fossils

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“Stasis, or non-change, of most fossil species during their lengthy geological lifespans was tacitly acknowledged by all palaeontologists, but almost never studied explicitly because prevailing theory treated stasis as uninteresting non-evidence for non-evolution. ...The overwhelming prevalence of stasis became an embarrassing feature of the fossil record, best left ignored as a manifestation of nothing (that is, non-evolution)."


Gould, Stephen J., "Cordelia's Dilemma," Natural History, 1993, p. 15


Stephen J Gould was one of the most well known evolutionists  and the inventor of the “punctuated equilibrium” theory, and professor geology and zoology at Harvard university.


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  Palaeontologists just were not seeing the expected changes in their fossils as they pursued them up through the rock record. ... That individual kinds of fossils remain recognizably the same throughout the length of their occurrence in the fossil record had been known to palaeontologists long before Darwin published his Origin. Darwin himself, ... prophesied that future generations of palaeontologists would fill in these gaps by diligent search ... One hundred and twenty years of palaeontological research later, it has become abundantly clear that the fossil record will not confirm this part of Darwin's predictions. Nor is the problem a miserly fossil record. The fossil record simply shows that this prediction is wrong.

The observation that species are amazingly conservative and static entities throughout long periods of time has all the qualities of the emperor's new clothes: everyone knew it but preferred to ignore it. Palaeontologists, faced with a recalcitrant record obstinately refusing to yield Darwin's predicted pattern, simply looked the other way.


Eldredge, N. and Tattersall, I., The Myths of Human Evolution, 1982, p. 45-46

Niles Eldredge is an evolutionist and co-inventor of the punctuated equilibrium theory

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  Palaeontologists have paid an enormous price for Darwin's argument. We fancy ourselves as the only true students of life's history, yet to preserve our favoured account of evolution by natural selection we view our data as so bad that we almost never see the very process we profess to study. ...The history of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with gradualism:
 
1. Stasis.  Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking much the same as when they disappear; morphological change I usually limited and direction less.
 
2. Sudden appearance. In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears all at once and 'fully formed.



Gould, Stephen J. The Panda's Thumb, 1980, p. 181-182


Stephen J Gould was on of the most well known evolutionists  and the inventor of the “punctuated equilibrium” theory, and professor geology and zoology at Harvard university.


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"...we have proffered a collective tacit acceptance of the story of gradual adaptive change, a story that strengthened and became even more entrenched as the synthesis took hold.  We palaeontologists have said that the history of life supports that interpretation, all the while really knowing that it does not."

Eldredge, Niles "Time Frames: The Rethinking of Darwinian Evolution and the Theory of Punctuated Equilibria," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, 1985, p. 44

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"The fossil record flatly fails to substantiate this expectation of finely graded change."


Eldredge, N. and Tattersall, I., The Myths of Human Evolution, 1982, p. 163


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"Given that evolution, according to Darwin, was in a continual state of motion ...it followed logically that the fossil record should be rife with examples of transitional forms leading from the less to more evolved. ...Instead of filling the gaps in the fossil record with so-called missing links, most palaeontologists found themselves facing a situation in which there were only gaps in the fossil record, with no evidence of transformational evolutionary intermediates between documented fossil species."


Schwartz, Jeffrey H., Sudden Origins, 1999, p. 89.


Schwartz, Jeffrey H is professor anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh and also evolutionist, writer of book about evolution:  “Sudden Origins”, a provocative new theory on how evolution works by sudden leaps and bounds:

http://www.post-gazette.com/books/reviews/19991212review395.asp


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"Species that were once thought to have turned into others have been found to overlap in time with these alleged descendants. In fact, the fossil record does not convincingly document a single transition from one species to another."


Stanley, S.M., The New Evolutionary Timetable: Fossils, Genes, and the Origin of Species, 1981, p. 95, speaking about the Bighorn basin in Wyoming USA.

S.M. Stanley is an evolutionist and professor at the John Hopkins university in Baltimore.

He wrote many articles, also together with Niles Eldredge, de co-inventor of the punctuated equilibrium theory.

One of his articles is “Palaeontology and earth system history in the new millennium” which has been published in “Geological Society of America”

For more info about prof Stanley look here:   http://www.jhu.edu/~eps/faculty/stanley/index.html#research


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"The Eldredge-Gould concept of punctuated equilibria has gained wide acceptance among palaeontologists. It attempts to account for the following paradox: Within continuously sampled lineages, one rarely finds the gradual morphological trends predicted by Darwinian evolution; rather, change occurs with the sudden appearance of new, well-differentiated species. Eldredge and Gould equate such appearances with speciation, although the details of these events are not preserved. ...The punctuated equilibrium model has been widely accepted, not because it has a compelling theoretical basis but because it appears to resolve a dilemma. Apart from the obvious sampling problems inherent to the observations that stimulated the model, and apart from its intrinsic circularity (one could argue that speciation can occur only when phyletic change is rapid, not vice versa), the model is more ad hoc explanation than theory, and it rests on shaky ground."


