US Invasions Fact Sheet

In its 200 plus history, the US has fought 15 major wars.  It has put its troops in other countries to force them to bend to our will over 200 times, or an average of about once a year.  Currently, the US has troops in 120 countries around the world.  It has bombed 23 countries since WWII, and attempted to overthrow over 40 governments of foreign countries.  The CIA has overthrown functional constitutional democracies in over 20 countries .  It has manipulated elections in dozens of countries.  It has created and financed standing armies and directed them to fight.  It has organized ethnic minorities (such as the Tibetans, Kurds, Miskitos of Nicaragua, mujahaden of Afghanistan, etc.) and encouraged them to revolt.

The (Senator) Church Committee Report of 1975 stated that the CIA had run thousands  of operations over the years.  Ex-CIA agent, John Stockwell, places the number of covert operations at about 3,000, with another 10,000 minor operations.  All of these have been illegal and all have been designed to disrupt, destabilize, or modify activities of other countries.  All were justified on the basis of “national security” or “anti-communism”.    However, in reality, they were a means of maintaining cover t colonialism in the age where overt colonialism is officially passe.  Most of these operations were truly secret and there was little or no press coverage.  There was, however, press coverage of some operations, especially the secret wars- but this has been carefully controlled and involves carefully crafted “smokescreen terminology” and the techniques for “manufacturing consent”.    Nonetheless, we have details of several hundred of these operations based on Congressional  hearings,  journalists, books, and testimony of CIA personnel and victims of CIA programs.  

1948. Italy  Election engineering.  Mafia and CIA teamed up to defeat commununist candidates in elections.
1948, Thailand- CIA coup led by Major General Phin Choohannan.   Phao installed- and Thailand becomes CIA’s main base of operations in the region.  Thailand became a police state.  KMT driven into Thailand. 
1945-53.  Korea.  Proxy war.  After Mao defeated Chiang Kai-shek, in China, the CIA mounted a long destabilization program against Mao and the Chinese communists.   The CIA installed Chiang Kai-shek in Taiwan, and parachuted teams from Tibet, Quemoy, Matsu, Burma and Thailand to destabilize mainland China.  These operations failed and eventually we fought China in North Korea, killing about a million.  The actual American war in Korea was between 1950 and 1953.  The U.S. supported a corrupt, ruthless government in S. Korea and blocked re-unification of South and North Korea.
1945-1973.    Vietnam.  11 year war and two coups. The U.S. sided with the French  against the former French colony, even though Ho Chi Minh had appealed to the U.S. for help and even modeled the new Vietnamese declaration of independence on the American.   Ho had also helped the CIA near the end of WWII in to rescue downed US pilots.  The Geneva Accords partitioned the country into north and south and guaranteed a national election in 1956 in which the Vietnamese people would decide their own fate.  The US quashed those elections because it was obvious that Ho would win.  A CIA coup in 1963 resulted in assassination of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem (an exiled priest and CIA puppet), as well as his brother Bho Dhin Nhu.  (Nhu was one of largest heroin brokers in S. Vietnam).  CIA installed Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky (van Thieu) as S. Vietnam’s new leader. 
The “Gulf of Tonkin” incident which “triggered” official US entry into full-scale war occurred on July 30, 1964.  CIA crews aboard Norwegian built SWIFTS (ships) attacked a radar station in North Vietnam on Hon Me Island.  The N. Vietnamese issued a formal protest to the US.  The USN Maddox was patrolling inside N. Vietnamese waters to provide cover for the CIA marauders.  N. Vietnamese pursued the CIA mauraders and confronted the Maddox.  The Maddox fired upon the N. Vietnamese, who returned fire- with torpedoes that missed. 
After a 20 year-non-declared war, with over 2 million Vietnamese and 58,000 Americans dead, an good development option (that is a nationalistic) development model for Asia was prevented.  The country was in ruins, the environment was decimated.  Tarpley and Chaitkin attribute the insane adventure in Vietnam to the Brown Brothers, Harriman/Skull and bones network (which has consistently promoted the interests of George H.W. Bush).  When Kennedy took office in 1960, he asked Brown Brothers/Harriman partner Robert Lovett to provide him a list of cabinet choices.  From this last came Sec. of  State Dean Rusk, Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara, the leading hawks in the cabinet.  McGeorge and William Bundy were mainstays of the war escalation.
Egypt. 1952 Coup.
