh karma streaming in to the soul is samvara. It is just the reverse of ashrava. It can be accomplished by constant practice of restraining the mind, speech and body, by religious meditation, conquering of desire, forgiveness, tenderness, purity, truth, austerity, renunciation, unattachment, chastity, abstention from evil action and avarice and by reflecting upon the transitoriness of the world, of life and youth, etc.

Principle of Nirjara:

The eighth principle is Nirjara. Nirjara is the exhaustion of karm pudgala already acquired. All karma exhaust themselves by giving their results when it is time for them to bear fruits. But unless they are exhausted before they are mature for giving results, it becomes difficult to be free because at that time new karma pudgala begins to pour in . Therefore it becomes necessary for one desirous of final liberation to make it exhaust itself before its time. Nirjara is to be done by rigorous austerities. Austerities are of two kinds :external and internal. External austerities are anasana (complete abstinence from all kinds of Food ), alpahara (reduction of one's food), icchanirodha (renunciation of the pleasure of the palate), rasatyaga (renunciation of Wool MilkMeat, Alcohol,honey,silk ,eggs are non vegetarian,varak(silver-foil) kayaklesha (mortification of one's body) and sanlinata ( to sit in a lonely place contracting body and withdrawing one's senses). Internal austerities are prayaschitta (atonement for transgressions), vinaya (appropriate behavior towards the preceptor), vaiavritya (unselfish service of the ill and the deserving), swadhyaya (meditation on the discourse), byutsarga (non-attachment to the body) and subhadhyana (religious meditation).

Principle of Moksha:

The ninth or the last principle is Moksha. Moksha is the liberation of the soul after complete exhaustion or elimination of all karma. A liberated soul regain is original attributes of infinite knowledge, power, and bliss and ascends to the crest of the loka and remains there immersed in the term less beatitude of its unconditioned existence. It never returns again in to the cycle of life and death. This state of the soul is the liberated or perfected state and this is nirvana. As a lamp lit in a house irradiates the whole house with its light, and if other lamps are lit their lights too mingle with each other and remain there, so the liberated souls , which are each one an effulgence, mingle with each other and remain on the crest of the loka for ever.

THE WAY

Now as to the way to this moksha the final liberation. It is three-fold : Samyak Darshana (right seeing), Samyak gyan (right knowledge), and Samyak charitrya (right conduct). A simultaneous practice of these three leads to liberation. And for that reason these three excellences are metaphorically called Triratna (three jewels).

Samyak darshana is samyakatwa. It consists in seeing the real nature of things truly. Generally, people deluded by ignorance take falsehood for truth and truth for falsehood. Samyakatwa is just the reverse of it - to perceive truth as truth and falsehood as falsehood. And truly speaking, when one can discern truth from falsehood, it can be said that he  is on the path to realization because then and then only he can give up, know  what is to be known and embrace what it is to be embraced. This is the state of right seeing.

It is admitted that every jiva possesses some kind of knowledge. But unless one attains the state of right seeing  it cannot be said that he has the right knowledge. So long his knowledge is imperfect and wrong. This is Ajnana or Mithyajnana. this is because at this state he cannot be said that the possesses right knowledge. It can only be attained after attaining the state of right seeing.

Now. there are five kinds of knowledge: mati, struti, avdhi, manaparyaya, and kevala. Mati is ordinary cognition obtained by normal means of sense organs and mind. Sruta is derived through signs, symbols or words. Struti knowledge like mati is also obtained by means of senses and mind and this knowledge of a thing cannot be had unless there has already been mati knowledge. But still it has a wider range than mati, for sruta knowledge comprehends a study of words and their meanings. To know by hearing from the wise and from reading the scriptures is sruta knowledge. Avadhi is direct knowledge of corporeal things without the means of senses and mind within some limit of space and time. It is a kind of spiritual knowledge or extra sensuary perception. One who possesses this knowledge can see, even with one's eyes closed, all things which are not formless within a certain limit of space and time without the means of senses and the mind. This too is a kind of spiritual knowledge. Kevala is that knowledge which completely reveals without the aid of senses and mind the truth of all things corporeal or non-corporeal, with all their attributes and modifications, past, present and future, of the whole universe. This is spiritual knowledge par excellence. Kevala knowledge is the natural state of jiva and it dawns when the four kinds of karma-jnanabaraniya, darshanabaraniya, antaraya and mohaniya arte completely exhausted. Once this state is realized it becomes certain that the jiva will attain final liberation, when the remaining span of life comes to an automatic end. The tirthankaras are such persons possessing kevalajnana all knowing and all-seeing. 