Ricklefs, Robert E., "Paleontologists Confronting Macroevolution," Science, vol. 199, 1978, p. 59


Robert E Ricklefs is an evolutionist and professor biology at the University of Missouri te St. Louis:

http://www.umsl.edu/~ricklefs


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"Palaeontologists are traditionally famous (or infamous) for reconstructing whole animals from the debris of death. Mostly they cheat. ...If any event in life's history resembles man's creation myths, it is this sudden diversification of marine life when multicellular organisms took over as the dominant actors in ecology and evolution. Baffling (and embarrassing) to Darwin, this event still dazzles us and stands as a major biological revolution on a par with the invention of self-replication and the origin of the eukaryotic cell. The animal phyla emerged out of the Precambrian mists with most of the attributes of their modern descendants."


Bengtson, Stefan, "The Solution to a Jigsaw Puzzle," Nature, vol. 345 (June 28, 1990), p. 765-766


Stefan Bengtson is an evolutionist and head curator of the Swedish museum of natural history in Stockholm Zweden.

For more info about S. Bentson look here  http://palaeo-electronica.org/staff/stefan.htm


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"Modern multicellular animals make their first uncontested appearance in the fossil record some 570 million years ago - and with a bang, not a protracted crescendo. This ‘Cambrian explosion’ marks the advent (at least into direct evidence) of virtually all major groups of modern animals - and all within the minuscule span, geologically speaking, of a few million years."


Gould, Stephen J., Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History, 1989, p. 23-24


Stephen J Gould was on of the most well known evolutionists  and the inventor of the “punctuated equilibrium” theory, and professor geology and zoology at Harvard university.


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"The record jumps, and all the evidence shows that the record is real: the gaps we see reflect real events in life’s history - not the artefact of a poor fossil record." 

Eldredge, N. and Tattersall, I., The Myths of Human Evolution, 1982, p. 59


Niles Eldredge is an evolutionist and co-inventor of the punctuated equilibrium theory


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"The fossil record itself provided no documentation of continuity - of gradual transition from one animal or plant to another of quite different form."


Stanley, S.M., The New Evolutionary Timetable: Fossils, Genes and the Origin of Species, 1981, p. 40


S.M. Stanley is an evolutionist and professor at the John Hopkins university in Baltimore.

He wrote many articles, also together with Niles Eldredge, de co-inventor of the punctuated equilibrium theory.

One of his articles is “Palaeontology and earth system history in the new millennium” which has been published in “Geological Society of America”

For more info about prof Stanley look here:   http://www.jhu.edu/~eps/faculty/stanley/index.html#research



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"The absence of fossil evidence for intermediary stages between major transitions in organic design, indeed our inability, even in our imagination, to construct functional intermediates in many cases, has been a persistent and nagging problem for gradualistic accounts of evolution."


Gould, Stephen J., "Is a New and General Theory of Evolution Emerging?," 1982, p. 140


Stephen J Gould was on of the most well known evolutionists  and the inventor of the “punctuated equilibrium” theory, and professor geology and zoology at Harvard university.


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"Gaps between higher taxonomic levels are general and large."


Raff R.A, and Kaufman, T.C., Embryos, Genes, and Evolution: The Developmental-Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, 1991, p. 35


"The lack of ancestral or intermediate forms between fossil species is not a bizarre peculiarity of early metazoan history. Gaps are general and prevalent throughout the fossil record."


Raff R.A, and Kaufman, T.C., Embryos, Genes, and Evolution: The Developmental-Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, 1991, p. 34


Rudolf A Raff is an evolutionist and professor biology at the Indiana University in Bloomingdale, Indiana, USA, and also Director—Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Distinguished Professor, Adjunct Professor of History and Philosophy of Science.

More info about prof Raff can be found here:   http://newsinfo.iu.edu/sb/page/normal/608.html


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"The known fossil record is not, and never has been, in accord with gradualism. What is remarkable is that, through a variety of historical circumstances, even the history of opposition has been obscured . . . ‘The majority of palaeontologists felt their evidence simply contradicted Darwin’s stress on minute, slow, and cumulative changes leading to species transformation.’ . . . their story has been suppressed."


Stanley, S.M., The New Evolutionary Timetable, 1981, p. 71


S.M. Stanley is an evolutionist and professor at the John Hopkins university in Baltimore.

He wrote many articles, also together with Niles Eldredge, de co-inventor of the punctuated equilibrium theory.

One of his articles is “Palaeontology and earth system history in the new millennium” which has been published in “Geological Society of America”

For more info about prof Stanley look here:   http://www.jhu.edu/~eps/faculty/stanley/index.html#research


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"In spite of these examples, it remains true, as every palaeontologist knows, that most new species, genera, and families, and that nearly all new categories above the level of families, appear in the record suddenly and are not led up to by known, gradual, completely continuous transitional sequences." 


Simpson, George Gaylord, The Major Features of Evolution, 1953, p. 360


Simpson George Gaylord is anevolutionist and professor paleontologie in Columbia and Harvard.