Iran. 1953 Coup. Prior to 1953, the country was dominated by British and U.S. oil companies and intelligence agencies.  At this time it was producing 600 tons of opium a year and had 1.3 million opium addicts, second only to China.  Democratically –elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, upon entering office, moved immediately to suppress the opium trade.  He also wanted to nationalized British Petroleum.  Within months, he  was overthrown by  CIA and British
     Intelligence  Agencies and   the  Shah was installed by the CIA and the oil and opium fields were once again in friendly hands.   This initiated 25 year period
     of repression and torture, with the U.S. and Britain each
getting 40% of oil profits.  When the Ayatollah Khomeini assumed power in 1979, he shut down opium production altogether. 
Guatemala.  1954 Coup and proxy war.  (Operation Success).  Democratically-elected Jacobo Arbenz-  a social  reformer but not a  communist- was overthrown in a  CIA coup, initiating 40 years of torture, death squads, disappearances, mass executions, and unimaginable cruelty, totalling  more than 200,000 victims.  Arbenz’s sin?  He wanted to redistribute a small proportion of the land in Guatemala to the landless poor. Included was some of his own family  land and some of the uncultivated  land belonging to the United Fruit Company. The U.S. decided that there was a danger that this model of social democracy might spread to nearby countries in Latin America.  Despite a 1996 peace accord, death squad and torture continues and the U.S. continues to arm and train the Guatemalan military through the School of the Americas,etc.   
1959-present  Cuba.  Attempted assassinations and low intensity conflict.  Cuban revolution followed by 40 years of terrorist attacks, bombings, full-scale  military invasion, sanctions, embargos, isolation, assassinations… Cuba had carried out the Unforgivable Revolution- the threat of a “good example” in Latin America. The CIA’s OPMONGOOSE was the code name for the secret war against Cuba.  
1958, 59, 60.  Laos.  Coup and secret war.  “Laos belongs to the CIA”.  The CIA fixed elections in 1960. To try to legitimize rule of General Nosavan Phoumi.  They managed to Prime Minister Souvanna Phouma, who had amicable relations with the Pathet Lao. C.I.A. coups forced Pathet Lao to arm itself. In 1960, CIA built up and funded army of Hmong general  Vang Pao, a leading drug lord.  CIA assembled 30,000 “L’Arme  Clandestine” , under Vang Pao, mostly teenagers to fight the Pathet  Lao.  The U.S. also rained down two million tons of carpet bombs between 1965 and 1973- the most bombs ever dropped in the world in any conflict at that time.  Hundreds of thousands killed and hundreds of thousands more maimed.  Government of Laos estimates that even today, 20,000 (mostly villagers and children) die each year , when they accidentally trip unexploded bomlets remaining from the U.S. cluster bombs.    
1960,1961. Korea.

1961. Congo/Zaire.  Coup and military support. First  President (after decolonization) Patrice  Lamumba assassinated after CIA coup removed him.   CIA ally Mobutu took power in 1965 and renamed the country Zaire.  Mobutu became multibillionaire while his people remained incredibly impoverished.  In 1977-78, Carter rushed military aid to Mobutu to quell popular uprisings and maintain his power. 
1961- Dominican Republic. Coup. Rafael Trujillo, who had been installed by CIA earlier. 
1961-64. Brazil.  Coup. Democratically elected leader, Joao  Goulart was
overthrown by CIA sponsored coup after he tried to limit profits that multinational corporations could transfer outside the country.  Congress was shut down, labor unions were crushed, protestors shot, Priests were brutalized, an era death squads, torture and disappearances was ushered in.  The name for the institutional changes: “moral rehabilitation” of Brazil. 
1962-5 Indonesia. Coup, terror.  CIA fomented a civil war which killed one half to two million people .  CIA alerted military to a plan by Communist Party to overthrow the government violently.  The result was a bloodbath.  The CIA puts the number of killed at 800,000.  Sukarno  overthrown, attempted assassination failed.  Replaced by General Suharto, CIA ally.  U.S. handed Indonesian military list of 5000 communists.  The military then cooperated by killing them. 
1960-63. Equador. C.I.A. coup ousts President Jose Maria Valesco because he refused to go along with the U.S. Cuba policy.