Restraint, renunciation, control of senses and purity in action are charitra or conduct. Practice of this conduct after one attains right seeing and right knowledge constitutes the right conduct. Five great vows, ten yati Dharmas, seventeen forms of self-restraint for the monks and twelve vratas for the lay followers are included in right conduct. Conduct is of two kinds ; sarba tyaga (total renunciation) and desh or ansha tyaga (partial renunciation). total renunciation is for the monks and partial renunciation for the lay followers.

To give up himsa, untruth, stealing, sex indulgence and craving for possession, to give up attachments to five kinds of sense objects- objects of sound, sight, smell, taste, and touch, to control four kasayas-anger, conceit, deceit and lust and to restrain evil propensities of mind, speech and body are seventeen kinds of conduct. One who endeavors for right seeing, right knowledge and right conduct with their perfection is sure to get liberation.

Right seeing, right knowledge and right conduct are inter dependent, i.e., unless seeing becomes perfect, knowledge cannot be perfect. Again, unless seeing and knowledge become perfect, conduct cannot be perfect. Again possession of one or two of the jewels of triratna does not mean liberation. One may possess right seeing and right knowledge but they are fruitless unless they are supplemented by right conduct. Liberation is only attained by attaining all the three. In jainism, much stress has been laid on the purity of action because it is the most difficult of all due to temptations of sense objects of sound, sight, smell, taste and touch. Unless one follows the five great vows of ahimsa, truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity and non-possession rigorously it will not be possible to have a right conduct. The ideal of monk hood as upheld by the Jaina scriptures is the ideal of this right conduct of which ahimsa is the center-piece.

Around this center-piece the rules of conduct for the Jain monks have been woven. Unless one practices truthfulness, no stealing, chastity and non-possession it becomes practically impossible for him to keep the vow of ahimsa. Therefore, the other four are included in the list of five great vows. Again, unless one restraints his mind and senses one cannot keep the vow of ahimsa. On the other hand restraint becomes difficult unless one practices austerities are said to be dharma in Jain literature. Monks are required at every moment in every action to be careful so that they may not kill, hurt or injure a living being, howsoever small it may be. This requires the fulfillment of the above mentioned five great vows. Monks do bear unflinchingly and with courage and equanimity the torture inflicted on them even at the point of death. Even so, they do not become angry or desire retaliation for inquiry inflicted on them.        jainism..exe  video animated cilip how to enter a jain temple and more

Vratas of lay followers have been already mentioned. They are so formulated that by following them the lay followers may learn to live a good life and conquer desire. While earning gold or amassing it, while taking up arms to protect his self, his family or his country against an intruder, he is taught self-restraint -restraint in plenty and thus on the one hand he is debarred from doing any harm to himself, to his family or to his country or even to humanity by reckless conduct, and on the other by giving up attachment gradually he prepares himself for the life of a monk. If one goes deeper in the rules laid down, he will find that the practice of limiting the number of things to be kept or enjoyed by self eliminates the danger of concentration of wealth at one point. Unable to earn more than what is prescribed to self he is expected to spend the whole of it and this for the benefit of the whole society. It is natural that as a good disciple he will not spend it by wrong means. Thus limiting desires of individuals, restraint does immense good to society and maintains a perfect order of things. If this principle is revived and restored in its pristine purity in the life of the individual, the society and the establishment by driving out death, destruction and Blood-thirstiness.WHO IS REAL JAIN

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