Aztecs, Mayas and Incas

AZTEC

INCAS

MAYAS

Dates

1200-1500 a.d.

Beetween 1400 and 1533

Between 300,900 AD

Capital

Tenochtitlan


Qusco

  1. Palenque, Teothiwacan,

  2. Tikal,

  3. and Mayapan.

Temperament

The Aztecs were very Brutal and violent although they were very inteligent.

  • The Incas were very Organized and were very good at agriculture, although the terrain they inhabited was extremely hard to grow crops.

The mayans were good astronomers.

Origin

The aztecs origin comes from the aztlan.

  • Around the 13 century the Incas started as a tribe and then they started absorbing other tribes of the Andes making the Incas powerful.

*

Religion

They have their own religion that is the aztec religion that is a mesoamerican religion combining polytheism and shamanism.


They believed in the Gods

  1. Pachamama,

  2. Viracocha,

  3. Hanan Pacha,

  4. Mama Quilla,

  5. Inti Raymi.

They worshipped everything in nature and tried to explain how things happened because of the Gods.

Important Legends

  • Human sacrifices calendars and the gods they used to believe in.

Some important Inca legends are:

  1. The Inca flood myth, Inca Creation myth,

  2. The Shepherd and the daughter of sun.

  3. The Ynca Pachacutec, Festival of the Sun.

  • A good but unfortunate man decided to sell his soul to the devil to get himself out of his troubles. He invoked Kizin and when he had him there, face to face, he told him what he wanted. Kizin liked the idea of taking away the soul of a good man.

Worship

  1. Men used to work on farms,agriculture and they used to study astronomy.

  2. Women used to do the house work and give food to the kids and to the family

The Incas worshiped the dead, their ancestors, their king, the nature and its cycles and their heroes.

The ancient Maya had a complex pantheon of deities whom they worshipped and offered human sacrifices. Rulers were believed to be descendants of the Mayan gods and their blood was the ideal sacrifice, either through personal bloodletting or the sacrifice of captives of royal blood.

Social Code

The people that worked on farms were not that rich but the kings and the people on important high jobs were rich

The highest place of all was the holy emperor, and after that all the citizens were apointed a responsability depending on their gender and their health and age.

The normal people were poor, and the royals were rich.

Literature

The aztecs had their own literature and writing they used to write with symbols and some scientists believe that their literature has something to do with the mayan literature.

The Incas did not develop a writing of their own so their alternative to writing was using colored strings tied into knots for communications.

It's possible that the Maya learned how to write from the Olmec, but there aren't any examples of early Olmec writing, so more likely it was the Maya who invented writing in the Americas. Like most other writing systems, Maya writing is a syllabary, not an alphabet.

Language

nahuatl

Quechua

Yucatec

Time Indicator

In 1438 Pachacuti united all the 100 tribes that lived in the Andes and after that the Inca Empire started expanding through the Andes. Then around the 1520-1533 the Incas had a Civil War and the spaniards took advantage of the situation and conquered the Incas.

Conquest

*Francisco Pizarro in 1531 (with authorization from the king) set sail for peru with 200 man and 65 horses. In 1532 in Cajamarca Pizarro set up a meeting with an Incan leader who had 3 or 4 thousand body guards. There were no negotiations, but there was fighting in which the spanish killed them all and no spanish died. Then in 1533 Pizarro marched to the Incan capital of Cuzco with no resistance.*

Conquistador Hernán Cortés sends his top lieutenant, Pedro de Alvarado, to the south to search for more wealthy kingdoms. Alvarado finds the remnants of the Maya Empire, in decline for centuries, but still formidable.


Art


The aztecs used to practice songs and poetry as well as written art we still known  some sztec art that still exists

The Incas had their buildings made out of stone that weighted tons and they made a lot of sculptures about their religion or gods but they did not decorated their buildings they liked them simple. They used also tapestries which were clothes made out of alpaca and had bright colors.

Maya art, here taken to mean the visual arts, is the artistic style typical of the Maya civilization, that took shape in the course the Preclassic period (1500 B.C. to 250 A.D.), and grew greater during the Classic period (c. 200 to 900 AD), and went through a Postclassic phase until the upheavals of the sixteenth century destroyed courtly culture and put an end to a great artistic tradition. TheOlmecs, Teotihuacan and the Toltecs have all influenced Maya art. Traditional art forms have mainly survived in weaving and the design of peasant houses.

Writing

The aztecs make their own writing.

The Incas did not develop a writing of their own so their alternative to writing was using colored strings tied into knots for communications.

The Mayans evolved the only true written system native to the Americas and were masters of mathematics and engineering.

Astronomy

The aztecs were very good astronomers because thats all they have all their pyramids and buildings have something to do with space

*The Incas used astronomy mostly for agriculture because they putted rock pillars and when the sun shined through the pillar it meant that a certain seed was needed to be planted in a certain area. The rising and setting of stars,the sun , and the moon also signified special things like when a certain star rised it meant the Incan New Year.*We will soon admire the accomplishments of Ptolemy, who collected accurate measurements of the sky and developed a model of the motions of the planets that was used for nearly 15 centuries. Maya astronomers also made remarkably accurate measurements.

Achievements

The aztecs were very goog at building so they builted some pyramyids

that  are still k nown today.

The Incas were able to built great cities where it is very hard to build them like Machu Pichu and they were able to farm in rough terrain like the mountains.

The Maya built a lot of pyramids and tall temples.
They even knew how to make rubber in the 1500's!
The Mayans were skilled road builders.
They were able to create one of the most advanced road systems of their time.
Not only that, they had the first system of writing and had 2 calendars. One with 365 days!
Mayans were also one of the first civilizations to develop a writing system called hieroglyphics.
They used their hieroglyphics to record information in books made from the bark of fig trees.
They developed a mathematical system based on the number 20.
They were among the first people to use the number zero.

Agriculture

The aztecs were also very good at agriculture they used to plant crops and for more things that kept them food for eating

The Incas farmed in the rugged terrain of the Andes so they made terraces and putted fertile soil on top of them so they could grow their crops.

Plant cultivation consisted in the area which is current day Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras and surrounding regions.  One of the main crops was maize.

Medical

The aztecs also were very good at doctors they had cures for almost everything and medicines made out of plants so thats why it was harder to them to survive.

The Incas believed that all sickness was caused by supernatural forces. They devolped medicines made out of plants and they could increase the production of white cells which naturally stops some deceases. They could make skull surgeries with an 80 -90 survival rate. Students who wanted to be doctors had to spend 3-5 years in school learning about it.

The Mayas were much more intellectually inclined than most archaeologists or anthropologists have indicated when they stress the wars between the cities or the rituals of blood sacrifice by the leader/kings or priesthood. The Mayan culture also was preoccupied with science, art, government, marketing, philosophy, letters and health. The Mayas were also involved in the scientific evaluation of medicinal applications to curing what ailed them, some 1500 different plants were used for herbal prescriptions.