1960. Laos.
1960. Zaire.
1963. Vietnam.
1963. Iraq.  Coup, assassination, terror.  Kassem overthrown
and executed in CIA and British Intelligence-directed coup.   Thousands of communists also killed at this time.   His sin- expressing interest in reclaiming the territory of Kuwait, which Iraq had historical claims and legitimate rights over.   In 1962, he had created a national oil company. 
1964. Dominican Republic.  Coup. Juan Bosche, first
democratically- elected President of Dominican Republic since 1924, was ousted in a coup.  He had called for land reform, low-rent housing, modest nationalization of business, and civil  liberties.  In 1965, a popular uprising demanded his return,  the U.S. sent in 23,000 troops to squash the rebellion.   
1964, 71 Bolivia. Coup. .Victor  Paz overthrown in CIA-supported  coup.  Paz had not supported U.S. Cuban policy.  Barrientos. a  U.S. puppet, was  installed.  The U.S. took firm control of Bolivian army, sent dozens of US advisors to La Paz and brought 1600 of Bolivia’s military officers back to the U.S. for training at U.S. military bases.  The CIA spent several million dollars in 1966 and 1967.  Klaus Barbie was influential in government there. 
1965. Indonesia.
1966. Ghana.  Coup. Khwame Nkrumah overthrown in CIA-backed military coup after he tried to strengthen ties to Soviet Union, East Germany, and China.
1967-1974. Greece.  Coup and terror.  Liberal leader George
Papandreou  was overthrown in military coup backed by CIA, the Greek  military, and U.S. military stationed in Greece.  Martial law, arrests, beatings, torture, killings followed with 8,000 victims  in the first month.   Democracy was killed.   
1967- Cuba. Assassination/ Secret wars.  In a CIA operation, OPMONGOOSE,the Agency’s Cuban exile agents  tracked down guerilla leader, Che Guevara, and executed him,
1967.  Greece. 
1960s –80s. South Africa.   Terror.  The CIA worked with South
African intelligence to try to defeat Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress (ANC) and was even responsible for the capture and imprisonment of Mandela.  Mandela was to spend 28 years in prison.  The CIA covertly sent arms to South Africa (in violation of UN and US policy) in order to support the apartheid regime there.
1968-80s. Mexico.  The “dirty war”.  Hundreds of student protesters killed in 1968.  Killers were never brought to justice.  Indeed, they were hired by the government. 
1970. Bolivia. Coup.  CIA patsy Barrientos died in 1969, under suspicious circumstances.  Juan Jose Torres was elected and immediately he seized land owned by foreign corporations, including Gulf Oil.  Another CIA-directed coup overthrows President Torres and installs SOA graduate Banzer.  He was a longtime friend of Klaus Barbie.  The overthrow of Torres was accompanied by extreme violence, tin miners were violently suppressed and over 3000 leftists and union organizers were interrogated and “disappeared”.  Barbie advised Banzer on techniques of internal suppression- including a system of concentration camps for important military and political prisoners.  Banzer also oversaw one of the world’s most profitable drug empires- a multi-billion-dollar business- La Mafia Cruzena.  – 80% of the world’s cocaine originated from his fields in the Alto Beni.  He was the primary supplier of raw coca and cocaine to the Medellin cartel. 
1970. Cambodia. Coup and secret war, terrorism.  During 1969, Nixon and Kissinger ordered a secret “carpet bombing” against North Vietnamese troops on Cambodian territory under code name “Menu”.  (This bombing was  substantive grounds for impeachment of Nixon and was chosen as 4th proposed article of impeachment- by House Judiciary Committee.  Prince  Sihanouk, former king turned prime minister,  was overthrown in U.S.-sponsored coup in March, 1970.  Marshal Lon Nol, of Cambodian army, installed as U.S. puppet.  In April, 1970, Nixon and Kissinger launched a large scale US military invasion of Cambodia and occuppied the “parrot’s beak” area. Khmer Rouge (Cambodian communist party modelled on the Chinese example) took power after systematic campaign of terror bombing ordered by Nixon and Kissinger in 1973.  Operation Arclight- began shortly after Jan., 1973 Paris accords with Vietnam and had the pretext of halting a Khmer Rouge attack on Phnom Penh.  US forces carried out 79,959 officially confirmed sorties with B-52s and F-lll bombers against targets inside Cambodia, dropping 539,129 tons of explosives.  (estimated deaths – 300,000 to 500,000).  In 1974, Khmer Rouge, under Pol Pot, consolidated power- executing teachers, civil servants, intellectuals, those who could read and write.  (Similar to Operation Phoenix in Vietnam at the same time).  Nixon and Kissinger supported these genocidal policies because it fit with their overall aim at depopulation of LDCs and because it helped consolidate their relationship with China.  Over 2 million of about 7 million people were killed in the period 1969-79, per capita the perhaps the greatest genocide in the century. Some estimate that 34% of population was wiped out.       