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"Palaeontologists had long been aware of a seeming contradiction between Darwin’s postulate of gradualism...and the actual findings of palaeontology. Following phyletic lines through time seemed to reveal only minimal gradual changes but no clear evidence for any change of a species into a different genus or for the gradual origin of an evolutionary novelty. Anything truly novel always seemed to appear quite abruptly in the fossil record."


Mayr, E., One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary Thought, 1991, p. 138

Ernst Mayer was one of the leading evolutionistic biologists of the 20th century, see here:  http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Ernst_Mayr


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"The record certainly did not reveal gradual transformations of structure in the course of time.
    On the contrary, it showed that species generally remained constant throughout their history. New types or classes seemed to appear fully formed, with no sign of an evolutionary trend by which they could have emerged from an earlier type."


Bowler, Evolution: The History of an Idea, 1984, p. 187

Peter J. Bowler, a scholar of Darwin and evolution, is a prolific author and professor of the history and philosophy of science at Queens University of Belfast.

http://www.americanscientist.org/authors/detail/peter-bowler


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"The palaeontological data is consistent with the view that all of the currently recognized phyla had evolved by about 525 Ma. Despite half a billion years of evolutionary exploration generated in Cambrian time, no new phylum level designs have appeared since then." 


"Developmental Evolution of Metazoan Body plans: The Fossil Evidence," Valentine, Erwin, and Jablonski, Developmental Biology 173, Article No. 0033, 1996, p. 376


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"Chicago Field Museum, Prof. of Geology, Univ. of Chicago, "A large number of well-trained scientists outside of evolutionary biology and palaeontology have unfortunately gotten the idea that the fossil record is far more Darwinian than it is. This probably comes from the oversimplification inevitable in secondary sources: low-level textbooks, semi-popular articles, and so on. Also, there is probably some wishful thinking involved. In the years after Darwin, his advocates hoped to find predictable progressions. In general, these have not been found yet the optimism has died hard, and some pure fantasy has crept into textbooks...One of the ironies of the creation evolution debate is that the creationists have accepted the mistaken notion that the fossil record shows a detailed and orderly progression and they have gone to great lengths to accommodate this 'fact' in their Flood."


Raup, David, "Geology" New Scientist, Vol. 90, p.832,1981


David Raub is an evolutionist, and professor emeritus (former Sewell L. Avery Distinguished Service Professor) in Geophysical Sciences and former curator Geology at the Field Museum of Natural History at the University van Chicago. See here:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_M._Raup


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"A major problem in proving the theory (of evolution) has been the fossil record; the imprints of vanished species preserved in the Earth's geological formations.  This record has never revealed traces of Darwin's hypothetical intermediate variants instead species appear and disappear abruptly, and this anomaly has fuelled the creationist argument that each species was created by God."


Czarnecki, Mark, "The Revival of the Creationist Crusade", MacLean's, January 19, 1981, p. 56

Czarnecki Mark is an evolutionist and a palaeontologist.  
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"It is as though they [fossils] were just planted there, without any evolutionary history.  Needless to say this appearance of sudden planting has delighted creationists. ...Both schools of thought (Punctuationists and Gradualists) despise so-called scientific creationists equally, and both agree that the major gaps are real, that they are true imperfections in the fossil record.  The only alternative explanation of the sudden appearance of so many complex animal types in the Cambrian era is divine creation and (we) both reject this alternative."

Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1987, p. 229.


Richard Dawkins is very well known evolutionist and author and professor zoology at the Oxford university.


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"All palaeontologists know that the fossil record contains precious little in the way of intermediate forms; transitions between major groups are characteristically abrupt. Gradualists usually extract themselves from this dilemma by invoking the extreme imperfection of the fossil record."


Gould, Stephen J. The Panda's Thumb, 1980, p.189


Stephen J Gould was on of the most well known evolutionists  and the inventor of the “punctuated equilibrium” theory, and professor geology and zoology at Harvard university.



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"Instead of finding the gradual unfolding of life, what geologists of Darwin’s time, and geologists of the present day actually find is a highly uneven or jerky record; that is, species appear in the sequence very suddenly, show little or no change during their existence in the record, then abruptly go out of the record. and it is not always clear, in fact it’s rarely clear, that the descendants were actually better adapted than their predecessors. In other words, biological improvement is hard to find."


Raup, David M., "Conflicts Between Darwin and Palaeontology," Bulletin, Field Museum of Natural History, vol. 50, 1979, p. 23

David Raub is an evolutionist, and professor emeritus (former Sewell L. Avery Distinguished Service Professor) in Geophysical Sciences and former curator Geology at the Field Museum of Natural History at the University van Chicago. See here:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_M._Raup



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"But just in proportion as this process of extermination has acted on an enormous scale, so must the number of intermediate varieties, which have formerly existed on the earth, be truly enormous. Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely-graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and serious objection which can be urged against my theory. The explanation lies, as I believe, in the extreme imperfection of the geological record."

Charles Darwin, Origin of Species

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