1964-73- Chile.  Coup, assassination,  and terrorism.
Twice in the 60s the CIA spent large sums of money to influence outcome of elections and install the candidate favored by Washington.  Nonetheless, Salvador Allende, was democratically – elected, and a Marxist leader, held office between 64 and 73.  He survived several attempts at electoral sabbatoge by the U.S.  Finally, the CIA organized the Track I and Track II destabilization program.  in 1973, General Pinochet deposed Allende in a C.I.A.-supported military coup.  Allende was killed and over 30,000 Chileans were killed by the brutal new military regime, and thousands more disappeared, and tens of thousands were tortured.  Books were burned, torture centers opened, dogs were trained to sexually molest female prisoners.  Declassified federal documents indicate Kissinger and Nixon’s close supervision of the coup.  The interests most served were those of Anaconda Copper and ITT.  Henry Kissinger, said to Congress:  “The issues are much too important for the Chilean people to decide for themselves.”
1972-5. Iraq.  Proxy War. As a favor to the Shah of Iran, Nixon
and Kissinger  supplied $16 million in military aid to help the Kurds of Iraq fight for their autonomy within Iraq.  It was a cynical  operation designed not to help the Kurds but to sap the strength of the Iraqi regime.
Portugal.  Coups.  In 1974, a bloodless military  coup
brought down the U.S. supported 48-year fascist regime.  This was followed by nationalization of industries, worker control, establishment of minimum wages,  and land reform.  The CIA subverted the new regime and reforms and through economic sabatoge, and covert actiity, managed to install their own candidates within a couple years.   
1975. Australia.  Coup. Prime Minister Edward Gough Whitlam of
the Labor Party was  a vocal opponent of the U.S. bombing of Vietnmam and called home the Australian military personnel from Vietnam.   The CIA had already spent millions of dollars trying to keep Whitlam and the Labor Party from winning the elections.  The CIA arranged to have Whitlam "legally dismissed” by Governor-General John Kerr, a CIA ally.
1975. Saudi Arabia.  King Feisal murdered by CIA.  In 1991, King Fahd informed by Sec. of Defense Richard Cheney that they were to be a militarily occuppied country in order to protect them from Iraqi aggression.   U.S. troops remain there today, however, as well as in Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman and all the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council.
1975-1980s. Angola.  Proxy war.  The U.S. intervened in
Angolan politics  first in the 1960’s.  This precipitated a civil war that raged for decades and killed about half a million.  The U.S. China, and South Africa  supported one side while the Soviets and Cuba supported the other.   Thus, it became a proxy war between 3 competing factions.  Angola  is said to have the highest amputee rate in the world due to all the land mines (the Red Cross counts over 20,000 walking maimed). Kissinger himself prevented a peaceful solution in the early years.  In 1974, it was apparent that Angola would gain its independence from Portugal.    So the US spent $32 million and killed about 20,000.  John Stockwell was involved in this one and outlines CIA activities here as  a classic case of CIA destablization.   
1975-99. East Timor.  State sponsored terror/mass murder.  In 1975, East Timor was decolonizing from Portugal.  A civil war broke out and a leftest group, Fretilin, gained power.  Nine days after Fretilin declared independence from Portugal, Indonesia  invaded, using U.S. arms, money, and diplomatic support.  By 1989, Indonesian troops had slaughtered  and killed about 200,000 of the 600,000 to 700,000 East Timorese.  U.S. continued millitary support for Indonesian massacres until 1999.   
1978- Honduras.  Coup.  Drug king pin in central america- Juan Matta Ballesteros, a CIA friend, financed the overthrow of Honduran president Juan Alberto Melgar Castro, thus ushering into power Policarp Paz Garcia.  Paz was a keen supporter of Nicaragua’s Somoza.  Under Paz, Honduran army and intelligence services got a cut of Ballesteros drug trafficking in exchange for protection.  Now Honduras was a major point of transit for cocaine and marijuana coming north from Columbia. 
1978-90. Nicaragua.  Secret war, state-sponsored terrorism, election engineering.  The Sandanistas overthrew the brutally repressive Samoza dictatorship  in 1978, prompting Washington fears of “another Cuba”.  Under Carter, Washington tried to sabotage the new regime economically and diplomatically.  Under Reagan, it became all out war for eight years- although one he was officially  not allowed to pursue by Congress’ Boland Amendment.  Nicaragua was under attack for 8 years by the Contras, Washington’s proxy army formed from Samoza’s National Guardsmen.  Over 22,000 were killed in a war mainly on civilians which the World Court condemned as “illegal use of force”, i.e. state-sponsored terrorism.  New York Times cites 45,000 killed or wounded. 
In 1990, the U.S. interferred with national elections resulting in the defeat of the Sandanistas and the election of Bush’s friend  and CIA-collaborator, Violetta Chamorro. The CIA spent about $20 million orchestrating that election.  After a decade to free market rule, Nicaragua has become one of the poorest nations in the hemisphere, with over half its population suffering from malnutrition and with illiteracy widespread.  Funding the Contra (Samoza’s old National Guards and other mercenaries recruited by the CIA) was done mostly privately- and heavily relied on drug money.  Cocaine was shipped to the area and processed in local labs and then run via CIA and US planes to US Air Force and national Guard bases and shipped to San Francisco and L.A.- often using CIA personnel.  The CIA was adept at covering up the operation and keeping the DEA from prosecuting their guys.  This story is told in Gary Webb’s Dark Alliance.    In the 10 year continuous attack on Nicaragua (the world court called it war), Nicaraguans never once committed an act of war against the US.  Total cost of the attack and destabilization to the US- over $1 billion.
President Reagan spent more public air time on this issue than any other aspect of his presidency.  The lines he used to rally Americans to the war cause include:  “a Communist beachhead right in our own backyard”… “there are now Soviets flying planes in this hemisphere for the first time in history…. “ “the creeping virus of Communism”…. It’s a two day drive from Managua to Harlingen, Texas” (it actually takes about a week)…. It’s closer from Managua to Houston than from Houston to Maine”..  “there will  be a million Communists comin up across our borders  from Central America….
1979-83. Grenada. Coup and military invasion.  In a 1979 coup, Maurice Bishop took control of the island of 110,000 people.  He was enough of a leftist reformer that Washington feared another Cuba.  Under Reagan, in Oct. 1983, the U.S. launched an attack upon the tiny island, which resulted in 400 Grenadans, 84 Cubans, and 135 Americans killed or wounded.  A U.S. friendly government was installed.    The attack was officially justified by the Reagan administration on the basis of an alleged threat to American lives- although this was not true.
1980s.  El Salvador.  Election fraud and state-sponsored
terrorism.  Civil war broke out in 1980 after the U.S. supported government had thwarted the peaceful protests of dissidents within the country.  At least 75,000 civilian casualties occurred during the war which cost the U.S. treasury $6 billion.  Death squads and torture were rampant during the war and continue even today.  Meaningful social change was averted:  a handful of rich people still own the country and the masses are as poor and wretched  as ever. 
1980. Bolivia.  Coup and assassination.  “Cocaine coup”. Quiroja tortured and killed.  Garcia-Meza installed.  Ex-Nazi, now on the U.S. payroll, Klaus Barbie, helped orchestrate the coup, when a junta of Bolivian generals seized power, they slaughtered the leftist opposition and reaped billions in cocaine profits.  Barbie had worked for the secret police and the drug lords and also engaged in drug trafficking.    Torture techniques used by Barbie included use of bullwhips, needles pushed under fingernails, drugs, and electricity applied to the nipples and testicles.   Thousands of opposition leaders were shot en masse by internal security forces- now headed by Barbie. 
1979-92.  Afghanistan.    Proxy war, training and support
for terrorists.  Beginning in 1979 and throughout the 80’s, the C.I.A. poured over $3 billion dollars into training and funding the Mujahadeen (including Osama bin laden and other Islamic Fundamentalist mercenaries) in order destablize the Afghan government, largely  because it was supported by the Soviets.  By aiding the fundamentalist opposition , the CIA helped  instigate  an invasion by the Soviets.  It was then stated State Dept. policy to bleed the Soviets in a proxy war here to repel the Soviets who had invaded Afghanistan.   Eventually the U.S.-supported Taliban won and the rest of the country lost..  More than a million dead, three million disabled, five million refugees, about half of the population. 
1980’s Haiti’s. Coup.  Aristide overthrown and  Cedras installed.
1981-2. Chad.  Coup and state-sponsored terrorsim.  The
government of Chad was friendly with Libya’s Qadaffi and asked him to supply military support  to protect it’s internal security.   Reagan hated Qadaffi and wanted to replace the government.  The U.S. and France prevailed upon Chad to ask Qadaffi to leave and they replaced his forces with those of OAU (Organization of African Unity).  The CIA rebuilt and financed an opposition Chadian force in the Sudan, which then invaded Chad and toppled the government.  U.S. puppet Hissen Habre ruled brutally for the next 8 years- Chad’s equivalent o Chile’s Pinochet.  The secret police reported killed 10s of thousands, tortured as many as 200,000, and disappeared an undetermined number.   
1984. India-Indira Ghandi assassinated by Anglo-American intelligence.  Her son Rajiv Ghandhi was campaigning for president in 1991, when he too was assassinated, attributed in India to the CIA.  Why?  He opposed Bush’s “New World Order” and specifically, was determined to reject a US demand for military aircraft landing rights.   
1986.  Bombing of Libya. 
1987. Fiji. Coup.  Democratically-elected Prime Minister Timoci Bavrada , of the Labour Party,  had made a pledge to reinstate Fiji as a “nuclear free zone”, meaning that nuclear-powered
ships could not take port there.  A month after he took office, he was ousted in a military coup, no doubt of the CIA’s  making.  The coup was most cynically and implausibly  justified by the “Libyan threat”.  
1989. Panama.  Coup, military invasion,  and terrorism.  In May  1989, under George Bush I, the CIA spent $10 million to rig elections in Panama.  After 2 botched coup attempts, Bush began to orchestrate public opinion against Noriega  enough to order a full scale invasion.   U.S. invasion which killed thousands and wounded some 3,000 Panamanians was officially to  oust Noriega  on drug trafficking charges.   According to George Bush, Noriega  had  served  as a CIA asset under 6 U.S. Presidents.   But now he was no longer favored.   The real reason for the attack was to show the Nicaraguans what might happen if they re-elected the Sandanistas and to show Congress that military budgets needed to stay inflated even after the recent fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War.  Noriega was  interred in a Florida  jail on trumped up charges.   Endora was installed as puppet President.    The invasion cost US taxpayers about $2 billion, did about that amount of damage to the Panamanian economy and killed about 2000 Panamanians. 
1990’s, Iraq. Military invasion, sanctions, terrorism.  The
official reason for the U.S. invasion of Iraq was Saddam Hussein’s threat to invade Kuwait (which Iraq certainly has historical claims to and which the U.S. Asst. Secretary of State encouraged).  But the real reason, of course, was to utilize the U.S. military (justifying large defense expenditures) and to weaken one of the strongest countries in the Middle East, thereby insuring American hedgemony  over the critical, oil-rich region.  The U.S. attack began with 40 days of relentless and sustained bombing of Iraqi civilian targets:  177 million pounds of bombs fell , the most concentrated aerial attack the world had seen at that time.  Cluster bombs and depleted uranium were used and the total Iraqi death toll during the war was about 200,000.  U.N. and U.S.-imposed sanctions on Iraq since the war have resulted in the deaths of over a million Iraqi civilians, of which an estimated half have been children.   Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait was indeed not different from Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor, which had been carried out with Washington’s blessing.  Noam Chomsky sums up U.S. strategic objectives in the area:

It’s been a leading, driving doctrine of US foreign policy since the 1940s that the vast and unparalleled energy resources of the Gulf region will be effectively dominated by the United States and its clients, and crucially, that no independent, indigenous force will be permitted to have a substantial influence on the administration  of oil production and price.” 

Cost of military operation: $25 million/day.  Bush bullied Germany and Japan each to pay $4 billion toward the cost of the war- all in all Bush and Baker organized a $55 billion shakedown of other countries.  This gave the US budget its first balance of payments surpolus in recent memory in first quarter of 1991.   
1990-91. Bulgaria.  Coup.  In 1990, the U.S.-backed National
Endowment for Democracy (NED) spent $1.5 million trying t o defeat the Bulgarian Socialist Party  (formerly communist party)- However, the BSP won.  Washington was determined that a Socialist government in Bulgaria not be given a chance to succeed.  The government was under seige, the president was forced to resign.  In 1991, the NED again spent hundreds of thousands of dollars on the election.  This time “democratic forces” won.
1991-92. Albania.  More election engineering.  This story is  nearly identical to that of Bulgaria.  After the Communist party won elections, street demonstrations and general strikes occurred, crippling the new government.  A  new  election was held in 1992.  For this one, NED and U.S. diplomats had made it clear that unless the Democratic Party won, U.S. aid would be withheld.
1993. Somalia.  “Humanitarian”  military invasion.  The  chaos of fighting warlords in Somalia threatened  the stability and profitability of Somalia for four American oil companies.  Officially, it was a mission to feed the starving masses.  However,  when the marines landed the worst of the famine was already over.  Anyway, the U.S. special forces then tried to depose the strongest warlord and in an ensuing battle, 500 to 1000 Somalis were killed, many more were wounded, and 18 Americans were killed, 73 were wounded and five helicopters were shot down.  See the movie, “Blackhawk Down” for an uncommonly honest depiction of U.S. forces abroad.
1990s- present. Peru.  State-sponsored terrorism.  The U.S.  has provided Alberto Fujimoro, one of the most repressive dictators in the hemisphere, with an unending supply of military advisers and trainers, arms and equipment.  Why?  The official reason is to fight drugs.  However, clearly Fujimori’s own military as well as their CIA advisors are on the drug payroll.  The real reason is to control and terrorize leftist guerillas and to quelch popular reform movements in this impoverished country.  
1990’s-present. Mexico.  State-supported terrorism.   Indigenous people in Mexico, led by the  Zapatistas, have been recently  demanding economic and political rights  and autonomy.  The Zapatistas began protesting the new North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the day it went into effect in 1994.  At stake are the corporation’s cap abilities  to extract oil and other natural resources from Mexico.  In the name of fighting drugs, again, the U.S. has poured hundreds of millions of dollars in military aid and training to support the corrupt Mexican government and to neutralize and defeat these popular political movements of poor people.  Many, many Mexican police and military personnel were sent off  top be trained  at the School of Americas (in Fort Benning Georgia) in the techniques of torture, psychological warfare, etc.    These state-supported paramilitary terrorists have been waging low-intensity warfare against the Zapatistas, much as they did in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s.  Hundreds of helicopters have been used to attack villages and communities with machine guns, rockets and bombs.  Interestingly, no one, even in Washington D.C., has accused the Zapatistas of being involved in drugs.  Thus, Washington’s vendetta against the indigenous peoples of Mexico can only be seen for what it is- a war against the poor on behalf of the rich. 
1990’s- present. Columbia. State-supported terrorism.    By  the year 2000, Columbia, the most violent nation in the world, was the third largest recipient of U.S. military aid.  Our official mission: to provide military advisers and bases to aid in “counter-insurgency” actions against leftist guerillas.  The public rationale for all this military support is the “war on drugs”.  And we normally refer to the leading guerilla group, FARC, as drug traffickers.  However,the Columbian military is main recipient of US military arms and aid.  And the Columbian military and paramilitaries are definitely  involved in drug trafficking.  In 1998, a Columbian Air Force cargo plane landed in Florida with nearly a ton of cocaine.  Indeed, President Samper himself was labelled a drug trafficker himself by a senior Clinton administration offical.   In 1994, Amnesty International reported that over 20,000 people had been killed in Columbia since 1986, mainly by the military and the paramilitaries- “not  in the “drug wars” but for political reasons”.  Many of the victims were trade unionists, human-rights activists, and leftist political leaders.  As with Mexico, much of the U.S. military aid to Columbia is in violation of Congressional human-rights laws.  Here again,as in Guatemala and El Salvador in the 1980s widespread, state-sponsored  torture, disappearances, political killings and other human rights abuses are proceeding with U.S. financial backing in order  to help insure that Columbia will fit well into the global economy and the New World Order.  Plan Columbia- we spend $1.3 billion a year here- is about oil reserves and used to protect oil pipelines of American oil companies.  .  We are spraying Glyphosphate, produced by Monsanto, to kill cocoa leaves but it also kills fish and pollutes forests, streams, etc.  Plan Columbia has resulted in displacement of 2 million people.      
1995-99. Yugoslavia.  Military invasion.   In WWII, Croatian dictator Ante Pavelic, supervised one of the greatest killing sprees of the war- hundreds of thousands of Serbs- some say over 2 million- were killed in order to make Croatia “a 100% Catholic state”.  His favorite trophy- a 40 lb. Jar of human eyeballs  of his Serb victims.  He controlled numerous death squads. 
In 1991, Sec. State James Baker met with Serbian fascist, Slobaodan Milosvic, and encouraged him to to suppress any internal rebellions with military force.  The federal army assaults on Slovenia and then on Croatia can be dated from these exchanges and constituted the first bombing of civilians in central Europe since 1945.   
Then, the U.S. helped Croatia carry out and then cover up its ethnic cleansing of the Krajina Serbs in 1995.  Although Yugoslav banks were involved in western style drug money laundering and US diplomats (like Undersecretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger, were on the boards of Yugoslav automobile industry, most of the industry and financial sector was state-owned.  It was commonly reported and believed that the US/NATO bombing of Yugoslavia occurred after the mass forced deportation of ethnic Albanians from Kosovo was underway.  Acutally, the forced deportation of Albanians did not begin until several days after the NATO bombing began and was a reaction to the bombing.   NATO bombing was relentless for a period of 78 days and nights, killing hundreds of innocent civilians.  The ultimate objective of Anglo-American geopolitical strategy was to “Balkanize” and weaken Yugoslavia in order to assert Western neo-colonial control.


In violation of its own laws, the U.S. has subverted and perverted elections in the following countries:

The Phillipines, 1950s, Italy, 1948-1970s, Lebanon, 1950s, Indonesia, 1955
Vietnam, 1955, British Guiana/Guyana, 1953-64, Japan, 1958-1970s, Guatemala, 1963, Bolivia, 1966, Chad, 1964-1970, Portugal, 1974-5, Australia, 1974-5, Jamaica, 1976, Panama, 1984 + 89, Nicaragua, 1984 + 1990, Haiti, 1987-88, Bulgaria, 1990-1
Albania, 1991-2, Russia, 1996, Mongolia, 1996, Bosnia, 1998


1950S- Several attempts on life of Zhou Enlai, Prime Minister of
1950s-70s- Costa Rica.  President Jose Figuueres,- two attempts to
 assassinate . 
1960- Iraq.  Unsuccessful CIA assassination attempt against Iraqi President Kassem. 
1960S and  70s- 30 attempts upon the life of Castro of Cuba

Primary Source:  Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Superpower  by William Blum- 2000, Common Courage Press.
 “Coming to grips with these U.S./CIA activities in broad numbers and figuring out how many people have been killed in the jungles of Laos or the hills of Nicaragua is very difficult.  But, adding them up as best we can, we come up with a figure of six million people killed- and this is a minimum figure.  Included are: one million killed in the Korean War, two million killed the Vietnam War, 800,000 killed in Indonesia, one million in Cambodia, 20,000 killed in Angola, and 22,000 killed in Nicaragua.  These people would not have died if U.S. tax dollars had not been spent by the CIA to inflame tensions, finance covert political and military activity, and destabilize societies.

One might call this the “Third World War”.  It is a war that has been fought by the United States against the Third World.  Others call it the Cold War and focus on the anti-communist and anti-Soviet rationales, but the dead are not Soviets; they are people of the Third World.  It might also be called the Forty-Year (now Fifty-Year) War , like the Thirty-Year and Hundred-Year Wars in Europe, for this one began when the CIA was founded in 1947 and continues today.  Altogether perhaps 20 million people died in the Cold War.  As wars go, it has been the second or third most destructive of human life in all of history,  after World War I and World War II. 

The six million people the CIA has helped to kill are people of the Mitumba Mountains of the Congo, the jungles of Southeast Asia, and the hills of northern Nicaragua.   They are people without ICBMs or armies or navies, incapable of doing physical damage to the United States.  The 22,000 killed in Nicaragua, for example, are not Russians, they are not Cuban soldiers or advisors; they are not even mostly Sandanistas.  A majority are rag-poor peasants, including large numbers of women and children.  Communists?  Hardly, since the dead Nicaraguans are predominantly Roman Catholics.  Enemies of the United States?  That description doesn’t fit either, because… they love the people of the United States, and they simply cannot understand why our leaders would want to spend $1 billion on a contra force designed to murder people and wreck the country.

John Stockwell, The Praetorian Guard: The U.S. Role in the New World Order